Lecture 7 (WOC:food)

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1. 
What % salt is the ocean?
 
3.5%
 
2. 
1 mole = ?
 
6 x 10^23 molecules of water
 
3. 
What % salt is the Galapagos water?
 
3.8%
 
4. 
What does an Ionic form refer to?
 
a situation in which an electron has been removed form the outer shell of the atom
 
5. 
What elements form ions when electrons are removed?
 
Calcium (loses 2 electrons, forms CA++)
Magnesium (loses 2 electrons, forms Mg++)
Sodium (loses 1 electron, forms NA+)
 
6. 
What is a counter ion?
 
an ion with an opposite charge (whose element has accumulated electrons, gaining a negative charge)
 
7. 
What are cations?
 
positively charged ions
 
8. 
What are anions?
 
negatively charged ions
 
9. 
How are salts formed?
 
When cations are paired with anions in a charge neutralizing way
 
10. 
CaS04 (calcium sulfate) is known as what?
 
Gypsum
 
11. 
MgSO4 (magnesium sulfate) is known as what?
 
Epson salt
 
12. 
What is calcium carbonate?
 
NaCl (table salt)
 
13. 
What is dolomite formed from?
 
CaCo3 and MgCO3
Found in northern italy and many statues are made out of it
 
14. 
What is vermillion produced from?
 
HsS (red colour used in paintings)
 
15. 
What harmful things may dolomite supplements contain?
 
Arsenic, mercury and aluminum
 
16. 
What do Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine and Iodine have in common?
 
They are in the same column in the peridodic table--they are all negatively charged with a value of -1 when they are in ionic form
 
17. 
True/False: The ion is ALWAYS charged and the element is neutral.
 
True
 
18. 
What is the weight diff between an element and its ion?
 
Much less than a microgram
 
19. 
How is an element defined?
 
By the number of its protons
 
20. 
What happens when sodium is put into water?
 
It burns and/or explodes
 
21. 
What does ionic bonding mean?
 
That the ions involved will either gain or lose electrons, depending on the chemical behavior of the atoms involved
 
22. 
What is KBr?
 
potassium bromide (a crystalline solid with a high melting point)
 
23. 
Hydrocarbon is all tied up with carbons, meaning what?
 
It does not have any loose hydrogens
 
24. 
Why are ionic species likely soluble in water?
 
Because water is relatively polar and can accomodate salts in solution
 
25. 
How many protons and electrons does sodium have?
 
11 of each
 
26. 
What was once used as a poisoning gas and had 17 protons and 17 electrons?
 
Cl2 (chlorine)
 
27. 
What is a stable full outer shell refered to as?
 
full octet
 
28. 
Before bonding, chlorine has how many electrons in its outer shell?
 
7 (one away from completing a "full" shell)
 
29. 
What are the salt flats in Bolivia called?
 
Uyuni salt flats
 
30. 
What lake in Kenya is a salted area that looks nice from an aerial perspective?
 
Magada Lake
 
31. 
How many grams of salt is a small handful?
 
6 grams
 
32. 
What is the reccomended daily intake of salt?
 
1.2 grams/day
 
33. 
1 salt crystal is approximately what?
 
60 ug --micrograms
 
34. 
What is a typical value for blood pressure?
 
120 (systolic) / 80 (diastolic)
 
35. 
What value of blood pressure do most people in the 20s have?
 
110/70
 
36. 
What value is an example of high blood pressure?
 
150/100
 
37. 
What is a typical salt used to reduce intake of NaCl?
 
KCl (potassium)
 
38. 
How molybdenum do we need/day?
 
2mg (2000 micrograms)
 
39. 
Where can we find molybdenum?
 
nuts, canned veggies, breads, cereals, etc.
 
