Psych 240 Midterm

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1. 
Which word best describes the study of human development?
 
change
 
2. 
Which type of development is most involved in the growth of body and brain, sensory capacities, motor skills, and health?
 
physical
 
3. 
Marlane is large for her age and does not have many friends. This is an example of interaction between which two types of development?
 
physical and social
 
4. 
The age range of approximately 6-11 years refers to which of the following periods of development?
 
middle childhood
 
5. 
The inborn traits or characteristics we inherit from biological parents are our..?
 
heredity
 
6. 
Megan recorded events in the lives of her sons, Joseph and Jacob, such as their first words, their first steps, and the events of puberty. These events are examples of the process of
 
maturation
 
7. 
A _____________ is a group of people born at the same time
 
cohort
 
8. 
Individual differences in development are due primarily to which of the following?
 
heredity and environment
 
9. 
In the state of Ohio, most teenagers get their driver's licenses at the age of 16. This is best described as a:
 
normative age-graded influence
 
10. 
A critical period is a time when
 
an organism is most likely to be influenced by a specific event
 
11. 
What are the 7 principles of life-span development identified by Baltes (1987)?
 
development is lifelong. development is multidimensional. development multidirectional. relative influences of biology and culture shift. development involves changing resource allocations. development shows plasticity. development is influenced by history and culture.
 
12. 
Dr. Smith is going to use his research subjects in a study on the development of taste aversion in early childhood. He plans on going in to schools and working with the children without asking their parents or teachers. What ethical code has Dr. Smith violated?
 
informed consent
 
13. 
Most of the early pioneers in psychology, such as Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson, and Jean Piaget, favored the ____________ perspective on human development.
 
organismic
 
14. 
Stacy's mother believes that most of Stacy's acting out lately has been caused by unconscious forces within her that motivate her behavior. This perspective is called
 
psychoanalytic
 
15. 
The proper order of Freud's psychosexual stages of development is
 
oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
 
16. 
Each of Erikson's stages involved a major developmental issue that is particularly important at that time. Erikson referred to these issues as___________ in personality.
 
crises
 
17. 
define operant conditioning
 
learning based on association of behavior with consequences.
 
18. 
Which of the following is NOT an example of a self-report technique?
 
observation
 
19. 
define assimilation
 
Piaget; incorporating new info into exisiting cognitive structure. accommodation:
 
20. 
A zygote is created when a sperm and an egg cell combine in the fallopian tube to form a single cell. This process is referred to as
 
fertilization
 
21. 
In recent years, there has been a rise in multiple births. This rise is a result of
 
delayed childbearing and fertility treatments
 
22. 
Tasha has just given birth to twins. One of the twins is a boy and one is a girl. These twins are
 
dizygotic
 
23. 
humans have ? pairs of chromosomes
 
23
 
24. 
In what order does prenatal development occur?
 
germinal, embryonic, fetal
 
25. 
Recessive inheritance occurs only when a person receives two ____________ alleles; one from each parent.
 
recessive
 
26. 
A person's observable characteristics are his or her
 
phenotype
 
27. 
A researcher compares monozygotic and dizygotic twins for their level of similarity on a trait. This researcher is attempting to determine the __________ of the trait activity levels.
 
heritability
 
28. 
environmental influences
 
?
 
29. 
Which of the following would be considered the most highly canalized trait at birth?
 
sequence of motor development
 
30. 
Karen is adopted at the age of 1. When she is given an IQ test at age 21, her score is likely to be most similar to the IQ of her
 
biological mom
 
31. 
The zygote divides and implants into the wall of the uterus during which stage of gestation?
 
germinal
 
32. 
Which of the following is true in regard to prenatal development?
 
father's exposure to lead and smoke can impact a child's prenatal development
 
33. 
During which stage is an unborn baby most vulnerable to prenatal environmental influences and most at risk for miscarriage, or spontaneous abortion?
 
embryonic
 
34. 
Environmental factors that may produce birth defects are called
 
teratogens
 
35. 
According to the text, approximately how many extra calories should a woman consume each day during pregnancy?
 
300-500
 
36. 
Which drug, used to prevent acne, can cause serious birth defects?
 
accutane
 
37. 
Children born to women who smoke during pregnancy tend to show
 
low birth weight
 
38. 
In which procedure is a sample of fluid taken from around the fetus and analyzed for possible defects?
 
amniocentisis
 
39. 
Having labor and delivery take place with the husband or partner as a coach is an example of how hospitals are finding ways to ___________ childbirth.
 
