Lecture 7 (WOC:food)

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What % salt is the ocean? 3.5%
1 mole = ? 6 x 10^23 molecules of water
What % salt is the Galapagos water? 3.8%
What does an Ionic form refer to? a situation in which an electron has been removed form the outer shell of the atom
What elements form ions when electrons are removed? Calcium (loses 2 electrons, forms CA++)
Magnesium (loses 2 electrons, forms Mg++)
Sodium (loses 1 electron, forms NA+)
What is a counter ion? an ion with an opposite charge (whose element has accumulated electrons, gaining a negative charge)
What are cations? positively charged ions
What are anions? negatively charged ions
How are salts formed? When cations are paired with anions in a charge neutralizing way
CaS04 (calcium sulfate) is known as what? Gypsum
MgSO4 (magnesium sulfate) is known as what? Epson salt
What is calcium carbonate? NaCl (table salt)
What is dolomite formed from? CaCo3 and MgCO3
Found in northern italy and many statues are made out of it
What is vermillion produced from? HsS (red colour used in paintings)
What harmful things may dolomite supplements contain? Arsenic, mercury and aluminum
What do Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine and Iodine have in common? They are in the same column in the peridodic table--they are all negatively charged with a value of -1 when they are in ionic form
True/False: The ion is ALWAYS charged and the element is neutral. True
What is the weight diff between an element and its ion? Much less than a microgram
How is an element defined? By the number of its protons
What happens when sodium is put into water?
It burns and/or explodes
What does ionic bonding mean? That the ions involved will either gain or lose electrons, depending on the chemical behavior of the atoms involved
What is KBr? potassium bromide (a crystalline solid with a high melting point)
Hydrocarbon is all tied up with carbons, meaning what? It does not have any loose hydrogens
Why are ionic species likely soluble in water? Because water is relatively polar and can accomodate salts in solution
How many protons and electrons does sodium have? 11 of each
What was once used as a poisoning gas and had 17 protons and 17 electrons? Cl2 (chlorine)
What is a stable full outer shell refered to as? full octet
Before bonding, chlorine has how many electrons in its outer shell? 7 (one away from completing a "full" shell)
What are the salt flats in Bolivia called? Uyuni salt flats
What lake in Kenya is a salted area that looks nice from an aerial perspective? Magada Lake
How many grams of salt is a small handful? 6 grams
What is the reccomended daily intake of salt? 1.2 grams/day
1 salt crystal is approximately what? 60 ug --micrograms
What is a typical value for blood pressure? 120 (systolic) / 80 (diastolic)
What value of blood pressure do most people in the 20s have? 110/70
What value is an example of high blood pressure? 150/100
What is a typical salt used to reduce intake of NaCl? KCl (potassium)
How molybdenum do we need/day? 2mg (2000 micrograms)
Where can we find molybdenum? nuts, canned veggies, breads, cereals, etc.
What is Molybdenum an essential component of? Certain enzymes, including Xanthine enzymes (which remove uric acid from the body, thus preventing gout disease)
How much iron is needed/day? 10-20mg
How much iron is found in the body? 1-2 grams (mostly in blood)
What is hemochromatosis? a genetic disorder where the body absorbs too much iron and it gets stored in the heart, liver, joints, and pancreas
What is hemoglobin? a large, complicated organic molecule that has an ion atom at its center. ("iron-carrying molecule")--carries oxygen to the body
Iron is best absorbed with what? Vitamin C
What is Geritol? An Iron supplement
What is "Slow FE"? A slow-release iron supplement that provides 260% of the daily requirement
What is porphyria? an inherited condition in which the body produces too much porphyn (can cause reddish skin and excessive hair)
"werewolf" syndrom
Aspergillus niger is a black fungus that causes respitory problems and needs what to grow? Zinc
How much of the body weight does Ionic zinc represent? 0.003% (approx. 2 grams) needed for the function of insulin
How many people lack zinc? 20%
What is anosmia? condition in which an individual lacks proper sense of smell and taste (zinc is involved)
What is Renaud's disease (circulation disease) Disease where fingers and toes are blue (involved with zinc)
Schizophrenia and prostate glands are involved with levels of what in the body? Zinc
How much zinc do we need/day? 50mg
What is the problem with vegetarianism regarding zinc levels? high fiber diet may interfere with zinc levels since fiber sequesters zinc
How many known enzymes is zinc connected to? 200
Deficiency in Iodine (I-) causes what? goiters
What is unique about the sublimation of iodine? It sublimes from crystal to purple vapor (solid to gas, skipping the liquid form)
What does the thyroid gland need iodine for? fat metabolism
Who discovered that the thyroid gland needs iodine for fat metabolism? Theodore Kocher
Goiter is a growth of what gland? Thyroid (it is a reversible condition)
T or F: seaweed is full of iodine. True
What % of commercial salts have added iodine in the form of Kl, or potassium iodide? 70% (0.01% of Kl is added
How much Iodine is needed/day? 150 micrograms
How much of the world population has iodine deficiency? 30% (2 billion ppl)
What is the cost of adding iodine to salt? 5 cents/person/year
What form of Selenium is the body exposed to? Selenite oxide ion (properties similar to sulfur)
Selenium functions as an antioxidant that works with which vitamin? E
What is a part of Glutathione Peroxidase that protects against oxidative damage? Selenium
How much Selenium is needed/day? 50 micrograms. Natural sources include garlic/onion, seaweed, nuts and tuna
How much garlic does China produce year and how much is produced globally? China: 75% of the garlic in world
Globally: 12 million metric tonnes
What is ingested the most in terms of micronutrients? Calcium
What does ionic calcium look like?
