Psych 240 - Final Exam

Total Flash Cards » 175
 
1. 

Before the twentieth century, there was no concept of adolescence; children moved to adulthood either through physical maturity or when they began apprenticeships. Adolescence is

 

a social construction

 
2. 

Primary sex characteristics are

 

body parts directly related to reproduction.

 
3. 

Which of the following describes the major changes that occur in the brain during adolescence?

 

growth and pruning of gray matter

 
4. 

A pattern of late bedtimes and oversleeping in the morning can contribute to

 

insomnia

 
5. 

According to Piaget, adolescents are in which stage of cognitive development?

 

formal operations

 
6. 

Todd, age 18, feels he can drink and drive safely but becomes angry at friends who drink and drive. What term would explain this behavior?

 

personal fable

 
7. 

Carol Gilligan criticized Kohlberg's description of moral development because

 

he focuses on values more important to males than females


 
8. 

Prosocial behavior increases in adolescence. Which of the following is also true of adolescent prosocial behavior?

 

Girls show more prosocial behavior than boys typically do.

 
9. 

The most important factor that determines whether or not a student will finish high school is

 

the student's active engagement in schooling.

 
10. 

The desirable outcome of the crisis of adolescence, according to Erikson, is being able to

 

see oneself as a unique person with a meaningful role in life.


 
11. 

Sexual orientation seems to be determined at least partly by

 

genetics

 
12. 

James Marcia identifies four identity states or statuses, according to the presence or absence of

 

crisis and commitment

 
13. 

The desirable outcome of the crisis of adolescence, according to Erikson, is being able to

 

see oneself as a unique person with a meaningful role in life

 
14. 

All of the following factors have been cited as playing a part in an adolescent's decision to engage in early sexual activity EXCEPT

 

late entrance into puberty

 
15. 

The most prevalent sexually transmitted disease is

 

human papilloma virus.

 
16. 

Which of the following statements is most accurate regarding romantic relationships during adolescence?

 

Early adolescents think primarily about how romantic relationships may affect their status in the peer group.

 
17. 

Individuation refers to

 

adolescents' struggles for autonomy and differentiation.


 
18. 

Involvement in cliques is most prominent in __________ adolescence.

 

early

 
19. 

Collective efficacy refers to

 

strength of social connections within the neighborhood.

 
20. 

A time when young people are no longer adolescents but have not yet become fully adult is called

 

emerging adulthood

 
21. 

The leading cause of death among young adults is

 

accidents.

 
22. 

Comparing health in various cultural groups in young adulthood, researchers have found that African American adults are more likely to have ________ and Latino adults are more likely to have __________ than Caucasian adults.

 

high blood pressure; diabetes

 
23. 

Which of the following patterns of thinking is associated with postformal thought?

 

ability to think both practically and abstractly

 
24. 

According to Kohlberg, which of the following events is likely to promote the development of postconventional moral reasoning in a young adult?

 

becoming a parent

 
25. 

Recentering refers to the process

 

that underlies the shift to an adult identity.

 
26. 

Bill, age 30, is searching for the right woman to share his life and future. According to Erikson's theory, Bill is at the stage of

 

intimacy versus isolation.

 
27. 

During Levinson's age-30 transition, men

 

take another look at their lives

 
28. 

Which of the following is NOT one of Costa and McCrae's Five Personality Dimensions?

 

aggressiveness

 
29. 

In Sternberg's triangular theory, the three elements of love are

 

intimacy, passion, and commitment.

 
30. 

Which of the following is TRUE about cohabitation?

 

U.S. rates have increased dramatically since 1960.

 
31. 

According to Sternberg, the type of love that involves two people who are highly attracted to each other, who do not share emotions with each other, and have no real commitment for the future is:

 

infatuation

 
32. 

Which of the following are predictors of a successful marriage:

 

Communication and conflict management skills

 
33. 

In comparison with the previous generation, women today tend to

 

have children later in life.

 
34. 

The "baby boomers" are part of what life stage today?

 

middle adulthood

 
35. 

Tim has recently realized that he has difficulty hearing high-pitched sounds when he listens to his favorite music on the stereo. His condition is referred to as

 

presbycusis

 
36. 

Loss of endurance during middle adulthood results from gradual decrease in the rate of
Question 3 answers

 

basal metobolism

 
37. 

