Philosophy Test 1

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1. 
Philosophy
 
Is rigorous, logical analysis of our fundamental concepts, categories, and principles
 
2. 
Metaphysics
 
Branch of philosophy that answers questions such as what exists? what is nature/structure of reality? What am I? Why does anything happen? Why is there anything rather than nothing? Do I ever act freely?
 
3. 
Epistemology
 
Branch of philosophy that answers questions such as what is knowledge? what do I know? when am I justified in taking myself to know something? Is perception a source of knowledge? Is reason a source of knowlege?
 
4. 
Ethics
 
Branch of philosophy that answers questions such as what is right/wrong? What is "right"/"wrong"? What is good/bad? What is "good"/"bad"?
 
5. 
Valid
 
the reasoning is correct
 
6. 
Sound
 

1. The argument is valid

2. The premises are true

Invalid arguments can never be sound

 
7. 
Modus Ponens = Valid
 

If P then Q, P, therefore Q is valid

If P then Q, Q, therefore P is invalid

 
8. 
Test of Validity
 
If the premises were true, would the conclusion be necessarily true? I.E. is it possible for premises to be true, and yet the conclusion be false?
 
9. 
Valid Argument
 
A valid argument can have false premises, don't need to know the truth value of premises to determine validity
 
10. 
Modus Tollens = Always Valid
 

If p, then q, not q, therefore not p

Denying antecedent

If p, then q, not p, therefore not q invalid

 
11. 
Thomas Aquinas = says God is omnipotent which means all powerful and has infinite goodness, argues for omnipotence
 
Argument from Motion, Argument from efficient causation, argument from contingency
 
12. 
Argument from Motion
 

P1: "Some things are in motion."

P2: "Whatever is moved is moved by another"

P3: The relation of mover to moved " cannot go on to infinity."

C: A 1st mover is necessary

 
13. 
Argument from Efficient Causation
 

P1: There are efficient causes

P2: Nothing can be the efficient cause of itself

P3: The order of efficient causes cannot stretch back to infinity

C: There is a first efficient cause

 
14. 
Occam's Razor (the parsimony principle)
 
If 2 theories explain some phenomenon equally well, the simpler theory of the two is more likely to be correct. (more can go wrong with more complex theory)
 
15. 
Essential Causal Succession
 
The arm moves the hand. The hand moves the stick. The stick moves the rock.
 
16. 
Accidental Causal Succession
 
Abraham Begat Isaac, begat = procreate, Issac Begat Jacob, We can explain Jacob's existence without having to explain the whole causal change.
 
17. 
Aristotles Causes
 

Material - Bronze

Formal - Arrangement of material

Efficient - Sculptor

Final - The end (telos), Goal purpose of sculptor

 
18. 
Argument from Contingency - Could not have existed
 

P1: Things in the world could not have existed

P2: Anything that could not have existed did not exist, at some time

P3: If everything is contingent (could haven of existed), at some point nothing existed.

P4: Something can't come from nothing

C: There is a necessary being

 
19. 
Samuel Clarke (1675 - 1729)
 
If every link in the causal chain is dependent, what is the cause of the chain itself? Something has always existed, Whatever exists has a cause, What exists is either independent being or an infinite succession of dependent things, An infinite succession of dependent beings is a contradiction, Independent being is necessary being.
 
20. 
Disjunctive Syllogism
 

P1: Either P or Q

P2: Not P

C: Q

 
21. 
Affirming the Consequence
 
Invalid
 
22. 
David Hume
 

There is no being whose non-existence implies a contradiction, nothing that is distinctly conceivable implies a contradiction, is the claim that conceivability entails possibility, how can anything that exists from eternity have a cause, since the relation implies a priority in time?

 
23. 
Hume's Skepticism and Causation
 
Our knowledge of cause and effect relations is, infact, just knowledge of constant conjuctions or regular succession
 
24. 
Composition Fallacy
 
Every brick in wall is red. Therefore, the wall is red. - not one, Every brick in the wall weighs 1 lb., therefore, the wall weighs 1 lb. this is composition fallacy
 
25. 
Principle of Sufficient Reason
 

Whatever exists has a cause

Based on Samuel Clarke

 
26. 
Structure of Clarke's Main Argument
 
"Either P there has always existed some one unchangeable and independent being from which all other beings that are or ever were in the universe have received their original, or q there has been an infinite succession of changeable and dependant beings produced one from the other in an endless progression without any original cause at all. Not Q then P
 
27. 
Why not Q in Clarke's Argument
 
If we consider such an infinite progression as one entire endless series of dependent beings, it's plain this whole series of beings can have no cause without its existence. And it is is plain it can have no reason within itself for its existence.
 
28. 
Teleology
 
The study of purposes
 
29. 
Telos
 
Purpose, Goal, Aim, End
 
30. 
Argument from Design
 
Look in Notebook
 
31. 
Inductive Arguments
 
Either Strong/ Weak not valid or invalid, by an inductive argument we attempt to show that some conclusion is probable. Because the inferential claims of such an argument is not that the conclusion follows from the premises necessarily, there is no question of the argument being valid or invalid. Inductive arguments are strong or weak.
 
32. 
Fallacy
 
Weak Argument
 
33. 
Strong Argument from Analogy
 
The operation of a camera is similar in many ways to the operation of the eye. If you are to see anything in a darkened room, the pupils of your eyes dilate. Accordingly if you take a photo in a darkened room the aperture of camera lens must first be open - strong argument
 
34. 
Weak Argument from Analogy
 
If a car breaks down on freeway, a passing mechanic is not obligated to render emergency road service. For similiar reasons if a person suffers a heart attack on the street, a passing physician isn't obligated to render emergency assistance (fallacy)
 
35. 
Posit
 
Hypothesise
 
36. 
Superfluos
 
Not of importance
 
37. 
Empiricism
 
Knowledge based on experience
 
38. 
Arbitrarily
 
No good reason
 
39. 
A priori
 
Independant of Experience
 
40. 
A posteriori
 
Derived from experience - Hume only believed in this
 
41. 
Stephen Gould and Teleological Argument
 
Look in notes