Medical Terminology

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1. Fascia Sheet of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports, and seperates muscles or groups of muscles
2. Myofascial - My/o/fasci/al

means pertaining to muscle tissue and facia
3. Muscle Fibers

are the long, slender cells that make up muscles

my/o - means muscle
4. Tendons

ten/o, tend/o, tendin /0

Tendons - are narrow band of nonelastic, dense, fibrous connective tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone.

5. Three types of Muscles

Skeletal, smooth, myocardial

Skeletal -muscles are attached to bones

Smooth -muscles are located in the walls of internal organs & control the flow of fluids through these structures

Myocardial- forms the muscular walls of the heart

6. Muscle innervation is the stimulation of a muscle by an impulse transmitted by a motor nerve. when the stimulation stops the muscles stops.
7. Neuromuscular means pertaining to the relationship between nerve and muscle
8. Antagonistic Muscle Pairs

means working in opposition to each other, when one muscle contracts the other relaxes

Contraction- is tightening of a muscle, it becomes shorter, thinner and enlarged.

Relaxation- occurs when a muscle returns to its original form becomes longer and thinner and is know longer enlarge.

9. Abduction
movement of the limb away from the midline

ab- / means away
duct / means to lead
- ion / means action

abductor - is a muscle that moves a part aways form the midline
10. Adduction
movement of limb towards the midline

ad- / means towards
duct / means to lead
- ion / means action

adductor - is a muscle that moves a part towards the midline
11. Flexion
means decresing the angle between two bones by bending a limb at a joint.

flex / means to bend
-ion / means action

flexor - is a muscle that bends a limb at a joint
12. Extension
means increasing the angle between two bones or the straightening of a limb

ex-away from
tens-to stretch out

extensor- is a muscle that straightens a limb at a joint
13. Hyperextension
is the extreme or overextension of a limb or body part beyond its limits.

hyper/ excessive
ex-/ away from
tens-/ to stretch out
14. Elevation/
is the act of raising or lifting a body part; such as raising the ribs when breathing ..

levator -is a muscle that raises a body part
15. Depression/
is the act of lowering a body part, such as lowering the ribs when breathing out

depressor - is a muscle that lowers the body part
16. Rotation/
axis /
is a circular movement around an axis such as the shoulder joint.

axis - is an imaginary line that runs lengthwise through the center of the body
17. Circumduction /
rotator muscle /
rotator cuff/
is the circular movement of a limb at the far end. swinging motion of the far end of the ar.

rotator muscle -turns a body part on its axis.

rotator cuff -is the group of muscles and their tendons that hold the head of the humerus securely in place as it rotates within the shoulder joint.
18. Dorsiflexion /
Plantar Flexion/

Dorsiflexon -is the movement that bends the foot upwards at the ankle

Plantar Flexion- is the movement that bends the foot downwards at the ankle

Plantar- is the foot

19. Orgin

orgin -is a less moveable attachment located nearest to the midline

insertion -is the more moveable attachment located farthest from the midline
20. pectoralis major /
pectoralis major -is a thick, fan-shaped muscle situated on the anterior chest wall.

lateraltis- means towards the side
medialis- means toward the midlin
21. Oblique
1.means slanted or at an angle

2.straight alignment with the vertical axis of the body. a ring-like muscle that tightly constricts the opening of a passageway.

4. means in a crosswise direction.

22. biceps



means two, is formed by two divisons

bi- /means two / -ceps/ mean head

means formed from three division

tri-/ means three / -ceps/ means head
23. gluteus maximus largest muscle of the buttocks
24. hamstring group

located at the back of the upper leg, consists of three spearate muscles: biceps, femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus

the primary functions of the hamstrings are knee flexion and hip extension
25. exercise physiologist is a specialist who works under the supervision of a physician to develop and coordinate exercise program
26. neurologist is a physician who specilizes in treating the causes of paralysis and similar muscular disorders
27. physiatist is a physician who specializws in physical medicine and rehabilitation with focus on restoring function.
28. rheumatologist is a physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of arthritis and disorders such osteoporosis.
29. sports medicine physician specializes in treating sports-related injuries of the bones,joint and muscles.
30. Fasciitis which is also spelled fascitis, which is an inflimmation of a fascia

fasci /means fascia
-itis / means inflammation
31. fibromyalgia syndrome

is a debilitating chronic conditon characterized by fatigueand or specific muscle, joint or bone pain

fibr /o means fibrous connective tissue
my / means muscle
-algia / means pain

32. tenodynia

is pain in a tendon ; also known as tenalgia

33. tendinitis

also known as
tendonitis, tenonitis,tenontitis

is an inflammation of tendons caused by excessive or unusual use of the joint
34. debilitating means a condition causing weakness
35. Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disorder of unknown cause that affects many body systems.

