Medical Terminology

Total Flash Cards » 114
 
1. 

Fascia

 

Sheet of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports, and seperates muscles or groups of muscles

 
2. 

Myofascial - My/o/fasci/al


 

means pertaining to muscle tissue and facia

 
3. 

Muscle Fibers

My/o

 

are the long, slender cells that make up muscles

my/o - means muscle

 
4. 

Tendons

ten/o, tend/o, tendin /0

 

Tendons - are narrow band of nonelastic, dense, fibrous connective tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone.

Tendons

 
5. 

Three types of Muscles


 

Skeletal, smooth, myocardial

Skeletal -muscles are attached to bones

Smooth -muscles are located in the walls of internal organs & control the flow of fluids through these structures

Myocardial- forms the muscular walls of the heart

 
6. 

Muscle innervation

 

is the stimulation of a muscle by an impulse transmitted by a motor nerve. when the stimulation stops the muscles stops.

 
7. 

Neuromuscular

 

means pertaining to the relationship between nerve and muscle

 
8. 

Antagonistic Muscle Pairs

 

means working in opposition to each other, when one muscle contracts the other relaxes

Contraction- is tightening of a muscle, it becomes shorter, thinner and enlarged.

Relaxation- occurs when a muscle returns to its original form becomes longer and thinner and is know longer enlarge.

 
9. 

Abduction
ab/duct/ion
abductor

 

movement of the limb away from the midline

ab- / means away
duct / means to lead
- ion / means action

abductor - is a muscle that moves a part aways form the midline

 
10. 

Adduction
ad/duct/ion
adductor

 

movement of limb towards the midline

ad- / means towards
duct / means to lead
- ion / means action

adductor - is a muscle that moves a part towards the midline

 
11. 

Flexion
flex/ion
flexor

 

means decresing the angle between two bones by bending a limb at a joint.

flex / means to bend
-ion / means action

flexor - is a muscle that bends a limb at a joint

 
12. 

Extension
ex/tens/ion
extensor

 

means increasing the angle between two bones or the straightening of a limb

ex-away from
tens-to stretch out
-ion/action

extensor- is a muscle that straightens a limb at a joint

 
13. 

Hyperextension
hyper/ex/tens/ion

 

is the extreme or overextension of a limb or body part beyond its limits.

hyper/ excessive
ex-/ away from
tens-/ to stretch out
-ion/action

 
14. 

Elevation/
levator/

 

is the act of raising or lifting a body part; such as raising the ribs when breathing ..

levator -is a muscle that raises a body part

 
15. 

Depression/
depressor/

 

is the act of lowering a body part, such as lowering the ribs when breathing out

depressor - is a muscle that lowers the body part

 
16. 

Rotation/
axis /

 

is a circular movement around an axis such as the shoulder joint.

axis - is an imaginary line that runs lengthwise through the center of the body

 
17. 

Circumduction /
rotator muscle /
rotator cuff/

 

is the circular movement of a limb at the far end. swinging motion of the far end of the ar.

rotator muscle -turns a body part on its axis.

rotator cuff -is the group of muscles and their tendons that hold the head of the humerus securely in place as it rotates within the shoulder joint.

 
18. 

Dorsiflexion /
Plantar Flexion/
Plantar/

 

Dorsiflexon -is the movement that bends the foot upwards at the ankle

Plantar Flexion- is the movement that bends the foot downwards at the ankle

Plantar- is the foot



 
19. 

Orgin

insertion

 

orgin -is a less moveable attachment located nearest to the midline

insertion -is the more moveable attachment located farthest from the midline

 
20. 

pectoralis major /
lateraltis/
medialis

 

pectoralis major -is a thick, fan-shaped muscle situated on the anterior chest wall.

lateraltis- means towards the side
medialis- means toward the midlin

 
21. 

Oblique
Rectus
sphincter
transverse

 

1.means slanted or at an angle

2.straight alignment with the vertical axis of the body.

