Microbiology Test 3

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Which of the following are found primarily in the intestines of humans?
A) Gram-negative aerobic rods and cocci
B) Aerobic, helical bacteria
C) Facultatively anaerobic gram-negative rods
D) Gram-positive cocci
E) Endospore-forming rods
Answer: C

  1. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the non-endospore-forming gram-positive rods?
    A) Are aerotolerant
    B) Carry out fermentative metabolism
    C) Donʹt produce endospores
    D) Are nonpathogenic

E) Lack cell walls
Answer: D

  1. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Neisseria?
    A) Requires X and V factors
    B) Cocci
    C) Gram-negative
    D) Oxidase-positive
    E) Some species are human pathogens.
Answer: A

  1. Staphylococcus and Streptococcus can be easily differentiated in a laboratory by which one of the following?
    A) Cell shape
    B) Gram stain reaction
    C) Growth in high salt concentrations
    D) Ability to cause disease
    E) Glucose fermentation
Answer: C

  1. Which of the following genera is an anaerobic gram-negative rod?
    A) Escherichia
    B) Staphylococcus
    C) Bacteroides
    D) Treponema
    E) Neisseria
Answer: C

  1. Which of the following do you expect to be most resistant to high temperatures?
    A) Bacillus subtilis
    B) Eschericia coli
    C) Neisseria gonorrhoeae
    D) Staphylococcus aureus
    E) Streptococcocus pyogenes
Answer: A

  1. Which of the following is NOT an enteric?
    A) Salmonella

B) Shigella
C) Escherichia
D) Enterobacter
E) Campylobacter
Answer: E

  1. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of spirochetes?
    A) Possess an axial filament
    B) Gram-negative
    C) Helical shape
    D) Easily observed with brightfield microscopy
    E) Difficult to culture in vitro
Answer: D

  1. You have isolated a bacterium that grows in a medium containing an organic substrate and nitrate in the absence of oxygen. The nitrate is reduced to nitrogen gas. You can be sure that this bacterium is
    A) Gram-positive.
    B) Using anaerobic respiration.
    C) A chemoautotroph.
    D) A photoautotroph.
    E) A photoheterotroph.
Answer: B

  1. Which of the following lacks a cell wall?
    A) Borrelia
    B) Mycoplasma
    C) Mycobacterium
    D) Clostridium
    E) Nocardia
Answer: B

  1. Which of the following bacteria is gram-negative?
    A) Treponema
    B) Corynebacterium
    C) Bacillus
    D) Staphylococcus
    E) Mycobacterium
Answer: A

  1. Which of the following form conidiospores?
    A) Endospore-forming gram-positive rods and cocci
    B) Actinomycetes and related organisms
    C) Rickettsias
    D) Anaerobic gram-negative cocci
    E) Spiral and curved bacteria
Answer: B

  1. Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
    A) Dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria - produce H2S
    B) Archaea- extremophiles
    C) Chemoautotrophic bacteria - fix atmospheric nitrogen
    D) Actinomycetes - reproduce by fragmentation
    E) Cytophaga - a gliding, nonfruiting bacterium
Answer: C

  1. Rickettsias differ from chlamydias in that rickettsias
    A) Are gram-negative.
    B) Are intracellular parasites.
    C) Require an arthropod for transmission.
    D) Form elementary bodies.
    E) Lack cell walls.
Answer: C

  1. Requirements for X and V factors are used to identify
    A) Staphylococcus.
    B) Escherichia.
    C) Neisseria.
    D) Haemophilus.
    E) Pseudomonas.
Answer: D

  1. You have isolated a bacterium that grows in a medium containing only inorganic nutrients. Ammonia is oxidized to nitrate ion. This bacterium is
    A) Gram-negative.
    B) Using anaerobic respiration.
    C) A chemoautotroph.
    D) A photoautotroph
    E) A photoheterotroph.
Answer: C

  1. Which of the following bacteria is gram-positive?
    A) Pseudomonas

B) Salmonella
C) Streptococcus
D) Bacteroides
E) Rickettsia
Answer: C

  1. Escherichia coli belongs to the
    A) Proteobacteria.
    B) Gram-positive bacteria.
    C) Green sulfur bacteria.
    D) Spirochetes.
    E) Actinomycetes.
Answer: A

