Medical Terminology

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1. 
Fascia
 
Sheet of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports, and seperates muscles or groups of muscles
 
2. 
Myofascial - My/o/fasci/al


 
means pertaining to muscle tissue and facia
 
3. 
Muscle Fibers

My/o
 
are the long, slender cells that make up muscles

my/o - means muscle
 
4. 
Tendons

ten/o, tend/o, tendin /0

 
Tendons - are narrow band of nonelastic, dense, fibrous connective tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone.

Tendons
 
5. 
Three types of Muscles


 
Skeletal, smooth, myocardial

Skeletal -muscles are attached to bones

Smooth -muscles are located in the walls of internal organs & control the flow of fluids through these structures

Myocardial- forms the muscular walls of the heart

 
6. 
Muscle innervation
 
is the stimulation of a muscle by an impulse transmitted by a motor nerve. when the stimulation stops the muscles stops.
 
7. 
Neuromuscular
 
means pertaining to the relationship between nerve and muscle
 
8. 
Antagonistic Muscle Pairs

 
means working in opposition to each other, when one muscle contracts the other relaxes

Contraction- is tightening of a muscle, it becomes shorter, thinner and enlarged.

Relaxation- occurs when a muscle returns to its original form becomes longer and thinner and is know longer enlarge.

 
9. 
Abduction
ab/duct/ion
abductor
 
movement of the limb away from the midline

ab- / means away
duct / means to lead
- ion / means action

abductor - is a muscle that moves a part aways form the midline
 
10. 
Adduction
ad/duct/ion
adductor
 
movement of limb towards the midline

ad- / means towards
duct / means to lead
- ion / means action

adductor - is a muscle that moves a part towards the midline
 
11. 
Flexion
flex/ion
flexor
 
means decresing the angle between two bones by bending a limb at a joint.

flex / means to bend
-ion / means action

flexor - is a muscle that bends a limb at a joint
 
12. 
Extension
ex/tens/ion
extensor
 
means increasing the angle between two bones or the straightening of a limb

ex-away from
tens-to stretch out
-ion/action

extensor- is a muscle that straightens a limb at a joint
 
13. 
Hyperextension
hyper/ex/tens/ion
 
is the extreme or overextension of a limb or body part beyond its limits.

hyper/ excessive
ex-/ away from
tens-/ to stretch out
-ion/action
 
14. 
Elevation/
levator/
 
is the act of raising or lifting a body part; such as raising the ribs when breathing ..

levator -is a muscle that raises a body part
 
15. 
Depression/
depressor/
 
is the act of lowering a body part, such as lowering the ribs when breathing out

depressor - is a muscle that lowers the body part
 
16. 
Rotation/
axis /
 
is a circular movement around an axis such as the shoulder joint.

axis - is an imaginary line that runs lengthwise through the center of the body
 
17. 
Circumduction /
rotator muscle /
rotator cuff/
 
is the circular movement of a limb at the far end. swinging motion of the far end of the ar.

rotator muscle -turns a body part on its axis.

rotator cuff -is the group of muscles and their tendons that hold the head of the humerus securely in place as it rotates within the shoulder joint.
 
18. 
Dorsiflexion /
Plantar Flexion/
Plantar/

 
Dorsiflexon -is the movement that bends the foot upwards at the ankle

Plantar Flexion- is the movement that bends the foot downwards at the ankle

Plantar- is the foot



 
19. 
Orgin

insertion
 
orgin -is a less moveable attachment located nearest to the midline

insertion -is the more moveable attachment located farthest from the midline
 
20. 
pectoralis major /
lateraltis/
medialis
 
pectoralis major -is a thick, fan-shaped muscle situated on the anterior chest wall.

lateraltis- means towards the side
medialis- means toward the midlin
 
21. 
Oblique
Rectus
sphincter
transverse
 
1.means slanted or at an angle

2.straight alignment with the vertical axis of the body.