3.is a ring-like muscle that tightly constricts the opening of a passageway.

4. means in a crosswise direction.

 
22. 

biceps

bi/ceps

triceps

tri/ceps

 

means two, is formed by two divisons

bi- /means two / -ceps/ mean head

means formed from three division

tri-/ means three / -ceps/ means head

 
23. 

gluteus maximus

 

largest muscle of the buttocks

 
24. 

hamstring group


 

located at the back of the upper leg, consists of three spearate muscles: biceps, femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus

the primary functions of the hamstrings are knee flexion and hip extension

 
25. 

exercise physiologist

 

is a specialist who works under the supervision of a physician to develop and coordinate exercise program

 
26. 

neurologist

 

is a physician who specilizes in treating the causes of paralysis and similar muscular disorders

 
27. 

physiatist

 

is a physician who specializws in physical medicine and rehabilitation with focus on restoring function.

 
28. 

rheumatologist

 

is a physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of arthritis and disorders such osteoporosis.

 
29. 

sports medicine physician

 

specializes in treating sports-related injuries of the bones,joint and muscles.

 
30. 

Fasciitis

 

which is also spelled fascitis, which is an inflimmation of a fascia

fasci /means fascia
-itis / means inflammation

 
31. 

fibromyalgia syndrome

fibr/o/my/algia

 

is a debilitating chronic conditon characterized by fatigueand or specific muscle, joint or bone pain


fibr /o means fibrous connective tissue
my / means muscle
-algia / means pain

 
32. 

tenodynia

ten/o/dynia
or
ten/algia

 

is pain in a tendon ; also known as tenalgia


 
33. 

tendinitis

also known as
tendonitis, tenonitis,tenontitis

 

is an inflammation of tendons caused by excessive or unusual use of the joint

 
34. 

debilitating

 

means a condition causing weakness

 
35. 

Chronic fatigue syndrome

 

is a disorder of unknown cause that affects many body systems.

Abbreviation : CFS

 
36. 

adhesion


 

is a band of fibrous tissue that holds structures together abnormally. adhesions can form in muscles,internal organs as the result of an injury

 
37. 

Atrophy

 

means weaknes or wearing away of body tissues and structures. Atrophy of a muscle can be caused by pathology or by disuse over a long period of time

 
38. 

Myalgia


my /algia

 

is tenderness or pain in the muscle; also known as myodynia

 
39. 

myocele


my/o/cele

 

is the herniation of muscle substance through a tear in the fascia surrounding it


my/o - means muscle
-cele - means hernia

 
40. 

Myolysis


my/o/lysis

 

is the degeneration of muscle tissue


my/o / means muscle
-lysis / means destruction or breaking down in disease

 
41. 

Myorrhexis


my/o/rrhexis

 

is the rupture of tearing of a muscle


my/o / means muscle
-rrhexis / means rupture

 
42. 

Myomalacia


my/o/malacia

 

is abnormal softening of muscle tissue


my/o / means muscle
-malacia / means abnormal softening

 
43. 

Polymyositis



poly/myos/itis

 

is a muscle disease characterized by the simultaneous inflammation and weakening of voluntary muscles in many parts of the body


poly- / means many
myos / means muscle
-itis / means inflammation

 
44. 

Sarcopenia


sarc/o/penia

 

is the loss of muscle mass, strength and function that comes with aging.


sarc/o / means flesh
-penia / means deficiency

 
45. 

Atonic


a/ton/ic

 

means lacking normal muscle tone


a- / means without
ton/ means tone
-ic / means pertaining to

 
46. 

Dystonia


dys/ton/ia

 

is a condition of abnormal muscle tone that causes the impairment of voluntary muscle movement


dys- / means bad
ton/ means tone
-ia/ mean condition

 
47. 

Hypertonia


hyper/ton/ia

 

is a condition of excessive ton of the dkeletal muscles


hyper-/ means excessive
ton/ means tone
-ia/ means condition

 
48. 