humanize
 
40. 
Dilation of the cervix occurs during which stage of childbirth?
 
1st
 
41. 
Education and training in physcial fitness, breathing, and relaxation in labor for women planning vaginal birth is called __________ childbirth.
 
natural
 
42. 
Which of the following is likely to be heaviest at birth?
 
second-born boy
 
43. 
A healthy newborn can receive a maximum score of _______ on the Apgar scale.
 
10
 
44. 
infantile reflexes
 
primitive, postural, locomotor
 
45. 
What are the 5 Bayley III test scales of infant and toddler development?
 
cognitive, language, motor, socio-emotional, adaptive
 
46. 
Marla finds that rubbing her face against the satin edge of her blanket feels good. She learns to repeat this action to get a pleasurable sensation. According to Piaget, she has acquired a(n)
 
circular reaction
 
47. 
A baby stops sucking to listen to a tone. later, after the tone has been repeated frequently, the infant ignores it. This is an example of
 
habituation
 
48. 
Ten-month-old Nathan has just been told goodbye by his grandparents who are now leaving in their car. Nathan waves bye-bye to them with his left arm. Nathan's attempt to communicate with his grandparents is called a
 
conventional social gesture
 
49. 
When services are provided for children early in their development in an effort to meet the child's therapeutic, educational, and/or developmental needs, it is called
 
early intervention
 
50. 
Which memory system may be responsible for the slow development of object permanence?
 
?
 
51. 
Prelinguistic speech communicates
 
emotions
 
52. 
Two-week-old Jamie is lying quietly in her bassinet. Suddenly she utters a loud, piercing cry and holds her breath. She is probably
 
pain
 
53. 
Which of the following would describe a "slow-to-warm-up" child?
 
a  baby who appears shy at first but eventually becomes comfortable with new people
 
54. 
During Erikson's crisis of basic trust vs. mistrust, a child
 
determines whether or not he or she can rely upon the world
 
55. 
A baby whose mother is responsive and soothing is likely to have a _________ level of attachment, where a baby whose mother is abusive and neglectful is likely to have a ___________ level of attachment.
 
secure; disorganized-disoriented
 
56. 
According to Erikson, which crisis occurs during toddlerhood?
 
autonomy vs. shame/doubt
 
57. 
Daniel's mother is going to have a second child. To minimize sibling rivalry, she would be well advised to
 
encourage Daniel to help with the new baby
 
58. 
Physical development during early childhood includes which of the following?
 
cartilage turns to bone, and bones become harder
 
59. 
Children who cannot recognize the sensation that their bladder is full suffer from enuresis, which is commonly known as
 
bedwetting
 
60. 
Young children involved in pretend play are demonstrating
 
symbolic function
 
61. 
Currently, which of the following causes the most deaths in early childhood?
 
accidents
 
62. 
A child who cannot see something from another's perspective or point of view is showing
Question 6 
answers
 
egocentrism
 
63. 
Children remember more about an event if the adult discusses the event with them using a(n) _______ style of communication.
 
elaborative
 
64. 
According to Vygotsky, a child who is in the "zone of proximal development" is
 
almost ready to perform a particular cognitive task independently
 
65. 
 emergent literacy
 
preschoolers' development of skills, knowledge, and attitudes that underlie reading and writing
 
66. 
By their late teens, children who had attended Project Head Start or similar programs were more likely than other needy children to have done which of the following?
 
finished high school
 
67. 
The total sense of self, including the knowledge of who we are and whom we want to be, is called
 
self-concept
 
68. 
When children with high self-esteem experience failure, they
 
persevere, trying new strategies until they find one that works
 
69. 
According to Erikson, the conflict between young children's urge to pursue goals and their moral judgments about those urges is
 
initiative vs. guilt
 
70. 
Which of these theories bases the explanation of gender roles on observation and reinforcement?
 
social learning
 
71. 
functional play
 
play involving large muscular movements
 
72. 
An important goal of parental discipline is to help the child develop self-discipline. The most effective disciplinary strategy to achieve this goal is
 
induction
 
73. 
Research suggests that the most self-reliant, self-controlled, and contented children have parents who are
 
authoritative
 
74. 
A cognitive capability that is related to the occurence of prosocial behavior is
 
empathy
 
75. 
Relational aggression among girls
 
becomes more frequent with age
 
76. 
During middle childhood, sleep needs
 
decline
 
77. 
Which of the following statements about illness in middle childhood is TRUE?
 
The death rate during middle childhood is the lowest in the life span.
 