The climacteric is a

 

period of 2 to 5 years during which a woman's body undergoes changes that bring on menopause

 
38. 

The greatest work-related stressor is

 

job loss

 
39. 

Cognitively speaking, __________ are in their prime.

 

middle-aged adults

 
40. 

Advances in ___________ continue at least through middle adulthood and are relatively independent of general intelligence

 

expertise or specialized knowledge

 
41. 

According to the research on creativity, at what ages do people show the highest levels of divergent thinking?

 

late thirties

 
42. 

Positive mental health involves a sense of psychological well-being, which depends upon having a

 

healthy sense of self

 
43. 

According to Erikson, generativity can take the form of

 

fostering the development of the young

 
44. 

A psychological turning point that often yields new insights into the self and corrects life's design and trajectory is called a

 

midlife review

 
45. 

As children move away from home, Gutmann identified a reversal of life roles called

 

gender crossover

 
46. 

In a longterm marriage, positive aspects of the relationship, such as discussion, cooperation, and shared laughter, tend to

 

follow a U-shaped curve

 
47. 

Some women find the time when their adolescent children leave home difficult, but they are outnumbered by other mothers who

 

find it liberating

 
48. 

Friendships are most important for women in

 

early middle adulthood

 
49. 

The empty nest does not signal the end of parenthood; it is a ____________ to a new stage: the relationship between parents and adult children.

 

transition

 
50. 

Sue is 49 and has a 69-year-old mother. It is probable that Sue

 

sees or talks to her mother frequently

 
51. 

Adults in the United States usually become grandparents in their

 

forties and fifties

 
52. 

An important difference between primary and secondary aging is that primary aging is

 

unavoidable.

 
53. 

The branch of medicine concerned with the aged and the aging process is

 

geriatrics.

 
54. 

The traditional age for entering late adulthood is

 

65

 
55. 

Damage associated with free radicals, highly unstable oxygen atoms formed during metabolism, has been mentioned as a factor in all of the following EXCEPT

 

genetic disorders.

 
56. 

The ability of body organs and systems to put forth extra effort in times of stress is called

 

reserve capacity.

 
57. 

In addition to antidepressants for the treatment of depression, many elderly patients are also helped by

 

psychotherapy.

 
58. 

Alexander, who is 75 years old, has not played golf for 25 years. Nevertheless, when he is asked to play golf in a fundraising event, he remembers how to perform all of the skills necessary to play golf, such as the grip, the backswing, and the follow-through. Alexander's knowledge of how to play golf represents what kind of memory?

 

procedural

 
59. 

The general medical term for physiologically caused intellectual decline in old age is:

 

dementia

 
60. 

Which of the following is an eye ailment that results from the center of the retina gradually losing its ability to distinguish fine details?

 

age-related macular degeneration

 
61. 

Although there is a common belief that older adults tend to be depressed, research suggests that

 

older adults grow more content and satisfied

 
62. 

The ability to adapt thinking and behavior to reduce or relieve stress that arises from harmful, threatening, and challenging conditions is referred to as

 

coping

 
63. 

The Age Discrimination in Employment Act (1986) protects most workers age _____ and older from being denied a job, fired, paid less, or forced to retire because of age.

 

40


 
64. 

Clara has recently lost her spouse. To help her maintain satisfaction in life after this trauma, it is most important that Clara's family and friends provide

 

emotional support.

 
65. 

U.S. women ages 65 and over are _______________________of the same age to be widowed.

 

more likely than men

 
66. 

Which living arrangement is most desired by the majority of elderly Americans?

 

aging in place

 
67. 

Which of the following statements about sisters and brothers in late adulthood is TRUE?

 

Sisters tend to be more nurturing than brothers.


 
68. 

Older adults tend to use this type of cognitive-appraisal strategy most often

 

emotion-focused

 
69. 

"Granny dumping', or leaving an older adult at a hospital without any identifying information or family with her, is one form of ______________: maltreatment or neglect of dependent older persons or violation of their personal rights.

 

elder abuse

 
70. 

Cultural aspects of death include all of the following EXCEPT

 

whether or not finances are in order.

 
71. 

About 50 percent of all recorded deaths in late adulthood in the United States are from which of the following causes?

 

cancer, stroke, heart disease

 
72. 