2+ ion (Ca^2+)
Who determined that the body needs calcium for nerve impulses to function? Dr. Sidney Ringer
Most calcium that is ingested composes 99% of what? our bones and teeth
How much calcium is in bones? 1kg
What % of calcium ingested is used for nerve transmission and blood clotting? 1%
Recommended calcium intake. Ages 0-10: 800mg/day
10-20: 1200 mg/day
20+: 800mg/day
Low levels of what are linked to hypertension and heart disease? calcium
What % of the population does osteoporosis affect? 10% (there are 350 000 hip fractures/year in the US)
What deals with problems of resorption? osteoperosis
What is resorption for 40-50 yr old women/year ? 1-5% (of bone mass is lost)
this occurs in men 10-20 years later
At a rate of 5% loss/year, how much of the bone mass is lost in 14 years? 50%
10% loss in hip mass relates to what % increased risk in fractures? 170%
In a study of 165000 fractures, what % die in three months? One year? 3 months -- 17%
One year -- 27%
What are osteoclasts ? cells that remove calcium from the bone and form the body
What are osteoblasts? cells that fix calcium onto bones
What is an inhibitor of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption? fosamax--it inhibits the action of osteoclasts
What are some side effects of fosamax? Gl tract abnormalities, nausea, cramping, gas and obstipation (severe constipation)
What is Zometa? Another reclast product that prevents osteoporosis
What is caltrate? A calcium supplement in the form of calcium carbonate
CaC03 is essentially what? limestone
When in contact with acid, rocks that have CaCO3 will realease what? Carbon dioxide (bubbling)
Whatis the dissolution rate of Os-Cal? 100% within 30min, whereas Oyster Shell calcium suplements are 2.3%/30min
Why might calcium supplements increase risk of hip fracture? (study found that it increases it by 60%) Calcium citrate and calcium carbonate interfere with phosphate absorbtion
Food sources of phosphate. Milk, cheese, yogurt, meat, fish, chicken, turkey, coca cola
How much phosphate is needed/day? 1000-1500mg (most of out all micronutrients)
How much higher is the bone density of a nondepressed person? 20%
What does taking Prilosec, Nexium and Prevacid do at the same time as lowering acid in the stomach? It can interfere qith calcium absorbtion by stopping HCl production in stomach
Ratio between short term and long term low stomach acid's relationship to increase in hip fractures 1.44 : 2.65
What is the risk for women taking calcium? Increased change of heart disease (50% more)
How to prevent calcium build-ups in arteries? Take vitamin D with calcium
32 Amino Acid peptide that has a role in calcium and phosphorus metabolism Calcitonin
Bone cells have what kind of receptor? Estrogen receptors (estrogen increases bone mass)
What was the most perscribed drug in the US before it was linked to uterine and breast cancer? Premarin (estrogen)--usually taken with progestin
What is Raloxifine? estrogen mimic with fewer side effects
What is estrogen taken with to reduce uterine cancer? Progestin (prempo)
Postmenopausal women who take estrogen increase chance of getting cancer by? 3.5 to 5%
What is the absolute risk of having a heart attack as a woman?
Absolute risk of having uterine cancer?
Fluoride Ion (fluoridation) has been used to treat what? osteoporosis
What does fluoride help do? BUILD BONES
It stimulates osteoblast cell formation
What is boron important for? bone formation
Sodium borate (Boron salt) has been showed to do this
What is borax? a commercial cleanser
Where does sodium Borate come from? Mojave Desert in california
What does vitamin D need to maintain calcium levels? 500 IU/day and UV-B light
Estrogen supplements after menopause do what? reduce risk of osteoporosis