  1. Which one of the following bacteria does NOT belong with the others?
    A) Bacillus
    B) Escherichia
    C) Lactobacillus
    D) Staphylococcus
    E) Streptococcus
Answer: B

    1. Which of the following statements about the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever is false?
      A) It is an intracellular parasite.
      B) It is transmitted by ticks.
      C) It is in the genus Rickettsia.
      D) It is gram-negative.
      E) It is found in soil and water.
Answer: E

  1. A primary difference between cyanobacteria and purple and green phototrophic bacteria is
    A) Energy source.
    B) Cell wall type.
    C) Electron donor for CO2 reduction.
    D) Cell type.
    E) Color.
Answer: C

  1. Which one of the following bacteria does NOT belong with the others?
    A) Bordetella

B) Burkholderia
C) Campylobacter
D) Pseudomonas
E) Salmonella
Answer: E

  1. Which of the following bacteria are responsible for more infections and more different kinds of infections?
    A) Streptococcus
    B) Staphylococcus
    C) Salmonella
    D) Pseudomonas
    E) Neisseria
Answer: A

  1. Both Beggiatoa and the purple sulfur bacteria use H2S. These bacteria differ in that Beggiatoa
    A) Uses H2S for an energy source.
    B) Uses H2S for a carbon source.
    C) Uses light energy.
    D) Belongs to the gammaproteobacteria.
    E) Is a heterotroph.
Answer: A

  1. The nonsulfur photosynthetic bacteria use organic compounds as
    A) Carbon sources.
    B) Electron donors to reduce CO2.
    C) Energy sources.
    D) Electron acceptors.
    E) Oxygen sources.
Answer: B

  1. Which of the following is the best reason to classify Streptococcus in the Lactobacillales?
    A) Gram reaction
    B) Morphology
    C) Fermentation of lactose
    D) rRNA sequences
    E) Found in dairy products
Answer: D

  1. Streptomyces differs from Actinomyces because Streptomyces
    A) Makes antibiotics.
    B) Produces conidia.
    C) Forms filaments.
    D) Is aerobic.

E) Is a bacterium.
Answer: D

  1. All of the following bacteria are gram-positive. Which does NOT belong with the others?
    A) Actinomyces
    B) Bacillus
    C) Corynebacterium
    D) Listeria
    E) Mycobacterium
Answer: E

  1. Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, and Serratia are all
    A) Pathogens.
    B) Gram-negative facultatively anaerobic rods.
    C) Gram-positive aerobic cocci.
    D) Fermentative.
    E) Endospore-forming bacteria.
Answer: B

  1. You have isolated a gram-positive rod. What should you do next?
    A) Gram stain
    B) Lactose fermentation
    C) Endospore stain
    D) Flagella stain
    E) Enterotube
Answer: C

  1. Borrelia is classified as a spirochete because it
    A) Is aerobic.
    B) Possesses an axial filament.
    C) Is a rod.
    D) Is a pathogen.
    E) Is transmitted by ticks.
Answer: B

  1. Thiobacillus oxidizes inorganic sulfur compounds and reduces CO2. This bacterium is a
    A) Chemoheterotroph.
    B) Chemoautotroph.
    C) Photoautotroph.
    D) Gammaproteobacteria.
    E) Photoheterotroph.
Answer: B

  1. You have isolated a prokaryotic cell. The first step in identification is a(n)
    A) Gram stain.
    B) Lactose fermentation test.
    C) Endospore stain.
    D) Flagella stain.
    E) DNA fingerprint.
Answer: A

  1. Actinomycetes differ from fungi in that actinomycetes
    A) Are chemoheterotrophs.
    B) Lack a membrane-bounded nucleus.
    C) Require light.
    D) Are decomposers.
    E) Cause disease.
Answer: B

  1. You have isolated an aerobic gram-positive, endospore-forming bacterium that grows well on nutrient agar. To which of the following groups does it most likely belong?
    A) Phototrophic bacteria
    B) Gammaproteobacteria
    C) Deltaproteobacteria
    D) Bacillales
    E) Canʹt tell
Answer: D