When his grandfather died, Jerrod became very interested in the processes involved in the death of a loved one. He decided to go to college and study all he could in the field of __________ so that he could help others who had to face the death of their loved ones.

 

thanatology

 
73. 

A group that provides attention to both physical symptoms and psychological distress of dying people is known as a _________intervention group

 

dignity-conserving

 
74. 

An observable decline in cognitive abilities shortly before death is called a

 

terminal drop.

 
75. 

Many of the patients in Kübler-Ross's study went through the same five stages of grief but

 

not necessarily in the same sequence.

 
76. 

The initial emotional loss that Anna felt when her son died kept her from eating, going to work, or caring for her other children. This early emotional response is to the death of a loved one is known as

 

grief.

 
77. 

All of the following are stages of grief work EXCEPT

 

family must rid themselves of all of the objects that bring painful memories.

 
78. 

Deaths resulting from the World Trade Center attacks were examples of____________ loss, a situation where the loss was not clearly defined and therefore confusing and difficult to resolve.

 

ambiguous

 
79. 

Approximately _____ of women are widowed by age 65.

 

30%

 
80. 

For women especially, the distress of a loss can often be a catalyst for introspection. Widows often

 

discover submerged aspects of themselves and learn to stand on their own as they reevaluate their own lives.

 
81. 

The recent death of his father has sharpened Matthew's sense of mortality. As a result, he

has

 

developed a greater appreciation of the value of his personal friendships and a more mature outlook on life.

 
82. 

The two groups that have the highest suicide rates in the United States are

 

whites and Native Americans.

 
83. 

Caroline is a first-year teacher in a school where there have been several reported suicides among the student body in the past several years. Which of the following student behaviors should she watch for as a warning sign of potential suicide?

 

withdrawal from family or friends

 
84. 

Deliberate action taken to shorten the life of a terminally ill person, in order to end suffering and allow death with dignity, is called

 

active euthanasia.

 
85. 

Advanced directives, often called "living wills," which are written while patients are still competent to make their own decisions, specify provisions with regard to all of the following EXCEPT

 

time and method that you wish for your death.

 
86. 

Sally is 86 and would like to have an advanced directive that gives her son the ability to make decisions about her medical care in the event she becomes unable to do so. Which of the following documents does she need?

 

durable power of attorney

 
87. 

A life review is

 

a process that enables a person to see the significance of his or her life.

 
88. 

Piaget's final stage of cognitive development, characterized by the ability to think abstractly

 

Formal operations

 
89. 

Ability, believed by Piaget, to accompany the stage of formal operations, to develop, consider, and test hypotheses

 

hypothetical-deductive reasoning

 
90. 

Acquired factual knowledge stored in long-term memory

 

declarative knowledge

 
91. 

Acquired skills stored in long-term memory

 

procedural knowledge

 
92. 

Acquired interpretive understanding stored in long-term memory

 

conceptual knowledge

 
93. 

1st level of Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning in which control is external and rules are obeyed in order to gain rewards or avoid punishment or out of self-interest

 

preconventional morality

 
94. 

2nd level in Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning in which standards of authority figures are internalized

 

conventional morality

 
95. 

3rd level of Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning in which people follow internally held moral principles and can decide among conflicting moral standards

 

postconventional morality

 
96. 

According to Erikson, a coherent conception of the self, made up of goals, values, and beliefs to which a person is solidly committed

 

identity

 
97. 

Erickson's 5th stage of psychosocial development, in which an adolescent seeks to develop a coherent sense of self, including the role she or he is to play in society.

 

identity versus identity confusion

 
98. 

Marcia's term for states of ego development that depend on the presence or absence of crisis and commitment

 

identity statuses

 
99. 

Marcia's term for period of conscious decision making related to identity formation

 

crisis

 
100. 

Marcia's term for personal investment in an occupation or system of beliefs

 

commitment

 
101. 

identity status, described by Marcia, that is characterized by commitment to choices made following a crisis, a period spent in exploring alternatives

 

identity achievement

 
102. 

identity status, described by Marcia, in which a person who has not spent time considering alternatives (that is, has not been in crisis) is committed to other people's plans for his or her life

 

foreclosure

 
103. 

identity status, described by Marcia, in which a person is currently considering alternatives (in crisis) and seems headed for commitment

 

moratorium

 
104. 

identity status, described by Marcia, that is characterized by absence of commitment and lack of serious consideration of alternatives

 

identity diffusion

 
105. 