40. 
What is Molybdenum an essential component of?
 
Certain enzymes, including Xanthine enzymes (which remove uric acid from the body, thus preventing gout disease)
 
41. 
How much iron is needed/day?
 
10-20mg
 
42. 
How much iron is found in the body?
 
1-2 grams (mostly in blood)
 
43. 
What is hemochromatosis?
 
a genetic disorder where the body absorbs too much iron and it gets stored in the heart, liver, joints, and pancreas
 
44. 
What is hemoglobin?
 
a large, complicated organic molecule that has an ion atom at its center. ("iron-carrying molecule")--carries oxygen to the body
 
45. 
Iron is best absorbed with what?
 
Vitamin C
 
46. 
What is Geritol?
 
An Iron supplement
 
47. 
What is "Slow FE"?
 
A slow-release iron supplement that provides 260% of the daily requirement
 
48. 
What is porphyria?
 
an inherited condition in which the body produces too much porphyn (can cause reddish skin and excessive hair)
"werewolf" syndrom
 
49. 
Aspergillus niger is a black fungus that causes respitory problems and needs what to grow?
 
Zinc
 
50. 
How much of the body weight does Ionic zinc represent?
 
0.003% (approx. 2 grams) needed for the function of insulin
 
51. 
How many people lack zinc?
 
20%
 
52. 
What is anosmia?
 
condition in which an individual lacks proper sense of smell and taste (zinc is involved)
 
53. 
What is Renaud's disease (circulation disease)
 
Disease where fingers and toes are blue (involved with zinc)
 
54. 
Schizophrenia and prostate glands are involved with levels of what in the body?
 
Zinc
 
55. 
How much zinc do we need/day?
 
50mg
 
56. 
What is the problem with vegetarianism regarding zinc levels?
 
high fiber diet may interfere with zinc levels since fiber sequesters zinc
 
57. 
How many known enzymes is zinc connected to?
 
200
 
58. 
Deficiency in Iodine (I-) causes what?
 
goiters
 
59. 
What is unique about the sublimation of iodine?
 
It sublimes from crystal to purple vapor (solid to gas, skipping the liquid form)
 
60. 
What does the thyroid gland need iodine for?
 
fat metabolism
 
61. 
Who discovered that the thyroid gland needs iodine for fat metabolism?
 
Theodore Kocher
 
62. 
Goiter is a growth of what gland?
 
Thyroid (it is a reversible condition)
 
63. 
T or F: seaweed is full of iodine.
 
True
 
64. 
What % of commercial salts have added iodine in the form of Kl, or potassium iodide?
 
70% (0.01% of Kl is added
 
65. 
How much Iodine is needed/day?
 
150 micrograms
 
66. 
How much of the world population has iodine deficiency?
 
30% (2 billion ppl)
 
67. 
What is the cost of adding iodine to salt?
 
5 cents/person/year
 
68. 
What form of Selenium is the body exposed to?
 
Selenite oxide ion (properties similar to sulfur)
 
69. 
Selenium functions as an antioxidant that works with which vitamin?
 
E
 
70. 
What is a part of Glutathione Peroxidase that protects against oxidative damage?
 
Selenium
 
71. 
How much Selenium is needed/day?
 
50 micrograms. Natural sources include garlic/onion, seaweed, nuts and tuna
 
72. 
How much garlic does China produce year and how much is produced globally?
 
China: 75% of the garlic in world
Globally: 12 million metric tonnes
 
73. 
What is ingested the most in terms of micronutrients?
 
Calcium
 
74. 
What does ionic calcium look like?
 
2+ ion (Ca^2+)
 
75. 
Who determined that the body needs calcium for nerve impulses to function?
 
Dr. Sidney Ringer
 
76. 
Most calcium that is ingested composes 99% of what?
 
our bones and teeth
 
77. 
How much calcium is in bones?
 
1kg
 
78. 
What % of calcium ingested is used for nerve transmission and blood clotting?
 
1%
 
79. 
Recommended calcium intake.
 
Ages 0-10: 800mg/day
10-20: 1200 mg/day
20+: 800mg/day
 
80. 
Low levels of what are linked to hypertension and heart disease?
 
calcium
 
81. 
What % of the population does osteoporosis affect?
 
10% (there are 350 000 hip fractures/year in the US)
 
82. 
What deals with problems of resorption?
 
osteoperosis
 
83. 
What is resorption for 40-50 yr old women/year ?
 
1-5% (of bone mass is lost)
this occurs in men 10-20 years later
 
84. 
At a rate of 5% loss/year, how much of the bone mass is lost in 14 years?
 
50%
 
85. 
10% loss in hip mass relates to what % increased risk in fractures?
 