  1. Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
    A) Spirochete - axial filament
    B) Aerobic, helical bacteria - gram-negative
    C) Enterics - gram-negative
    D) Mycobacteria - acid-fast
    E) Pseudomonas - gram-positive
Answer: E

  1. Which one of the following does NOT belong with the others?
    A) Coxiella

B) Ehrlichia
C) Rickettsia
D) Staphylococcus
E) Wolbachia
Answer: D

  1. Caulobacter are different from most bacteria in that
    A) They are gram-negative.
    B) They are gram-positive.
    C) They have stalks.
    D) They lack cell walls.
    E) They are motile.
Answer: C

  1. All of the following bacteria are motile; which does (do) NOT have flagella?
    A) Escherichia
    B) Helical bacteria
    C) Pseudomonas
    D) Spirochetes
    E) Salmonella

  1. Answer: D

  1. Which of the following bacteria does NOT belong with the others?
    A) Halobacterium
    B) Halococcus
    C) Methanobacterium
    D) Staphylococcus
    E) Sulfolobus
Answer: D

  1. Mycoplasmas differ from other bacteria in that they
    A) Grow inside host cells.
    B) Lack a cell wall.
    C) Are acid-fast.
    D) Are motile.
    E) Are gram-negative.
Answer: B

  1. Which of the following pairs is NOT correctly matched?
    A) Elementary body- Escherichia
    B) Endospore - Bacillus
    C) Endospore - Clostridium
    D) Heterocyst - cyanobacteria
    E) Myxospore - gliding bacteria
Answer: A

  1. Burkholderia was reclassified from the gammaproteobacteria to the betaproteobacteria because
    A) It grows in disinfectants.
    B) It is a gram-negative rod.
    C) It causes infections in cystic fibrosis patients.
    D) It causes melioidosis.
    E) Its rRNA sequence is similar to that of Neisseria.
Answer: E

  1. The crab industry needs female crabs for growing more crabs. What bacterium might be used to ensure development of female crabs and shrimp?
    A) Acinetobacter
    B) Gemmata
    C) Neisseria
    D) Pelagibacter
    E) Wolbachia
Answer: E

  1. Which of the following statements about fungi is false?
    A) All fungi are unicellular.
    B) All fungi have eukaryotic cells.
    C) Fungi are heterotrophic.
    D) Most fungi are aerobic.
    E) Few fungi are pathogenic to humans.
Answer: A

  1. Which of the following statements about helminths is false?
    A) They are heterotrophic.
    B) They are multicellular animals.
    C) They have eukaryotic cells.
    D) All are parasites.
    E) Some have male and female reproductive organs in one animal.
Answer: D

  1. Which of the following statements about the Oomycote algae is false?
    A) They form hyphae.
    B) They produce zoospores in a sporangium.
    C) They cause plant diseases.
    D) They have chlorophyll.
    E) They reproduce sexually.
Answer: D

  1. Seventeen patients in ten hospitals had cutaneous infections caused by Rhizopus. In all 17 patients, Elastoplast bandages were placed over sterile gauze pads to cover wounds. Fourteen of the patients had surgical wounds, two had venous line insertion sites, and one had a bite wound. Lesions present when the bandages were removed ranged from vesiculopustular eruptions to ulcerations and skin necrosis requiring debridement. Fungi are more likely than bacteria to contaminate bandages because

    1. A) They are aerobic.
      B) They can tolerate low-moisture conditions.
      C) They prefer a neutral environment (pH 7).
      D) They have a fermentative metabolism.
      E) They cannot tolerate high osmotic pressure.
Answer: B

  1. Which of the following statements is false?
    A) A lichen doesnʹt exist if the fungal and algal partners are separated.
    B) Lichens are parasites.
    C) In a lichen, the alga produces carbohydrates.
    D) In a lichen, the fungus provides the holdfast.
    E) Lichens are important soil producers.
Answer: B
Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
A) Plasmogamy - union of two haploid cells
B) Karyogamy - fusion of nucleus
C) Meiosis - cell division resulting in haploid cells D) Anamorph - produces asexual spores
E) Deuteromycota - a phylum of fungi
Answer: E