Hypotonia


hypo/ton/ia

 

is a condition in which there is diminished tone of the skeletal muscles


hypo / means deficient
ton/ means tone
-ia/ means condition

 
49. 

Myotonia


my/o/ton/ia

 

is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by the slow relaxation of the muscles after a voluntary contraction


my/o / means muscle
ton/ means tone
-ia / means condition

 
50. 

Ataxia


a/tax/ia

 

is the inability to coordinate muscle activity during voluntary movement. these movement are often shaky and unsteady


a- / means without
tax / means coordination
-ia / means condition

 
51. 

Dystaxia


dys/tax/ia

 

also known as partial ataxia ; is a mild form of ataxia ;


dys- / means bad
tax/ means coordination
-ia / means condition

 
52. 

my,myo, muscul

 

Muscle

 
53. 

fasci, fascia

 

sheath; fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports, and separates muscles.

 
54. 

fibr

 

means fiber

 
55. 

kines, kinesi

 

means movement

 
56. 

-plegia

 

paralysis

 
57. 

ton

 

means tone

 
58. 

tax

 

coordination

 
59. 

tri

 

means three

 
60. 

duct

 

means lead

 
61. 

-ion

 

means action

 
62. 

tens

 

means stretch out

 
63. 

flex

 

means bend

 
64. 

ceps

 

means head

 
65. 

bi

 

means two

 
66. 

lysis

 

means breakdown, destroy

 
67. 

poly

 

means many

 
68. 

sarc

 

means flesh

 
69. 

brady

 

slow

 
70. 

-asthenia

 

means weekness

 
71. 

condyl

 

means condyle

 
72. 

-paresis

 

means partial or incomplete paralysis or weekness

 
73. 

hemi

 

means half

 
74. 

quadri

 

means four

 
75. 

electr

 

means electricity

 
76. 

neur

 

means nerve

 
77. 

-dynia

 

means pain

 
78. 

carpi

 

means wrist bone

 
79. 

clon

 

means violent action

 
80. 

contracture

 

is the permanent tightening of fascia, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or skin. the most common causes of contractures are scarring or lack of use due to immobilizaton or inactivity.

 
81. 

Intermittent claudication

 

is pain in the leg muscles that occurs during exercise and is relieved by rest. This condition which is due to poor circulation.

Intermittent - means coming and going
claudication - means limping

 
82. 

spasm

 

is a sudden, violent, involuntary contraction of one or more muscles.

 
83. 

cramp

 

is a localized muscles spasm named for its cause, such as a heat cramp or writer's cramp.

 
84. 

Bradykinesia

brady/kines/ia

 

is extreme slowness in movement
( one of the symptoms of Parkinson's disease)

brady- / means slow
kines / means movement
-ia / means condition

 
85. 

Dyskinesia


dys/kines/ia

 

is the distortion or impairment of voluntary movement such as in a tic or spasm. A tic is a spasmodic muscular contration that often involves parts of the face.


dys-/ means bad
kines / means movement
-ia / means condition

 
86. 

Hyperkinesia


hyper/kines/ia

 

also known as hyperactivity. is abnormal increased muscle function or activity.

hyper- / means excessive
kines/ means movement
-ia / means condition


 
87. 

Hyopkinesia


hypo/kines/ia

 

is abnormally decreased muscle function or activity


hypo- / means deficient
kines / means movement
-ia / means condition

 
88. 

Myclonus


my/clon/us

 

is the sudden, involuntary jerking of a muscle or group of muscles

my / means muscle
clon / means violent action
-us / means is a singular noun ending

 
89. 

Nocturnal myoclonus

 

is jerking of the limbs that can occur normally as a person is falling asleep

Nocturnal means pertaining to night.

 
90. 

Singultus

 

is myoclonus of the diaphragm that causes the characteristic hiccup sound with a spasm.



 
91. 