Parental practices that teach children about their racial/ethnic heritage and promote cultural practices and cultural pride

 

cultural socialization

 
106. 

Pattern of emotional turmoil, characteristic of a minority of adolescents, which may involved conflict with family, alienation from adult society, reckless behavior, and rejection of adult values

 

adolescent rebellion

 
107. 

Adolescent's struggle for autonomy and personal identity

 

individuation


 
108. 

proposed transitional period between adolescence and adulthood

 

emerging adulthood

 
109. 

type of logical thinking that may emerge in adulthood, involving continuous, active evaluation of information and beliefs in light of evidence and implications

 

reflective thinking

 
110. 

mature type of thinking that relies on subjective experience and intuition as well as logic and is useful in dealing with ambiguity, uncertainty, inconsistency, contradiction, imperfection, and compromise

 

postformal thought

 
111. 

Salovey and Mayer's term for ability to understand and regulate emotions; an important component of effective, intelligent behavior

 

emotional intelligence

 
112. 

degree to which a person's work requires thought and independent judgment

 

substantive complexity

 
113. 

hypothesis that a positive correlation exists between intellectuality of work and of leisure activities because of a carryover of cognitive gains from work to leisure

 

spillover hypothesis

 
114. 

process that underlies the shift to adult identity

 

recentering

 
115. 

theorectical models that describe psychosocial development in terms of a definite sequence of age-related changes

 

normative-stage models

 
116. 

Erickson's sixth stage of development in which young adults either make commitments to others or face a possible sense of isolation and self-absorption

 

intimacy vs isolation

 
117. 

in Levinson's theory, the underlying pattern of a person's life at a given time, built on whatever aspects of life the person finds most important

 

life structure

 
118. 

in normative-stage theories, typical challenges that need to be mastered for successful adaptation to each stage of life

 

developmental tasks

 
119. 

theoretical model of personality development that describes adult psychosocial development as a response to the expected or unexpected occurrence and timing of important life events

 

timing-of-events model

 
120. 

in the timing-of-events model, commonly expected life experiences that occur at customary times

 

normative life events

 
121. 

set of cultural norms or expectations for the times of life when certain important events should occur

 

social clock

 
122. 

theoretical models of personality development that focus on mental, emotional, temperamental, and behavioral traits or attitudes

 

trait models

 
123. 

theoretical model of personality, developed by Costa & McCrae, based on the “big five” factors underlying clusters of related personality traits: neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, conscientiousness, and agreeableness

 

five-factor model

 
124. 

theoretical approach that identifies broad personality types, or styles

 

typological approach

 
125. 

adaptability under potential sources of stress

 

ego-resilliency

 
126. 

self-control

 

ego-control

 
127. 

friends who are considered and behave like family members

 

fictive kin

 
128. 

Sternberg's theory that patterns of love hinge on the balances among three elements: intimacy, passion, and commitment

 

triangular theory of love

 
129. 

age-related progressive loss of eyes' ability to focus due to loss of elasticity in lens

 

presbyopia


 
130. 

near-sightedness

 

myopia

 
131. 

use of energy to maintain vital functions

 

basal metabolism

 
132. 

amount of air that can be drawn in with a deep breath and expelled

 

vital capacity

 
133. 

type of intelligence, proposed by Horn and Cattell, that is applied to novel problems and is relatively independent of educational and cultural influences

 

fluid intelligence

 
134. 

type of intelligence, proposed by Horn & Cattell, involving the ability to remember and se learned information; largely dependent on education and culture

 

crystallized intelligence

 
135. 

in Hoyer's terminology, progressive dedication of information processing and fluid thinking to specfici knowledge systems, making knowledge more readily accessible

 

encapsulation

 
136. 

Jung's term for emergence of the true self through balancing or integration of conflicting parts of the personality

 

individuation

 
137. 

Erickson's 7th stage of development in which the middle aged adutl develops a concern with establishing, guiding, and influencing the next generation or else experiences stagnation

 

generativity vs stagnation

 
138. 

Erickson's term for concern of mature adults for establishing, guiding, and influencing the next generation

 

generativity

 
139. 