  1. In mid-December, a woman with insulin-dependent diabetes who had been on prednisone fell and received an abrasion on the dorsal side of her right hand. She was placed on penicillin. By the end of January, the ulcer had not healed, and she was referred to a plastic surgeon. On January 30, a swab of the wound was cultured at 35°C on blood agar. On the same day, a smear was made for Gram staining. The Gram stain showed large (10 μm) cells. Brownish, waxy colonies grew on the blood agar. Slide cultures set up on February 1 and incubated at 25°C showed septate hyphae and single conidia. The most likely cause of the infection is a
    A) Gram-negative bacterium.
    B) Dimorphic fungus.
    C) Parasitic alga.
    D) Yeast.
    E) Protozoan.
Answer: B

  1. Which of the following tends to be more complex in a parasitic helminth than in free-living helminths?
    A) Digestive system
    B) Nervous system
    C) Locomotion
    D) Reproductive system
    E) All of the above are more complex in a parasitic helminth.
Answer: D

  1. Which of the following statements is false?
    A) Fungi produce sexual spores.
    B) Fungi produce asexual spores.
    C) Fungal spores are used in identification of fungi.
    D) Fungal spores are resting spores to protect the fungus from adverse environmental conditions.
    E) Fungal spores are for reproduction.
Answer: D

  1. Which of the following pairs are mismatched?

    1. Arthroconidium - formed by fragmentation

    2. Sporangiospore - formed within hyphae

    3. Conidiospore - formed in a chain

    4. Blastoconidium - formed from a bud

    5. Chlamydoconidium - formed in a sac

    A) 1 and 2
    B) 2 and 3
    C) 2and5
    D) 3 and 4
    E) 4 and 5
Answer: C

  1. Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
    A) Dinoflagellates - paralytic shellfish poisoning
    B) Brown algae - algin
    C) Red algae - agar
    D) Diatoms - petroleum
    E) Green algae - prokaryotic
Answer: E

  1. Helminthic diseases are usually transmitted to humans by
    A) Respiratory route.
    B) Genitourinary route.
    C) Gastrointestinal route.
    D) Vectors.
    E) Aerosols.
Answer: C

  1. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of parasitic platyhelminths?
    A) They are hermaphroditic.
    B) They are dorsoventrally flattened.
    C) They have a complete digestive system.
    D) They can be divided into flukes and tapeworms.
    E) They are multicellular animals.
Answer: C

  1. Cercariae, metacercaria, miracidia, and rediae are stages in the life cycle of
    A) Cestodes.

B) Trematodes.
C) Nematodes.
D) Sporozoans.
E) Sarcodina.
Answer: C

  1. Which stage immediately precedes the adult?
    A) Cercaria
    B) Metacercaria
    C) Miracidium
    D) Redia
    E) Proglottid
Answer: B

  1. The encysted larva of the beef tapeworm is called a
    A) Redia.
    B) Cercaria.
    C) Cysticercus.
    D) Metacercaria.
    E) Proglottid.
Answer: C
61. Which of the following arthropods does NOT transmit diseases by sucking blood from a human host?

  1. A) Lice
    B) Fleas
    C) Houseflies
    D) Mosquitoes
    E) Kissing bugs
Answer: C

  1. Which of the following statements about algae is false?
    A) They use light as their energy source.
    B) They use CO2 as their carbon source.
    C) They produce oxygen from hydrolysis of water.
    D) All are unicellular.
    E) Some are capable of sexual reproduction.
Answer: D

  1. Below are several paired items referring to the heartworm Dirofilaria immitis. Which of the pairs is mismatched?
    A) Dog - definitive host
    B) Dog - sexual reproduction
    C) Mosquito - vector
    D) Mosquito - definitive host
    E) All of the above are correctly matched.
Answer: D

  1. All algae are
    A) Photoautotrophs.
    B) Plants.
    C) Unicellular.
    D) Toxic.
    E) None of the above.
Answer: E

  1. A definitive host harbors which stage of a parasite?
    A) Miracidium
    B) Cyst
    C) Adult
    D) Larva
    E) All of the above
Answer: C

