Psych - Modules 23-25

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1. 

Psychologists define learning as the process of

 

acquiring new information or relatively enduring behaviors.

 
2. 

Pets who learn that the sound of an electric can opener signals the arrival of their food illustrate

 

classical conditioning.

 
3. 

In classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning is called a(n)

 

unconditioned stimulus.

 
4. 

In Pavlov's experiments, the sound of the tone triggered the dog's salivation. Salivation to the sound of a tone was a(n)

 

conditioned response.

 
5. 

Extinction occurs when a ________ is no longer paired with a ________.

 

CS; US

 
6. 

Because of the discomfort and embarrassment associated with his childhood bed-wetting, Andrew becomes nervous whenever he senses an urge to urinate. If genital arousal subsequently makes Andrew unusually anxious, this would best illustrate

 

generalization.

 
7. 

After he was spanked on several occasions for spilling his milk at a restaurant, Colin became afraid to go to the restaurant. In this case, spanking was a(n) ________ for Colin's fear.

 

unconditioned stimulus

 
8. 

B. F. Skinner's work elaborated what E. L. Thorndike had called

 

the law of effect.

 
9. 

Skinner developed a behavioral technology that included a procedure known as

 

shaping.

 
10. 

A pigeon is consistently reinforced with food for pecking a key after seeing an image of a human face, but not reinforced for pecking after seeing other images. By signaling that a pecking response will be reinforced, the image of a human face is a(n)

 

discriminative stimulus.

 
11. 

Giving a hungry rat food for pressing a bar before the rat has a chance to engage in other incidental behaviors like running or scratching best illustrates

 

immediate reinforcement.

 
12. 

The way slot machines reward gamblers with money best illustrates

 

partial reinforcement.

 
13. 

An executive in a computer software firm works with his office door closed. At the same time every hour he opens the door to see what his employees are doing. The employees have learned to work especially hard during the five minutes before and while the door is open. Their work pattern is typical of responses that are reinforced on a ________ schedule.

 

fixed-interval

 
14. 

Administering an aversive stimulus following an operant response is

 

positive punishment.

 
15. 

B. F. Skinner believed that teaching machines could promote effective learning because they allow for both

 

shaping and immediate reinforcement.

 
16. 

An organism learns associations between events it does not control during the process of

 

classical conditioning.

 
17. 

An integrated understanding of associative learning in terms of genetic predispositions, culturally learned preferences, and the predictability of certain associations is most clearly provided by

 

a biopsychosocial approach.

 
18. 

The views of learning advanced by Ivan Pavlov and John B. Watson underestimated the importance of

 

cognitive processes.

 
19. 

Operant response rates remain highest when individuals anticipate that their behavior will actually lead to further reinforcement. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in operant conditioning.

 

cognitive processes

 
20. 

Because Yuri was curious about human behavior, he enrolled in an introductory psychology course. George registered because he heard it was an easy course that would boost his grade-point average. In this instance, Yuri's behavior was a reflection of ________, whereas George's behavior was a reflection of ________.

 

intrinsic motivation; extrinsic motivation

 
21. 

Skinner is to shaping as Bandura is to

 

modeling.

 
22. 

Five-year-olds copy senseless and irrelevant adult actions such as stroking a plastic jar with a feather before reaching inside the jar for a toy. This best illustrates

 

overimitation.

 
23. 

Socially responsive toddlers who readily imitate their parents tend to become preschoolers with a strong internalized conscience. This best illustrates the impact of

 

observational learning.

 
24. 

Children are especially likely to behave aggressively after viewing TV violence in which an attractive person commits

 

justified violence that causes no visible pain or harm.

 
25. 

Most of the TV shows that 9-year-old Fred watches involve violence. This is most likely to lead Fred to

 

perceive the injuries of victims of violence as less severe.