Myasthenia gravis


my/asthenia

 

is a chronic autoimmune disease that affect the neuromuscular junction and produces serious weakness of voluntary muscles.


my / means muscles
-asthenia / means weakness or lack of strength

 
92. 

sprain
strain
shin splint
hamstring injury
Achilles tendinitis

 

Sprain - is an injury to a joint, such as snkle, knee or wrist
Strain- is an injury to the body of the muscle or to the attachment of a tendon. overuse injuries
Shin splint -is a painful condition caused by the muscle tearing away from the tibia (shin bone) usually caused by repeated stress to the lower leg.
hamstring injury - can be a strain or tear on any of the three hamstring muscles that straighten the hip and bend the knee.
Achilles tendinitis - is a painful inflammation of the Achilles tendon caused by excessive stress being placed on that tendon.

 
93. 

Ganglion Cyst

 

is a harmless fluidfilled swelling that occurs most commonly on the outer surface of the wrist.

 
94. 

Epicondylitis


epi/condyl/itis

 

is inflammation of the tissues surrounding the elbow


epi- / means on
condyl / means condyl
-itis / means inflammation

 
95. 

Plantar fasciitis


heel spur

 

Plantar fasciitis - is an inflammation of fascia on the sole of the foot


is a calcium deposit in the plantar fascia near its attachment to calcaneus (heel)

 
96. 

CTS

 

Carpal tunnel syndrome

when tendons that pass through the carpal tunnel are chronically overused and become inflamed and swollen.

 
97. 

EMG

 

electomyography
is a diagnostic test that measures the electrical activity within muscle fibers in response to nerve stimulation

 
98. 

FMS

 

Fibromyalgia syndrome

is a debilitating chronic condition characterized by fatigue, diffuse and or specific muscle,joint,or bone pain

 
99. 

hemi

 

hemiplegia

is total paralysis affecting only one side of the body / offten associated with a stroke or brain damage

 
100. 

IS

 

impingement syndrome


occurs when inflamed and swollen tendons are caught in the narrow space between the bones within the shoulder.

 
101. 

IC

 

intermittent claudication

is pain in the leg muscle that occurs during exercise and is relieved by rest

 
102. 

MD

 

muscular dystophy

is progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal muscles that control movement

 
103. 

MG

 

myasthenia gravis
is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the neuromuscular junction and produces serious weakness or lack of strength

 
104. 

PM

 

polymyositis

is a muscle disease characterized by the simultaneous inflammation and weakening of voluntary muscles in many parts of the body.

 
105. 

quad

 

quadriplegia, quadriplegic

Paralysis of all four extremities

 
106. 

RSD

 

repetitive stess disorder


is a variety of muscular conditions that result from repeated motions performed in the course of normal work, daily activities.. frequently repeated motions.

 
107. 

CFS

 

Chronic fatigue syndrome

is a disorder of unknown cause that affects many body systems

 
108. 

Myoparesis

my/o/paresis

 

is a wakness or slight mescular paralysis

my/o - means muscle
-paresis / means partial or incomplete paralysis

 
109. 

Hemiplegia



hemi/plegia

 

is slight paralysis or weakness affecting one side of the body


hemi / means half
-plegia / means paralysis

 
110. 

Paraplegia


 

is the paralysis of both legs and the lower part of the body

 
111. 

Quadriplegia


quandr/i/plegia

 

is paralysis of all four extremities


quadr/i means four
-plegia means paralysis

 
112. 

Cardioplegia


cardi/oplegia

 

also known as cardiac arrest is paralysis of the heart


cardi/o means heart
- plegia means paralysis

 
113. 

Occupational therapy

 

Physical therapy - to prevent disability or to restore functioning through the use of excersie, heat, massage.


Myofascial release - is a specialized soft tissue manipulation technique used to ease the pain of condition

Therapeutic ultrasound - utilizes high-frequency sound waves to treat muscle injuries by generating heat deep within muscle tissue.

 
114. 

RICE

 

Rest
Ice
Compression
Elevation