Psych 240 Midterm

Total Flash Cards » 112
 
1. 

Which word best describes the study of human development?

 

change

 
2. 

Which type of development is most involved in the growth of body and brain, sensory capacities, motor skills, and health?

 

physical

 
3. 

Marlane is large for her age and does not have many friends. This is an example of interaction between which two types of development?

 

physical and social

 
4. 

The age range of approximately 6-11 years refers to which of the following periods of development?

 

middle childhood

 
5. 

The inborn traits or characteristics we inherit from biological parents are our..?

 

heredity

 
6. 

Megan recorded events in the lives of her sons, Joseph and Jacob, such as their first words, their first steps, and the events of puberty. These events are examples of the process of

 

maturation

 
7. 

A _____________ is a group of people born at the same time

 

cohort

 
8. 

Individual differences in development are due primarily to which of the following?

 

heredity and environment

 
9. 

In the state of Ohio, most teenagers get their driver's licenses at the age of 16. This is best described as a:

 

normative age-graded influence

 
10. 

A critical period is a time when

 

an organism is most likely to be influenced by a specific event

 
11. 

What are the 7 principles of life-span development identified by Baltes (1987)?

 

development is lifelong. development is multidimensional. development multidirectional. relative influences of biology and culture shift. development involves changing resource allocations. development shows plasticity. development is influenced by history and culture.

 
12. 

Dr. Smith is going to use his research subjects in a study on the development of taste aversion in early childhood. He plans on going in to schools and working with the children without asking their parents or teachers. What ethical code has Dr. Smith violated?

 

informed consent

 
13. 

Most of the early pioneers in psychology, such as Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson, and Jean Piaget, favored the ____________ perspective on human development.

 

organismic

 
14. 

Stacy's mother believes that most of Stacy's acting out lately has been caused by unconscious forces within her that motivate her behavior. This perspective is called

 

psychoanalytic

 
15. 

The proper order of Freud's psychosexual stages of development is

 

oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital

 
16. 

Each of Erikson's stages involved a major developmental issue that is particularly important at that time. Erikson referred to these issues as___________ in personality.

 

crises

 
17. 

define operant conditioning

 

learning based on association of behavior with consequences.

 
18. 

Which of the following is NOT an example of a self-report technique?

 

observation

 
19. 

define assimilation

 

Piaget; incorporating new info into exisiting cognitive structure. accommodation:

 
20. 

A zygote is created when a sperm and an egg cell combine in the fallopian tube to form a single cell. This process is referred to as

 

fertilization

 
21. 

In recent years, there has been a rise in multiple births. This rise is a result of

 

delayed childbearing and fertility treatments

 
22. 

Tasha has just given birth to twins. One of the twins is a boy and one is a girl. These twins are

 

dizygotic

 
23. 

humans have ? pairs of chromosomes

 

23

 
24. 

In what order does prenatal development occur?

 

germinal, embryonic, fetal

 
25. 

Recessive inheritance occurs only when a person receives two ____________ alleles; one from each parent.

 

recessive

 
26. 

A person's observable characteristics are his or her

 

phenotype

 
27. 

A researcher compares monozygotic and dizygotic twins for their level of similarity on a trait. This researcher is attempting to determine the __________ of the trait activity levels.

 

heritability

 
28. 

environmental influences

 

?

 
29. 

Which of the following would be considered the most highly canalized trait at birth?

 

sequence of motor development

 
30. 

Karen is adopted at the age of 1. When she is given an IQ test at age 21, her score is likely to be most similar to the IQ of her

 

biological mom

 
31. 

The zygote divides and implants into the wall of the uterus during which stage of gestation?

 

germinal

 
32. 

Which of the following is true in regard to prenatal development?

 

father's exposure to lead and smoke can impact a child's prenatal development

 
33. 

During which stage is an unborn baby most vulnerable to prenatal environmental influences and most at risk for miscarriage, or spontaneous abortion?

 

embryonic

 
34. 

Environmental factors that may produce birth defects are called

 

teratogens

 
35. 

According to the text, approximately how many extra calories should a woman consume each day during pregnancy?

 

300-500

 
36. 

Which drug, used to prevent acne, can cause serious birth defects?

 

accutane

 
37. 