170%
 
86. 
In a study of 165000 fractures, what % die in three months? One year?
 
3 months -- 17%
One year -- 27%
 
87. 
What are osteoclasts ?
 
cells that remove calcium from the bone and form the body
 
88. 
What are osteoblasts?
 
cells that fix calcium onto bones
 
89. 
What is an inhibitor of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption?
 
fosamax--it inhibits the action of osteoclasts
 
90. 
What are some side effects of fosamax?
 
Gl tract abnormalities, nausea, cramping, gas and obstipation (severe constipation)
 
91. 
What is Zometa?
 
Another reclast product that prevents osteoporosis
 
92. 
What is caltrate?
 
A calcium supplement in the form of calcium carbonate
 
93. 
CaC03 is essentially what?
 
limestone
 
94. 
When in contact with acid, rocks that have CaCO3 will realease what?
 
Carbon dioxide (bubbling)
 
95. 
Whatis the dissolution rate of Os-Cal?
 
100% within 30min, whereas Oyster Shell calcium suplements are 2.3%/30min
 
96. 
Why might calcium supplements increase risk of hip fracture? (study found that it increases it by 60%)
 
Calcium citrate and calcium carbonate interfere with phosphate absorbtion
 
97. 
Food sources of phosphate.
 
Milk, cheese, yogurt, meat, fish, chicken, turkey, coca cola
 
98. 
How much phosphate is needed/day?
 
1000-1500mg (most of out all micronutrients)
 
99. 
How much higher is the bone density of a nondepressed person?
 
20%
 
100. 
What does taking Prilosec, Nexium and Prevacid do at the same time as lowering acid in the stomach?
 
It can interfere qith calcium absorbtion by stopping HCl production in stomach
 
101. 
Ratio between short term and long term low stomach acid's relationship to increase in hip fractures
 
1.44 : 2.65
 
102. 
What is the risk for women taking calcium?
 
Increased change of heart disease (50% more)
 
103. 
How to prevent calcium build-ups in arteries?
 
Take vitamin D with calcium
 
104. 
32 Amino Acid peptide that has a role in calcium and phosphorus metabolism
 
Calcitonin
 
105. 
Bone cells have what kind of receptor?
 
Estrogen receptors (estrogen increases bone mass)
 
106. 
What was the most perscribed drug in the US before it was linked to uterine and breast cancer?
 
Premarin (estrogen)--usually taken with progestin
 
107. 
What is Raloxifine?
 
estrogen mimic with fewer side effects
 
108. 
What is estrogen taken with to reduce uterine cancer?
 
Progestin (prempo)
 
109. 
Postmenopausal women who take estrogen increase chance of getting cancer by?
 
3.5 to 5%
 
110. 
What is the absolute risk of having a heart attack as a woman?
Absolute risk of having uterine cancer?
 
31%
3%
 
111. 
Fluoride Ion (fluoridation) has been used to treat what?
 
osteoporosis
 
112. 
What does fluoride help do?
 
BUILD BONES
It stimulates osteoblast cell formation
 
113. 
What is boron important for?
 
bone formation
Sodium borate (Boron salt) has been showed to do this
 
114. 
What is borax?
 
a commercial cleanser
 
115. 
Where does sodium Borate come from?
 
Mojave Desert in california
 
116. 
What does vitamin D need to maintain calcium levels?
 
500 IU/day and UV-B light
 
117. 
Estrogen supplements after menopause do what?
 
reduce risk of osteoporosis