Neugarten's term for a concern with inner life appearing at middle age

 

interiority

 
140. 

in some normative crisis models, stressful life period precipitated by the review and reevaluation of one's past, typically occuring in the early to mid 40s

 

midlife crisis

 
141. 

introspective examination that often occurs in middle age, leading to reappraisal and revision of values and priorities

 

midlife review

 
142. 

Whitborne's theory of identity development based on processes of assimilation and accomodation

 

identity process theory

 
143. 

Whitborne's term for effort to fit new experience into an existing self concept

 

identity assimilation

 
144. 

Whitborne's term for a tendency for adjusting the self concept to new experience

 

identity accommodation

 
145. 

Whitborne's term for a tendency to balance assimilation and accommodation

 

identity balance

 
146. 

theory that people move through life surrounded by concentric circles of intimate relationships on which they rely for assistance, well-being, and social support

 

social convoy theory

 
147. 

theory that people select social contacts on the basis of the changing relative importance of social interaction as a source of information, as an aid in developing and maintain a self-concept and as a source of emotional well being

 

socioemotional selectivity theory

 
148. 

financial and emotional benefits built up during a long standing marriage, which tend to hold a couple together

 

marital capital

 
149. 

tendency for young adults who have left home to return to their parents' household during times of financial, marital, or other trouble

 

revolving door syndrome

 
150. 

stage of life in which middle aged children as the outcome of a filial crisis, learn to accept and meet their parents' need to depend on them

 

filial maturity

 
151. 

normative development of middle age, in which adults learn to balance love and duty to their parents with autonomy within a 2-way relationship

 

filial crisis

 
152. 

middle aged adults squeezed by competing needs to raise or launch children and to care for elderly parents

 

sandwich generation

 
153. 

study of the aged and process of aging

 

gerontology

 
154. 

branch of medicine concerned with the processes of aging and medical conditions associated with old age

 

geriatrics

 
155. 

period of life span marked by declines in physical functioning usually associated with aging; begins at different ages

 

senescence

 
156. 

initial, brief, temporary storage of sensory information

 

sensory memory

 
157. 

short term storage of information being actively processed

 

working memory

 
158. 

long term memory of specific experiences or events, linked to time and place

 

episodic memory

 
159. 

long term memory of general factual knowledge, social customs, and language

 

semantic memory

 
160. 

long term memory of motor skills, habits, and ways of doing things and can be recalled without conscious effort

 

implicit/procedural memory

 
161. 

adaptive behavior or thinking aimed at reducing or relieving stress that arises from harmful, threatening, or challenging conditions

 

coping

 
162. 

model of coping which holds that, on the basis of continuous appraisal of their relationship with the environment, people choose appropriate coping strategies to deal with situations that tax their normal resources

 

cognitive-appraisal model

 
163. 

in the cognitive-appraisal model, coping strategy directed toward eliminating, managing, or improving a stressful situation

 

problem focused coping

 
164. 

in the cognitive-appraisal model, coping strategy directed toward managing the emotional response to a stressful situation so as to lessen its physical or psychological impact

 

emotion focused coping

 
165. 

theory of aging which holds that successful aging is characterized by mutual withdrawal of the older person and society

 

disengagement theory

 
166. 

theory of aging which holds that in order to age successfully, a person must remain as active as possible

 

activity theory

 
167. 

theory of aging which holds that in order to age successfully people must maintain a balance of continuity and change in both the internal and external structures of their lives

 

continuity theory

 
168. 

enhancing over all cognitive functioning by using stronger abilities to compensate for those that have weakened

 

selective optimization with compensation

 
169. 

pattern of retirement activity allocated among family, work, and leisure

 

balanced investment

 
170. 

a frequently observed decline in cognitive abilities near the end of life

 

loss, due to death, of someone to whom one feels close and the process of adjustment to the loss

terminal drop

 
171. 

loss, due to death, of someone to whom one feels close and the process of adjustment to the loss

 

bereavement

 
172. 

emotional response experienced in the early phases of bereavement

 

grief


 
173. 

deliberate withholding or discontinuation of life-prolonging treatment of a terminally ill person in order to end suffering or allow death with dignity

 

passive euthanasia

 
174. 

deliberate action taken to shorten the life of a terminally ill person in order to end suffering or allow death with dignity

 

active euthanasia

 
175. 

reminiscence about one's life in order to see the significance

 

life review