78. 
The ability to arrange objects according to some dimension, such as largest to smallest, is called
 
seriation
 
79. 
4 memory techniques
 
mneumonic strategies, rehearsal, organization, elaboration
 
80. 
Dr. Gray is administering a test to a single second-grade child. There are items testing vocabulary and items testing the child's ability to reproduce patterns with blocks. Dr. Gray is likely administering the
 
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III).
 
81. 
Intelligence test used in middle childhood are
 
good predictors of school achievement, especially for verbal children
 
82. 
Most children in the United States who speak a second language use
 
Spanish.
 
83. 
What is the effect of parents' involvement in their children's schooling?
 
Parental involvement improves children's attitudes and performance.
 
84. 
Which of the following statements about coregulation in middle childhood is true?
 
It is a transitional stage in which children begin to do more self-monitoring.
 
85. 
A strong predictor of later adjustment is _____ during middle childhood.
 
being well liked by peers
 
86. 
If a school-age child shows evidence of temper tantrums, argumentativeness, hostility, or deliberately annoying behavior it is called
 
oppositional defiant disorder.
 
87. 
Which attribution bias is often seen in aggressive children?
 
Hostile Attribution Bias
 
88. 
Katherine cries a great deal, is often tired, seems unable to concentrate or have fun, has no friends, and is doing poorly in school. She probably has
 
childhood depression.
 
89. 
Which of the following is a characteristic of children who grow up surrounded by violence in their environment?
 
Children have difficulty concentrating and sleeping
 
90. 
reinforcement
 
process that strengthens and encourages repetition of desired behavior. 
 
91. 
punishment
 
process that weakens and discourages repetition of behavior.
 
92. 
accommodation:
 
changes in a cognitive structure to include new info. 
 
93. 
adaptation:
 
adjustment to new info about the environment. 
 
94. 
equilibration:
 
 tendency to seek balance among cognitive elements.
 
95. 
mechanistic model
 
human development is a series of predictable responses to stimuli
 
96. 
organismic model
 
human development is internally initiated by an active organism and occurs in a qualitatively different stages
 
97. 
dominant inheritance.
 
pattern of inheritance in which when a child receives different alleles, only the dominant one is expressed
 
98. 
alleles.
 
two or more alternative forms of a gene that occupy the same position and affected the same trait
 
99. 

Parturition

 

process of uterine, cervical, and other changes usually lasting about two weeks preceeding childbirth

 
100. 

Apgar scale rates:

 

appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, respiration

 
101. 

circular reactions

 

Piaget's term for processes by which an infant learns to reproduce desired occurrences originally discovered by chance

 
102. 

habituation

 

type of learning in which familiarity with a stimulus reduces, slows, or stops a response

 
103. 

implicit memory

 

unconscious recall of habits and skills; procedural memory

 
104. 

explicit memory

 

intentional and conscious memory of facts, names, events

 
105. 
working memory
 

short term storage of information being actively processed

 
106. 

self-concept

 

sense of self; descriptive and evaluative mental picture of one's abilities and traits

 
107. 

symbolic function

 

Piaget's term for ability to use mental representations (words, numbers, images) to which a child has attached meaning

 
108. 

transduction

 

Piaget's term for tendency of children to link phenomena

 
109. 

conservation

 

awareness that two objects are equal according to a measure even if appearance of one has changed (ie, clay, water)

 
110. 

constructive play

 

play involving use of objects or materials to make something

 
111. 

dramatic play

 

play involving imaginary people or situations; also called pretend play, fantasy play, or imaginative play

 
112. 

inductive techniques

 

disciplinary techniques designed to appeal to a child's sense of reason and fairness