A&P Exam 4

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The digestive system processes food, extracts nutrients, and eliminates the residue T or F? True
The enteric nervous system regulates much of the digestive activity but it action depends on the central nervous system T or F? False
Odor, sight, and taste stimulate salivatory nuclei in the cerebral cortex T or F? True
Both chemical and mechanical digestion start in the mouth and continue in the stomach T or F? True
Gastric juice consists entirely of water and hydrochloric acid T or F? False
Absorption of many nutrients starts in the stomachT or F? False
The liver is the body's largest gland T or F? True
Both pancreatic juice and bile are secreted into the duodenum T or F? True
The small intestine begins with the duodenum which is its longest segment T or F? False
The brush borders of intestinal absorptive cells contain numerous goblet cells T or F? False
Most fat is digested by pancreatic lipase T or F? True
Chylomicrons are secreted from the basal surface of the absorptive cells and taken into the lacteal in the villus T or F? True
The large intestine is longer than the small intestine T or F? False
? is the physiological process that moves a nutrient from the outside to the inside of the bodyA. ingestionB. compactionC. digestionD. absorptionE. secretion D. absoption
The serous membranes that suspend the stomach and intestine from the abdominal wall are calledA. mesenteriesB. mucaosaeC. submucosaeD. muscularis mucosaeE. muscularis externa A. mesenteries
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These are all accessory organs of the digestive system EXCEPT A. tongueB. liverC. pancreasD. salivary glandsE. spleen A. tongue
Each of the following lists some of the tissue layers of the digestive tract. Which one has them in correct order from lumen to external surface?A. lamina propria, muscularis mucosae, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosaB. serosa, lamina propria, submucosa, muscularis mucosae, muscularis externaC. mucisa, submucosa, muscularis mucosae, muscularis externa, lamina propriaD. mucosa, muscularis mucosae, submucosae, muscularis externa, lamina propriaE. mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, lamina propria, serosa E. mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, lamina propria, serosa
Chemical digestion breaks down ? into ?A. proteins; nucleotidesB. amino acids; proteinsC. polysccharides; amino acidsD. nucleic acids; nucleotidesE. fatty acids; cholesterol D. nucleic acids; nucleotides
The ? regulates digestive tract motility, secretion, and blood flow, and its neurons are found in the ?A. autonomic nervous system; serosaB. central nervous system; muscularis externa and muscularis mucosaeC. enteric nervous system; submucosa and muscularis externaD. visceral sensory division; muscularis externa and submucosaE. visceral motor division; mucosa and submucosa C. enteric nervous system; submucosa and muscularis externa
These are normally found in saliva EXCEPTA. mucusB. lysozymeC. amylaseD. lipaseE. protease E. protease
The ? gland is an extrinsic salivary gland, whereas the ? gland in and intrinsic salivary glandA. lingual; labialB. submandibular; lingualC. submandibular; sublingualD. sublingual; parotidE. lingual; sublingual B. submandibular, lingual
The swallowing center is located in the A. mouthB. oropharynxC. esophagusD. medulla oblongataE. enteric nervous system D. medulla oblongata
The buccal phase of swalloing is under ? control and the pharyngo-esophageal phase is ?A. central nervous system; also controlled by the central nervous systemB. central nervous system; controlled by autonomic reflexesC. autonomic nervous system; controlled by autonomic reflexesD. voluntary; also voluntaryE. involuntary; also involuntary B. central nervous system; controlled by autonomic reflexes
Acid reflux into the esophagus is normally prevented byA. pharyngeal constrictorsB. the upper esophageal sphincterC. the lower esophageal sphincterD. esophageal glandsE. pharyngeal and buccal sphincters C. the lower esophageal sphincters
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Hydrochloric acid is secreted by ? cellsA. mucousB. regenerative (stem)C. parietalD. chiefE. enteroendocrine C. parietal
?, which is secreted by ? cells, is necessary for vitamin B12 absorptionA. intrinsic factor; parietalB. bile salts; chiefC. lecithin; hepaticD. hydrochloric acid; parietalE. enterokinase; mucous A. intrinsic factor; parietal
Pepsinogen is produced by ? and is activated by ?