  1. What do tapeworms eat?
    A) Intestinal bacteria
    B) Host tissues
    C) Red blood cells
    D) Intestinal contents
    E) Plant matter
Answer: D

  1. The microspora and archaezoa are unusual eukaryotes because they
    A) Are motile.
    B) Lack mitochondria.
    C) Lack nuclei.
    D) Donʹt produce cysts.
    E) Do produce cysts.
Answer: B

  1. The life cycle of the fish tapeworm is similar to that of the beef tapeworm. Which of the following is the most effective preventive measure?
    A) Salting fish before eating
    B) Refrigerating stored fish
    C) Cooking fish before eating
    D) Wearing gloves while handling fish
    E) Not swimming in fish-infested waters
Answer: C

  1. Which of the following is the most effective control for malaria?
    A) Vaccination
    B) Treating patients
    C) Eliminate Anopheles
    D) Eliminate the intermediate host
    E) None of the above is an effective control.
Answer: A

  1. Multinucleated amoebalike cells that produce funguslike spores.
    A) Ascomycete
    B) Cellular slime mold
    C) Euglenozoa
    D) Tapeworm
    E) Plasmodial slime mold
Answer: E

  1. Amoebalike vegetative structures that produce sporangia.
    A) Ascomycete
    B) Cellular slime mold
    C) Euglenozoa
    D) Tapeworm
    E) Plasmodial slime mold
Answer: B

  1. A multicellular organism; the digestive tract has one opening.
    A) Ascomycete
    B) Cellular slime mold
    C) Euglenozoa
    D) Tapeworm
    E) Plasmodial slime mold
Answer: D

  1. A nucleated, unicellular organism; when you change the incubation temperature, it forms filaments with conidiospores.
    A) Ascomycete
    B) Cellular slime mold
    C) Euglenozoa
    D) Tapeworm
    E) Plasmodial slime mold
Answer: A

  1. An organism that can grow photoautotrophically in the light and chemoheterotrophically in the dark.
    A) Oomycote
    B) Cellular slime mold
    C) Euglena
    D) Phytophthora
    E) Plasmodial slime mold
Answer: C

  1. Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
    A) Tick - Rocky Mountain spotted fever
    B) Tick - Lyme disease
    C) Mosquito - malaria
    D) Mosquito - Pneumocystis
    E) Mosquito - encephalitis
Answer: D

  1. Which of the following groups of algae does NOT produce compounds that are toxic to humans?
    A) Diatoms
    B) Dinoflagellates
    C) Green algae
    D) Red algae
    E) All of the above produce compounds toxic to humans.
Answer: C

  1. The cells of plasmodial slime molds can grow to several centimeters in diameter because
    A) They have organelles.
    B) They distribute nutrients by cytoplasmic streaming.
    C) The large surface can absorb nutrients.
    D) They form spores.
    E) None of the above.
Answer: B

  1. Assume you have isolated a multicellular heterotrophic organism that produces coenocytic hyphae, motile zoospores, and cellulose cell walls. It is most likely a(n)
    A) Ascomycete fungus.
    B) Green alga.
    C) Oomycote alga.
    D) Tapeworm.
    E) Zygomycete fungus.
Answer: C

  1. If a larva of Echinococcus granulosus is found in humans, humans are the
    A) Definitive host.
    B) Infected host.
    C) Intermediate host.
    D) Reservoir.
    E) None of the above.
Answer: C

  1. Ringworm is caused by a(n)
    A) Ascomycete.
    B) Cestode.
    C) Nematode.
    D) Protozoan.
    E) Trematode.
Answer: A

  1. Yeast infections are caused by
    A) Aspergillus.
    B) Candida albicans.
    C) Histoplasma.
    D) Penicillium.
    E) Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Answer: B

  1. In a food chain consisting of the following organisms, which acts as a producer?
    A) Fungi
    B) Lichens
    C) Protozoa
    D) Slime molds
Answer: B

  1. You see acid-fast oocysts in a fecal sample from a patient who has diarrhea. What is the most likely cause?
    A) Cryptosporidium
    B) Diatoms
    C) Entamoeba
    D) Giardia
    E) Taenia
Answer: A