3.is a ring-like muscle that tightly constricts the opening of a passageway.

4. means in a crosswise direction.

 
22. 
biceps

bi/ceps

triceps

tri/ceps
 
means two, is formed by two divisons

bi- /means two / -ceps/ mean head

means formed from three division

tri-/ means three / -ceps/ means head
 
23. 
gluteus maximus
 
largest muscle of the buttocks
 
24. 
hamstring group


 
located at the back of the upper leg, consists of three spearate muscles: biceps, femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus

the primary functions of the hamstrings are knee flexion and hip extension
 
25. 
exercise physiologist
 
is a specialist who works under the supervision of a physician to develop and coordinate exercise program
 
26. 
neurologist
 
is a physician who specilizes in treating the causes of paralysis and similar muscular disorders
 
27. 
physiatist
 
is a physician who specializws in physical medicine and rehabilitation with focus on restoring function.
 
28. 
rheumatologist
 
is a physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of arthritis and disorders such osteoporosis.
 
29. 
sports medicine physician
 
specializes in treating sports-related injuries of the bones,joint and muscles.
 
30. 
Fasciitis
 
which is also spelled fascitis, which is an inflimmation of a fascia

fasci /means fascia
-itis / means inflammation
 
31. 
fibromyalgia syndrome

fibr/o/my/algia
 
is a debilitating chronic conditon characterized by fatigueand or specific muscle, joint or bone pain


fibr /o means fibrous connective tissue
my / means muscle
-algia / means pain

 
32. 
tenodynia

ten/o/dynia
or
ten/algia
 
is pain in a tendon ; also known as tenalgia


 
33. 
tendinitis

also known as
tendonitis, tenonitis,tenontitis

 
is an inflammation of tendons caused by excessive or unusual use of the joint
 
34. 
debilitating
 
means a condition causing weakness
 
35. 
Chronic fatigue syndrome
 
is a disorder of unknown cause that affects many body systems.

Abbreviation : CFS
 
36. 
adhesion


 
is a band of fibrous tissue that holds structures together abnormally. adhesions can form in muscles,internal organs as the result of an injury
 
37. 
Atrophy
 
means weaknes or wearing away of body tissues and structures. Atrophy of a muscle can be caused by pathology or by disuse over a long period of time
 
38. 
Myalgia


my /algia
 
is tenderness or pain in the muscle; also known as myodynia
 
39. 
myocele


my/o/cele
 
is the herniation of muscle substance through a tear in the fascia surrounding it


my/o - means muscle
-cele - means hernia
 
40. 
Myolysis


my/o/lysis
 
is the degeneration of muscle tissue


my/o / means muscle
-lysis / means destruction or breaking down in disease

 
41. 
Myorrhexis


my/o/rrhexis
 
is the rupture of tearing of a muscle


my/o / means muscle
-rrhexis / means rupture

 
42. 
Myomalacia


my/o/malacia
 
is abnormal softening of muscle tissue


my/o / means muscle
-malacia / means abnormal softening
 
43. 
Polymyositis



poly/myos/itis
 
is a muscle disease characterized by the simultaneous inflammation and weakening of voluntary muscles in many parts of the body


poly- / means many
myos / means muscle
-itis / means inflammation
 
44. 
Sarcopenia


sarc/o/penia
 
is the loss of muscle mass, strength and function that comes with aging.


sarc/o / means flesh
-penia / means deficiency
 
45. 
Atonic


a/ton/ic
 
means lacking normal muscle tone


a- / means without
ton/ means tone
-ic / means pertaining to

 
46. 
Dystonia


dys/ton/ia
 
is a condition of abnormal muscle tone that causes the impairment of voluntary muscle movement


