Psych 240 Midterm

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Which word best describes the study of human development?
Which type of development is most involved in the growth of body and brain, sensory capacities, motor skills, and health? physical
Marlane is large for her age and does not have many friends. This is an example of interaction between which two types of development? physical and social
The age range of approximately 6-11 years refers to which of the following periods of development? middle childhood
The inborn traits or characteristics we inherit from biological parents are our..? heredity
Megan recorded events in the lives of her sons, Joseph and Jacob, such as their first words, their first steps, and the events of puberty. These events are examples of the process of maturation
A _____________ is a group of people born at the same time cohort
Individual differences in development are due primarily to which of the following? heredity and environment
In the state of Ohio, most teenagers get their driver's licenses at the age of 16. This is best described as a: normative age-graded influence
A critical period is a time when an organism is most likely to be influenced by a specific event
What are the 7 principles of life-span development identified by Baltes (1987)? development is lifelong. development is multidimensional. development multidirectional. relative influences of biology and culture shift. development involves changing resource allocations. development shows plasticity. development is influenced by history and culture.
Dr. Smith is going to use his research subjects in a study on the development of taste aversion in early childhood. He plans on going in to schools and working with the children without asking their parents or teachers. What ethical code has Dr. Smith violated? informed consent
Most of the early pioneers in psychology, such as Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson, and Jean Piaget, favored the ____________ perspective on human development. organismic
Stacy's mother believes that most of Stacy's acting out lately has been caused by unconscious forces within her that motivate her behavior. This perspective is called psychoanalytic
The proper order of Freud's psychosexual stages of development is oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
Each of Erikson's stages involved a major developmental issue that is particularly important at that time. Erikson referred to these issues as___________ in personality. crises
define operant conditioning learning based on association of behavior with consequences.
Which of the following is NOT an example of a self-report technique? observation
define assimilation
Piaget; incorporating new info into exisiting cognitive structure. accommodation:
A zygote is created when a sperm and an egg cell combine in the fallopian tube to form a single cell. This process is referred to as fertilization
In recent years, there has been a rise in multiple births. This rise is a result of delayed childbearing and fertility treatments
Tasha has just given birth to twins. One of the twins is a boy and one is a girl. These twins are dizygotic
humans have ? pairs of chromosomes 23
In what order does prenatal development occur? germinal, embryonic, fetal
Recessive inheritance occurs only when a person receives two ____________ alleles; one from each parent. recessive
A person's observable characteristics are his or her phenotype
A researcher compares monozygotic and dizygotic twins for their level of similarity on a trait. This researcher is attempting to determine the __________ of the trait activity levels. heritability
environmental influences ?
Which of the following would be considered the most highly canalized trait at birth? sequence of motor development
Karen is adopted at the age of 1. When she is given an IQ test at age 21, her score is likely to be most similar to the IQ of her biological mom
The zygote divides and implants into the wall of the uterus during which stage of gestation? germinal
Which of the following is true in regard to prenatal development? father's exposure to lead and smoke can impact a child's prenatal development
During which stage is an unborn baby most vulnerable to prenatal environmental influences and most at risk for miscarriage, or spontaneous abortion? embryonic
Environmental factors that may produce birth defects are called teratogens
According to the text, approximately how many extra calories should a woman consume each day during pregnancy? 300-500
Which drug, used to prevent acne, can cause serious birth defects? accutane
Children born to women who smoke during pregnancy tend to show low birth weight
In which procedure is a sample of fluid taken from around the fetus and analyzed for possible defects? amniocentisis
Having labor and delivery take place with the husband or partner as a coach is an example of how hospitals are finding ways to ___________ childbirth. humanize
Dilation of the cervix occurs during which stage of childbirth? 1st
Education and training in physcial fitness, breathing, and relaxation in labor for women planning vaginal birth is called __________ childbirth. natural
Which of the following is likely to be heaviest at birth? second-born boy
A healthy newborn can receive a maximum score of _______ on the Apgar scale. 10
infantile reflexes primitive, postural, locomotor
What are the 5 Bayley III test scales of infant and toddler development? cognitive, language, motor, socio-emotional, adaptive
Marla finds that rubbing her face against the satin edge of her blanket feels good. She learns to repeat this action to get a pleasurable sensation. According to Piaget, she has acquired a(n) circular reaction
A baby stops sucking to listen to a tone. later, after the tone has been repeated frequently, the infant ignores it. This is an example of habituation
Ten-month-old Nathan has just been told goodbye by his grandparents who are now leaving in their car. Nathan waves bye-bye to them with his left arm. Nathan's attempt to communicate with his grandparents is called a conventional social gesture
When services are provided for children early in their development in an effort to meet the child's therapeutic, educational, and/or developmental needs, it is called early intervention
Which memory system may be responsible for the slow development of object permanence? ?