A. chief cells; carbonic anhydrase secreted by parietal cellsB. chief cells; hydrochloric acid secreted by parietal cellsC. parietal cells; hydrochloric acid secreted by chief cellsD. parietal cells: carbonic anhydrase secreted by chief cellsE. enteroendocrine cells; carbonic anhydrase secreted by parietal cells
B. chief cells; hydrochloric acid secreted by parietal cells
Why are several digestive enzymes secreted as zymogens?A. because this saves one step in their synthesisB. because gastric cells do not have the necessary enzymes for their synthesisC. so they start digesting intracellular proteins of the gastric cells more quicklyD. so they act only in the stomach lumen and do not digest intracellular proteinsE. so they can start digesting dietary proteins more quickly D. so they act only in the stomach lumen and do not digest intracellular proteins
The entertogastric reflex serves toA. relax the stomach in preparation for swallowed food.B. stimulate acid and enzyme secretion when food enters the stomachC. stimulate intestinal motility when there in food in the stomachD. inhibit gastric motility when there is chyme in the small intestineE. relax the iloececal valve when chyme is on its way to the coloe C. stimulate intestinal motility when there in food in the stomach
? is a hormone, whereas ? is an enzymeA. enterokinase; pepsinB. gastrin; secretinC. gastrin; cholecystokininD. gastric lipase; histamineE. secretin; pepsin E. secretin pepsin
? is associated with food stretching the stomach and activating myenteric and vagovagal reflexes, which in turn stimulate gastric secretionsA. cephalic phaseB. gastric phaseC. intestinal phaseD. gastrointestinal phaseE. mesenteric phase B. gastric phase
The organ that stores excess glucose and releases it later into the blood is theA. pancreasB. stomachC. liverD. spleenE. small intestine A. pancreas
A hepatic (portal) triad consists of A. right, left, and common hepatic ductsB. common hepatic duct, cystic duct, and bile ductC. the hepatic portal vein and two hepatic ductsD. bile ductule, branch of hepatic artery, and branch of hepatic portal veinE. central vein, hepatic lobule, and hepatic sinusoid D. bile ductule, branch of hepatic artery, and branch of hepatic portal vein
The ? synthesizes bile acids by metabolizing ?A. duodenum; neutral fatsB. ileum; bilirubinC. gallbladder; cholesterolD. pancreas; bile saltsE. liver; cholesterol E. liver; cholesterol
Which of these is NOT a components of pancreatic juice?A. trypsinogenB. chymotrypsinogenC. deoxyribonucleaseD. sodium bicarbonatieE. enterokinase E. enterokinase
Which of these nutrients is absorbed by the lacteals of the small intestine?A. triglyceridesB. amino acidsC. glucoseD. mineralsE. water-soluble vitamins B. amino acids
Which of the following enzymes functions at the lowest pH?A. salivary amylaseB. pancreatic amylaszeC. pepsinD. trypsinE. dipeptidase E. dipeptidase
Which of these is the site of contact digestion?A. gastric pitsB. surface of the gastric mucosaC. intestinal cryptsD. brush border of the small intestineE. cytoplasm in the cells of the small intestine D. brush border of the small intestine
The small intestine has a very large absorptive surface associated with all these structures EXCEPTA. circular foldsB. intestinal lengthC. microvilliD. villiE. rugae E. rugae
The migrating motor complexA. milks the chyme toward the colonB. allows a bolus to move down the esophagusC. churns and mixes residue in the descending colonD. churns and mixes a bolus with gastric juicesE. propels pancreatic juice down the pancreatic duct A. milks the chyme toward the colon
The ? of the small intestine is/are similar to the ? of the stomachA. villi; pyloric glandB. rugae; peyer patchesC. intestinal crypts; gastric pitsD. goblet cells; parietal cellsE. pyloric sphincter; ileocecal valve C. intestinal crypts; gastric pits
Carbohydrate digestion begins in the ?, whereas protein digestion begins in the ?A. liver; small intestineB. small intestine; stomachC. mouth; stomachD. mouth; small intestineE. stomach; small intestine C. mouth; stomach
? break(s) down ?A. lactase; glucoseB. peptidases; proteinsC. lipases; micellesD. lactose; lactaseE. nucleases; nucleotides E. nucleases; nucleotides
Amino acids and monosaccharides are absorbed in the ?, and fatty acids are absorbed in the ?A. small intestine; large intestineB. small intestine; liverC. stomach; small intestineD. stomach; large intestineE. small intestine; small intestine E. small intestine; small intestine
Lecithin prepares fats for hydrolysis by formingA. triglycerides, fatty acids, and glycerolB. low density lipoproteinsC. chylomicronsD. emulsification dropletsE. micelles D. emulsification droplets
Proteins are digested by different enzymes acting in the following sequenceA. pepsin, trypsin, carboxypeptidase, dipeptidaseB. pepsin, trypsin, dipeptidase, carboxypeptidaseC. trpysin, pepsin, carboxypeptidase, dipeptidaseD. trypsin, pepsin, dipeptidase, carboxypeptidaseE. dipeptidase, carboxypeptidase, pepsin, trypsin C. trpysin, pepsin, carboxypeptidase, dipeptidase
? transport lipids to the surface of the intestinal absorptive cells, which process them into?A. fat droplets; micellesB. fat droplets; chylomicronsC.micelles; fat globulesD. micelles; chylomicronsE. fat globules; micelles C.micelles; fat globules
The three most abundant classes of nutrients areA. carbohydrates, proteins, and mineralsB. fats, proteins, and carbohydratesC. proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydratesD. triglycerides, starches, and proteinsE. proteins, fats, and minerals B. fats, proteins, and carbohydrates
The muscle tone of the ? along the colon contracts it lengthwise, causing its walls to bulge and form pouches called ?A. circular folds; cecaB. taeniae coli; haustraC. haustra; taeniae coliD. internal sphincters; omental appendagesE. internal sphincters; ceca C. haustra; taeniae coli
Bacterial flora carry out all of the following EXCEPTA. digest most of the proteins we get in the dietB. synthesize vitamin KC. produce some of the gases found in flatusD. digest celluloseE. form part of the feces D. digest cellulose
Defecation is stimulated by A. the chemical composition of the fecesB. bacterial flora in the fecesC. water content in the fecesD. lipid content in the fecesE. stretching of the rectum E. stretching of the rectum