Abbreviation : CFS
36. adhesion

is a band of fibrous tissue that holds structures together abnormally. adhesions can form in muscles,internal organs as the result of an injury
37. Atrophy means weaknes or wearing away of body tissues and structures. Atrophy of a muscle can be caused by pathology or by disuse over a long period of time
38. Myalgia

my /algia
is tenderness or pain in the muscle; also known as myodynia
39. myocele

is the herniation of muscle substance through a tear in the fascia surrounding it

my/o - means muscle
-cele - means hernia
40. Myolysis

is the degeneration of muscle tissue

my/o / means muscle
-lysis / means destruction or breaking down in disease

41. Myorrhexis

is the rupture of tearing of a muscle

my/o / means muscle
-rrhexis / means rupture

42. Myomalacia

is abnormal softening of muscle tissue

my/o / means muscle
-malacia / means abnormal softening
43. Polymyositis

is a muscle disease characterized by the simultaneous inflammation and weakening of voluntary muscles in many parts of the body

poly- / means many
myos / means muscle
-itis / means inflammation
44. Sarcopenia

is the loss of muscle mass, strength and function that comes with aging.

sarc/o / means flesh
-penia / means deficiency
45. Atonic

means lacking normal muscle tone

a- / means without
ton/ means tone
-ic / means pertaining to

46. Dystonia

is a condition of abnormal muscle tone that causes the impairment of voluntary muscle movement

dys- / means bad
ton/ means tone
-ia/ mean condition
47. Hypertonia

is a condition of excessive ton of the dkeletal muscles

hyper-/ means excessive
ton/ means tone
-ia/ means condition
48. Hypotonia

is a condition in which there is diminished tone of the skeletal muscles

hypo / means deficient
ton/ means tone
-ia/ means condition

49. Myotonia

is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by the slow relaxation of the muscles after a voluntary contraction

my/o / means muscle
ton/ means tone
-ia / means condition
50. Ataxia

is the inability to coordinate muscle activity during voluntary movement. these movement are often shaky and unsteady

a- / means without
tax / means coordination
-ia / means condition
51. Dystaxia

also known as partial ataxia ; is a mild form of ataxia ;

dys- / means bad
tax/ means coordination
-ia / means condition
52. my,myo, muscul Muscle
53. fasci, fascia sheath; fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports, and separates muscles.
54. fibr means fiber
55. kines, kinesi means movement
56. -plegia paralysis
57. ton means tone
58. tax coordination
59. tri means three
60. duct means lead
61. -ion means action
62. tens means stretch out
63. flex means bend
64. ceps means head
65. bi means two
66. lysis means breakdown, destroy
67. poly means many
68. sarc means flesh
69. brady slow
70. -asthenia means weekness
71. condyl means condyle
72. -paresis means partial or incomplete paralysis or weekness
73. hemi means half
74. quadri means four
75. electr means electricity
76. neur means nerve
77. -dynia means pain
78. carpi means wrist bone
79. clon means violent action
80. contracture is the permanent tightening of fascia, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or skin. the most common causes of contractures are scarring or lack of use due to immobilizaton or inactivity.
81. Intermittent claudication is pain in the leg muscles that occurs during exercise and is relieved by rest. This condition which is due to poor circulation.