Prelinguistic speech communicates emotions
Two-week-old Jamie is lying quietly in her bassinet. Suddenly she utters a loud, piercing cry and holds her breath. She is probably pain
Which of the following would describe a "slow-to-warm-up" child? a  baby who appears shy at first but eventually becomes comfortable with new people
During Erikson's crisis of basic trust vs. mistrust, a child determines whether or not he or she can rely upon the world
A baby whose mother is responsive and soothing is likely to have a _________ level of attachment, where a baby whose mother is abusive and neglectful is likely to have a ___________ level of attachment. secure; disorganized-disoriented
According to Erikson, which crisis occurs during toddlerhood? autonomy vs. shame/doubt
Daniel's mother is going to have a second child. To minimize sibling rivalry, she would be well advised to encourage Daniel to help with the new baby
Physical development during early childhood includes which of the following? cartilage turns to bone, and bones become harder
Children who cannot recognize the sensation that their bladder is full suffer from enuresis, which is commonly known as bedwetting
Young children involved in pretend play are demonstrating symbolic function
Currently, which of the following causes the most deaths in early childhood? accidents
A child who cannot see something from another's perspective or point of view is showing
Children remember more about an event if the adult discusses the event with them using a(n) _______ style of communication. elaborative
According to Vygotsky, a child who is in the "zone of proximal development" is almost ready to perform a particular cognitive task independently
 emergent literacy preschoolers' development of skills, knowledge, and attitudes that underlie reading and writing
By their late teens, children who had attended Project Head Start or similar programs were more likely than other needy children to have done which of the following? finished high school
The total sense of self, including the knowledge of who we are and whom we want to be, is called self-concept
When children with high self-esteem experience failure, they persevere, trying new strategies until they find one that works
According to Erikson, the conflict between young children's urge to pursue goals and their moral judgments about those urges is initiative vs. guilt
Which of these theories bases the explanation of gender roles on observation and reinforcement? social learning
functional play play involving large muscular movements
An important goal of parental discipline is to help the child develop self-discipline. The most effective disciplinary strategy to achieve this goal is induction
Research suggests that the most self-reliant, self-controlled, and contented children have parents who are authoritative
A cognitive capability that is related to the occurence of prosocial behavior is empathy
Relational aggression among girls becomes more frequent with age
During middle childhood, sleep needs decline
Which of the following statements about illness in middle childhood is TRUE? The death rate during middle childhood is the lowest in the life span.
The ability to arrange objects according to some dimension, such as largest to smallest, is called seriation
4 memory techniques mneumonic strategies, rehearsal, organization, elaboration
Dr. Gray is administering a test to a single second-grade child. There are items testing vocabulary and items testing the child's ability to reproduce patterns with blocks. Dr. Gray is likely administering the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III).
Intelligence test used in middle childhood are good predictors of school achievement, especially for verbal children
Most children in the United States who speak a second language use Spanish.
What is the effect of parents' involvement in their children's schooling? Parental involvement improves children's attitudes and performance.
Which of the following statements about coregulation in middle childhood is true? It is a transitional stage in which children begin to do more self-monitoring.
A strong predictor of later adjustment is _____ during middle childhood. being well liked by peers
If a school-age child shows evidence of temper tantrums, argumentativeness, hostility, or deliberately annoying behavior it is called oppositional defiant disorder.
Which attribution bias is often seen in aggressive children? Hostile Attribution Bias
Katherine cries a great deal, is often tired, seems unable to concentrate or have fun, has no friends, and is doing poorly in school. She probably has childhood depression.
Which of the following is a characteristic of children who grow up surrounded by violence in their environment? Children have difficulty concentrating and sleeping
reinforcement process that strengthens and encourages repetition of desired behavior. 
punishment process that weakens and discourages repetition of behavior.
accommodation: changes in a cognitive structure to include new info. 
adaptation: adjustment to new info about the environment. 
equilibration:  tendency to seek balance among cognitive elements.
mechanistic model human development is a series of predictable responses to stimuli
organismic model human development is internally initiated by an active organism and occurs in a qualitatively different stages
dominant inheritance. pattern of inheritance in which when a child receives different alleles, only the dominant one is expressed
alleles. two or more alternative forms of a gene that occupy the same position and affected the same trait
Parturition process of uterine, cervical, and other changes usually lasting about two weeks preceeding childbirth
Apgar scale rates: appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, respiration
circular reactions Piaget's term for processes by which an infant learns to reproduce desired occurrences originally discovered by chance
habituation type of learning in which familiarity with a stimulus reduces, slows, or stops a response
implicit memory unconscious recall of habits and skills; procedural memory
explicit memory intentional and conscious memory of facts, names, events
working memory short term storage of information being actively processed
self-concept sense of self; descriptive and evaluative mental picture of one's abilities and traits
symbolic function Piaget's term for ability to use mental representations (words, numbers, images) to which a child has attached meaning
transduction Piaget's term for tendency of children to link phenomena
conservation awareness that two objects are equal according to a measure even if appearance of one has changed (ie, clay, water)
constructive play play involving use of objects or materials to make something
dramatic play play involving imaginary people or situations; also called pretend play, fantasy play, or imaginative play
inductive techniques disciplinary techniques designed to appeal to a child's sense of reason and fairness