dys- / means bad
ton/ means tone
-ia/ mean condition
 
47. 
Hypertonia


hyper/ton/ia
 
is a condition of excessive ton of the dkeletal muscles


hyper-/ means excessive
ton/ means tone
-ia/ means condition
 
48. 
Hypotonia


hypo/ton/ia
 
is a condition in which there is diminished tone of the skeletal muscles


hypo / means deficient
ton/ means tone
-ia/ means condition

 
49. 
Myotonia


my/o/ton/ia
 
is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by the slow relaxation of the muscles after a voluntary contraction


my/o / means muscle
ton/ means tone
-ia / means condition
 
50. 
Ataxia


a/tax/ia
 
is the inability to coordinate muscle activity during voluntary movement. these movement are often shaky and unsteady


a- / means without
tax / means coordination
-ia / means condition
 
51. 
Dystaxia


dys/tax/ia
 
also known as partial ataxia ; is a mild form of ataxia ;


dys- / means bad
tax/ means coordination
-ia / means condition
 
52. 
my,myo, muscul
 
Muscle
 
53. 
fasci, fascia
 
sheath; fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports, and separates muscles.
 
54. 
fibr
 
means fiber
 
55. 
kines, kinesi
 
means movement
 
56. 
-plegia
 
paralysis
 
57. 
ton
 
means tone
 
58. 
tax
 
coordination
 
59. 
tri
 
means three
 
60. 
duct
 
means lead
 
61. 
-ion
 
means action
 
62. 
tens
 
means stretch out
 
63. 
flex
 
means bend
 
64. 
ceps
 
means head
 
65. 
bi
 
means two
 
66. 
lysis
 
means breakdown, destroy
 
67. 
poly
 
means many
 
68. 
sarc
 
means flesh
 
69. 
brady
 
slow
 
70. 
-asthenia
 
means weekness
 
71. 
condyl
 
means condyle
 
72. 
-paresis
 
means partial or incomplete paralysis or weekness
 
73. 
hemi
 
means half
 
74. 
quadri
 
means four
 
75. 
electr
 
means electricity
 
76. 
neur
 
means nerve
 
77. 
-dynia
 
means pain
 
78. 
carpi
 
means wrist bone
 
79. 
clon
 
means violent action
 
80. 
contracture
 
is the permanent tightening of fascia, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or skin. the most common causes of contractures are scarring or lack of use due to immobilizaton or inactivity.
 
81. 
Intermittent claudication
 
is pain in the leg muscles that occurs during exercise and is relieved by rest. This condition which is due to poor circulation.

Intermittent - means coming and going
claudication - means limping

 
82. 
spasm
 
is a sudden, violent, involuntary contraction of one or more muscles.
 
83. 
cramp
 
is a localized muscles spasm named for its cause, such as a heat cramp or writer's cramp.
 
84. 
Bradykinesia

brady/kines/ia
 
is extreme slowness in movement
( one of the symptoms of Parkinson's disease)

brady- / means slow
kines / means movement
-ia / means condition
 
85. 
Dyskinesia


dys/kines/ia
 
is the distortion or impairment of voluntary movement such as in a tic or spasm. A tic is a spasmodic muscular contration that often involves parts of the face.


dys-/ means bad
kines / means movement
-ia / means condition
 
86. 
Hyperkinesia


hyper/kines/ia
 
also known as hyperactivity. is abnormal increased muscle function or activity.

hyper- / means excessive
kines/ means movement
-ia / means condition


 
87. 
Hyopkinesia


hypo/kines/ia
 
is abnormally decreased muscle function or activity


hypo- / means deficient
kines / means movement
-ia / means condition
 
88. 
Myclonus


my/clon/us
 
is the sudden, involuntary jerking of a muscle or group of muscles

my / means muscle
clon / means violent action
-us / means is a singular noun ending

 
89. 
Nocturnal myoclonus
 
is jerking of the limbs that can occur normally as a person is falling asleep

Nocturnal means pertaining to night.
 
90. 
Singultus
 
is myoclonus of the diaphragm that causes the characteristic hiccup sound with a spasm.