Intermittent - means coming and going
claudication - means limping

82. spasm is a sudden, violent, involuntary contraction of one or more muscles.
83. cramp is a localized muscles spasm named for its cause, such as a heat cramp or writer's cramp.
84. Bradykinesia

is extreme slowness in movement
( one of the symptoms of Parkinson's disease)

brady- / means slow
kines / means movement
-ia / means condition
85. Dyskinesia

is the distortion or impairment of voluntary movement such as in a tic or spasm. A tic is a spasmodic muscular contration that often involves parts of the face.

dys-/ means bad
kines / means movement
-ia / means condition
86. Hyperkinesia

also known as hyperactivity. is abnormal increased muscle function or activity.

hyper- / means excessive
kines/ means movement
-ia / means condition

87. Hyopkinesia

is abnormally decreased muscle function or activity

hypo- / means deficient
kines / means movement
-ia / means condition
88. Myclonus

is the sudden, involuntary jerking of a muscle or group of muscles

my / means muscle
clon / means violent action
-us / means is a singular noun ending

89. Nocturnal myoclonus is jerking of the limbs that can occur normally as a person is falling asleep

Nocturnal means pertaining to night.
90. Singultus is myoclonus of the diaphragm that causes the characteristic hiccup sound with a spasm.

91. Myasthenia gravis

is a chronic autoimmune disease that affect the neuromuscular junction and produces serious weakness of voluntary muscles.

my / means muscles
-asthenia / means weakness or lack of strength
92. sprain
shin splint
hamstring injury
Achilles tendinitis
Sprain - is an injury to a joint, such as snkle, knee or wrist
Strain- is an injury to the body of the muscle or to the attachment of a tendon. overuse injuries
Shin splint -is a painful condition caused by the muscle tearing away from the tibia (shin bone) usually caused by repeated stress to the lower leg.
hamstring injury - can be a strain or tear on any of the three hamstring muscles that straighten the hip and bend the knee.
Achilles tendinitis - is a painful inflammation of the Achilles tendon caused by excessive stress being placed on that tendon.
93. Ganglion Cyst is a harmless fluidfilled swelling that occurs most commonly on the outer surface of the wrist.
94. Epicondylitis

is inflammation of the tissues surrounding the elbow

epi- / means on
condyl / means condyl
-itis / means inflammation
95. Plantar fasciitis

heel spur
Plantar fasciitis - is an inflammation of fascia on the sole of the foot

is a calcium deposit in the plantar fascia near its attachment to calcaneus (heel)
96. CTS Carpal tunnel syndrome

when tendons that pass through the carpal tunnel are chronically overused and become inflamed and swollen.
97. EMG electomyography
is a diagnostic test that measures the electrical activity within muscle fibers in response to nerve stimulation
98. FMS Fibromyalgia syndrome

is a debilitating chronic condition characterized by fatigue, diffuse and or specific muscle,joint,or bone pain
99. hemi hemiplegia

is total paralysis affecting only one side of the body / offten associated with a stroke or brain damage
100. IS impingement syndrome

occurs when inflamed and swollen tendons are caught in the narrow space between the bones within the shoulder.
101. IC intermittent claudication

is pain in the leg muscle that occurs during exercise and is relieved by rest
102. MD muscular dystophy

is progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal muscles that control movement
103. MG myasthenia gravis
is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the neuromuscular junction and produces serious weakness or lack of strength
104. PM polymyositis

is a muscle disease characterized by the simultaneous inflammation and weakening of voluntary muscles in many parts of the body.
105. quad quadriplegia, quadriplegic

Paralysis of all four extremities
106. RSD repetitive stess disorder

is a variety of muscular conditions that result from repeated motions performed in the course of normal work, daily activities.. frequently repeated motions.
107. CFS Chronic fatigue syndrome

is a disorder of unknown cause that affects many body systems
108. Myoparesis

is a wakness or slight mescular paralysis

my/o - means muscle
-paresis / means partial or incomplete paralysis

109. Hemiplegia

is slight paralysis or weakness affecting one side of the body

hemi / means half
-plegia / means paralysis
110. Paraplegia

is the paralysis of both legs and the lower part of the body
111. Quadriplegia

is paralysis of all four extremities

quadr/i means four
-plegia means paralysis
112. Cardioplegia

also known as cardiac arrest is paralysis of the heart

cardi/o means heart
- plegia means paralysis
113. Occupational therapy Physical therapy - to prevent disability or to restore functioning through the use of excersie, heat, massage.

Myofascial release - is a specialized soft tissue manipulation technique used to ease the pain of condition

Therapeutic ultrasound - utilizes high-frequency sound waves to treat muscle injuries by generating heat deep within muscle tissue.
114. RICE Rest