Children born to women who smoke during pregnancy tend to show

 

low birth weight

 
38. 

In which procedure is a sample of fluid taken from around the fetus and analyzed for possible defects?

 

amniocentisis

 
39. 

Having labor and delivery take place with the husband or partner as a coach is an example of how hospitals are finding ways to ___________ childbirth.

 

humanize

 
40. 

Dilation of the cervix occurs during which stage of childbirth?

 

1st

 
41. 

Education and training in physcial fitness, breathing, and relaxation in labor for women planning vaginal birth is called __________ childbirth.

 

natural

 
42. 

Which of the following is likely to be heaviest at birth?

 

second-born boy

 
43. 

A healthy newborn can receive a maximum score of _______ on the Apgar scale.

 

10

 
44. 

infantile reflexes

 

primitive, postural, locomotor

 
45. 

What are the 5 Bayley III test scales of infant and toddler development?

 

cognitive, language, motor, socio-emotional, adaptive

 
46. 

Marla finds that rubbing her face against the satin edge of her blanket feels good. She learns to repeat this action to get a pleasurable sensation. According to Piaget, she has acquired a(n)

 

circular reaction

 
47. 

A baby stops sucking to listen to a tone. later, after the tone has been repeated frequently, the infant ignores it. This is an example of

 

habituation

 
48. 

Ten-month-old Nathan has just been told goodbye by his grandparents who are now leaving in their car. Nathan waves bye-bye to them with his left arm. Nathan's attempt to communicate with his grandparents is called a

 

conventional social gesture

 
49. 

When services are provided for children early in their development in an effort to meet the child's therapeutic, educational, and/or developmental needs, it is called

 

early intervention

 
50. 

Which memory system may be responsible for the slow development of object permanence?

 

?

 
51. 

Prelinguistic speech communicates

 

emotions

 
52. 

Two-week-old Jamie is lying quietly in her bassinet. Suddenly she utters a loud, piercing cry and holds her breath. She is probably

 

pain

 
53. 

Which of the following would describe a "slow-to-warm-up" child?

 

a  baby who appears shy at first but eventually becomes comfortable with new people

 
54. 

During Erikson's crisis of basic trust vs. mistrust, a child

 

determines whether or not he or she can rely upon the world

 
55. 

A baby whose mother is responsive and soothing is likely to have a _________ level of attachment, where a baby whose mother is abusive and neglectful is likely to have a ___________ level of attachment.

 

secure; disorganized-disoriented

 
56. 

According to Erikson, which crisis occurs during toddlerhood?

 

autonomy vs. shame/doubt

 
57. 

Daniel's mother is going to have a second child. To minimize sibling rivalry, she would be well advised to

 

encourage Daniel to help with the new baby

 
58. 

Physical development during early childhood includes which of the following?

 

cartilage turns to bone, and bones become harder

 
59. 

Children who cannot recognize the sensation that their bladder is full suffer from enuresis, which is commonly known as

 

bedwetting

 
60. 

Young children involved in pretend play are demonstrating

 

symbolic function

 
61. 

Currently, which of the following causes the most deaths in early childhood?

 

accidents

 
62. 

A child who cannot see something from another's perspective or point of view is showing
Question 6 
answers

 

egocentrism

 
63. 

Children remember more about an event if the adult discusses the event with them using a(n) _______ style of communication.

 

elaborative

 
64. 

According to Vygotsky, a child who is in the "zone of proximal development" is

 

almost ready to perform a particular cognitive task independently

 
65. 

 emergent literacy

 

preschoolers' development of skills, knowledge, and attitudes that underlie reading and writing

 
66. 

By their late teens, children who had attended Project Head Start or similar programs were more likely than other needy children to have done which of the following?

 

finished high school

 
67. 

The total sense of self, including the knowledge of who we are and whom we want to be, is called

 

self-concept

 
68. 

When children with high self-esteem experience failure, they

 

persevere, trying new strategies until they find one that works

 
69. 

According to Erikson, the conflict between young children's urge to pursue goals and their moral judgments about those urges is

 

initiative vs. guilt

 
70. 

Which of these theories bases the explanation of gender roles on observation and reinforcement?

 

social learning

 
71. 

functional play

 

play involving large muscular movements

 
72. 