 
91. 
Myasthenia gravis


my/asthenia
 
is a chronic autoimmune disease that affect the neuromuscular junction and produces serious weakness of voluntary muscles.


my / means muscles
-asthenia / means weakness or lack of strength
 
92. 
sprain
strain
shin splint
hamstring injury
Achilles tendinitis
 
Sprain - is an injury to a joint, such as snkle, knee or wrist
Strain- is an injury to the body of the muscle or to the attachment of a tendon. overuse injuries
Shin splint -is a painful condition caused by the muscle tearing away from the tibia (shin bone) usually caused by repeated stress to the lower leg.
hamstring injury - can be a strain or tear on any of the three hamstring muscles that straighten the hip and bend the knee.
Achilles tendinitis - is a painful inflammation of the Achilles tendon caused by excessive stress being placed on that tendon.
 
93. 
Ganglion Cyst
 
is a harmless fluidfilled swelling that occurs most commonly on the outer surface of the wrist.
 
94. 
Epicondylitis


epi/condyl/itis
 
is inflammation of the tissues surrounding the elbow


epi- / means on
condyl / means condyl
-itis / means inflammation
 
95. 
Plantar fasciitis


heel spur
 
Plantar fasciitis - is an inflammation of fascia on the sole of the foot


is a calcium deposit in the plantar fascia near its attachment to calcaneus (heel)
 
96. 
CTS
 
Carpal tunnel syndrome

when tendons that pass through the carpal tunnel are chronically overused and become inflamed and swollen.
 
97. 
EMG
 
electomyography
is a diagnostic test that measures the electrical activity within muscle fibers in response to nerve stimulation
 
98. 
FMS
 
Fibromyalgia syndrome

is a debilitating chronic condition characterized by fatigue, diffuse and or specific muscle,joint,or bone pain
 
99. 
hemi
 
hemiplegia

is total paralysis affecting only one side of the body / offten associated with a stroke or brain damage
 
100. 
IS
 
impingement syndrome


occurs when inflamed and swollen tendons are caught in the narrow space between the bones within the shoulder.
 
101. 
IC
 
intermittent claudication

is pain in the leg muscle that occurs during exercise and is relieved by rest
 
102. 
MD
 
muscular dystophy

is progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal muscles that control movement
 
103. 
MG
 
myasthenia gravis
is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the neuromuscular junction and produces serious weakness or lack of strength
 
104. 
PM
 
polymyositis

is a muscle disease characterized by the simultaneous inflammation and weakening of voluntary muscles in many parts of the body.
 
105. 
quad
 
quadriplegia, quadriplegic

Paralysis of all four extremities
 
106. 
RSD
 
repetitive stess disorder


is a variety of muscular conditions that result from repeated motions performed in the course of normal work, daily activities.. frequently repeated motions.
 
107. 
CFS
 
Chronic fatigue syndrome

is a disorder of unknown cause that affects many body systems
 
108. 
Myoparesis

my/o/paresis
 
is a wakness or slight mescular paralysis

my/o - means muscle
-paresis / means partial or incomplete paralysis

 
109. 
Hemiplegia



hemi/plegia
 
is slight paralysis or weakness affecting one side of the body


hemi / means half
-plegia / means paralysis
 
110. 
Paraplegia


 
is the paralysis of both legs and the lower part of the body
 
111. 
Quadriplegia


quandr/i/plegia
 
is paralysis of all four extremities


quadr/i means four
-plegia means paralysis
 
112. 
Cardioplegia


cardi/oplegia
 
also known as cardiac arrest is paralysis of the heart


cardi/o means heart
- plegia means paralysis
 
113. 
Occupational therapy
 
Physical therapy - to prevent disability or to restore functioning through the use of excersie, heat, massage.


Myofascial release - is a specialized soft tissue manipulation technique used to ease the pain of condition

Therapeutic ultrasound - utilizes high-frequency sound waves to treat muscle injuries by generating heat deep within muscle tissue.
 
114. 
RICE
 
Rest
Ice
Compression
Elevation