An important goal of parental discipline is to help the child develop self-discipline. The most effective disciplinary strategy to achieve this goal is

 

induction

 
73. 

Research suggests that the most self-reliant, self-controlled, and contented children have parents who are

 

authoritative

 
74. 

A cognitive capability that is related to the occurence of prosocial behavior is

 

empathy

 
75. 

Relational aggression among girls

 

becomes more frequent with age

 
76. 

During middle childhood, sleep needs

 

decline

 
77. 

Which of the following statements about illness in middle childhood is TRUE?

 

The death rate during middle childhood is the lowest in the life span.

 
78. 

The ability to arrange objects according to some dimension, such as largest to smallest, is called

 

seriation

 
79. 

4 memory techniques

 

mneumonic strategies, rehearsal, organization, elaboration

 
80. 

Dr. Gray is administering a test to a single second-grade child. There are items testing vocabulary and items testing the child's ability to reproduce patterns with blocks. Dr. Gray is likely administering the

 

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III).

 
81. 

Intelligence test used in middle childhood are

 

good predictors of school achievement, especially for verbal children

 
82. 

Most children in the United States who speak a second language use

 

Spanish.

 
83. 

What is the effect of parents' involvement in their children's schooling?

 

Parental involvement improves children's attitudes and performance.

 
84. 

Which of the following statements about coregulation in middle childhood is true?

 

It is a transitional stage in which children begin to do more self-monitoring.

 
85. 

A strong predictor of later adjustment is _____ during middle childhood.

 

being well liked by peers

 
86. 

If a school-age child shows evidence of temper tantrums, argumentativeness, hostility, or deliberately annoying behavior it is called

 

oppositional defiant disorder.

 
87. 

Which attribution bias is often seen in aggressive children?

 

Hostile Attribution Bias

 
88. 

Katherine cries a great deal, is often tired, seems unable to concentrate or have fun, has no friends, and is doing poorly in school. She probably has

 

childhood depression.

 
89. 

Which of the following is a characteristic of children who grow up surrounded by violence in their environment?

 

Children have difficulty concentrating and sleeping

 
90. 

reinforcement

 

process that strengthens and encourages repetition of desired behavior. 

 
91. 

punishment

 

process that weakens and discourages repetition of behavior.

 
92. 

accommodation:

 

changes in a cognitive structure to include new info. 

 
93. 

adaptation:

 

adjustment to new info about the environment. 

 
94. 

equilibration:

 

 tendency to seek balance among cognitive elements.

 
95. 

mechanistic model

 

human development is a series of predictable responses to stimuli

 
96. 

organismic model

 

human development is internally initiated by an active organism and occurs in a qualitatively different stages

 
97. 

dominant inheritance.

 

pattern of inheritance in which when a child receives different alleles, only the dominant one is expressed

 
98. 

alleles.

 

two or more alternative forms of a gene that occupy the same position and affected the same trait

 
99. 

Parturition

 

process of uterine, cervical, and other changes usually lasting about two weeks preceeding childbirth

 
100. 

Apgar scale rates:

 

appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, respiration

 
101. 

circular reactions

 

Piaget's term for processes by which an infant learns to reproduce desired occurrences originally discovered by chance

 
102. 

habituation

 

type of learning in which familiarity with a stimulus reduces, slows, or stops a response

 
103. 

implicit memory

 

unconscious recall of habits and skills; procedural memory

 
104. 

explicit memory

 

intentional and conscious memory of facts, names, events

 
105. 

working memory

 

short term storage of information being actively processed

 
106. 

self-concept

 

sense of self; descriptive and evaluative mental picture of one's abilities and traits

 
107. 

symbolic function

 

Piaget's term for ability to use mental representations (words, numbers, images) to which a child has attached meaning

 
108. 

transduction

 

Piaget's term for tendency of children to link phenomena

 
109. 

conservation

 

awareness that two objects are equal according to a measure even if appearance of one has changed (ie, clay, water)

 
110. 

constructive play

 

play involving use of objects or materials to make something

 
111. 

dramatic play

 

play involving imaginary people or situations; also called pretend play, fantasy play, or imaginative play

 
112. 

inductive techniques

 

disciplinary techniques designed to appeal to a child's sense of reason and fairness