History of Western Art Exam I

Total Flash Cards » 118
 
1. 

Identification

 

Title : Woman of Willendorf
Date : 22,000 - 21,000 BCE
Medium : Limestone
Culture : Paleolithic
Significance : Women were frequent subjects in prehistoric art. Possibly a fertility statue. Or worship of women.

 
2. 

Identification

 

Title : Woman from Brassempouy
Date : ca. 22,000 BCE
Medium : Ivory
Culture : Paleolithic
Significance: Possibly a fertility statue.

 
3. 

Identification

 

Title : Bison Horn
Date : 15,000 - 10,000 BCE
Medium : reindeer antler
Culture: Paleolithic
Significance: A fragmentary spear thrower

 
4. 

Identification

 

Title : Bird Headed Shaman
Date : 15,000 - 12,000 BCE
Medium : Paint Limestone
Culture : Paleolithic
Significance : Earliest Human depicted visually.

 
5. 

Identification

 

Title : Chinese Horse
Date : 15,000 - 12,000 BCE
Medium : Cave Wall
Culture : Paleolithic
Significance : Displays the painters acute power of observation. The act of painting the image might have served some ritual or religious purpose. Sympathetic magic

 
6. 

Identification

 

Title : Plastered Skull
Date : ca. 7000 BCE
Medium : Plaster over human bone
Culture : Neolithic
Significance : Found in Jericho. Heads of the deceased were displayed in the homes. A funerary practice suggesting respect for ancestors and the dead.

 
7. 

Identification

 

Title : Seated Goddess
Date: ca. 6500 - 5500 BCE
Medium :
Culture : Neolithic
Significance :

 
8. 

Identification

 

Title : Female Figure
Date: ca. 6500 - 5500 BCE
Medium : baked clay
Culture : Neolithic
Significance :

 
9. 

Identification

 

Title : Bull Hunt
Date : ca. 6500 - 5500 BCE
Medium : Wall painting
Culture : Neolithic
Significance : transition from animals alone to humans dominating animals (paleolithic to neolithic)

 
10. 

Identification

 

Title : Dancing Hunter
Date : ca. 6500 - 5500 BCE
Medium : Wall painting
Culture : Neolithic
Significance :

 
11. 

Identification

 

Title : Stonehenge
Date : 2750 - 1500 BCE
Medium : Stone Megaliths
Culture : Neolithic
Significance : Possibly a calendar. Represents tremendous manpower, organization, and engineering skill.

 
12. 

Identification

 

Title : Wall Painting Showing Boats
Date : ca. 3500 - 3400 BCE
Medium : Tomb Painting
Culture : Predynastic Egpyt
Significance : Funerary Art

 
13. 

Identification

 

Title : Palette of Narmer
Date : ca. 3150 - 3125 BCE
Medium : Slate
Culture : Early Dynastic Egypt
Significance : Ritual palette used for cosmetics.
Tells the story of the unification of upper and lower Egypt by King Narmer.

 
14. 

Identification

 

Title : Step Pyramid of King Djoser
Date : 2681 - 2662 BCE
Medium : Limestone
Culture : Old Kingdom Egypt
Significance : III Dynasty First known major funerary complex

 
15. 

Identification

 

Title : Great Pyramids of Giza
Date : 2601 - 2515 BCE
Medium : Granite and Limestone, covered in gold
Culture : Old Kingdom Egypt
Significance : Created to commemorate King Sneferu's sons Khufu, Khafra, and Menkaure. IV dynasty Pyramids reach upwards toward the sky easing the transition to the Gods

 
16. 

Identification

 

Title : Seated Khafra
Date : ca. 2570 - 2544
Medium : Diorite
Culture : Old Kingdom Egypt
Significance : Funerary art used to house the life force or Ka of the individual.

 
17. 

Identification

 

Title : Reserve Head
Date : ca. 2550 BCE
Medium : Limestone
Culture : Old Kingdom Egypt
Significance :

 
18. 

Identification

 

Title : Great Sphinx
Date : 2570 -2544 BCE
Medium : Sandstone
Culture : Old Kingdom Egypt
Significance:

 
19. 

Identification

 

Title : Menkaure and his wife
Date : ca. 2515 BCE
Medium : Slate
Culture : Old Kingdom Egypt
Significance : Menkaure and his wife are about the same height and similarity in pose which establishes the appearance of unity.

 
20. 

Identification

 

Title : Menkaure between Hathor and Local Deity
Date : 2470 BCE
Medium :
Culture : Old Kingdom Egypt
Significance :

 
21. 

Identification

 

Title : Hesy-ra
Date : ca. 2650 BCE
Medium : Wood
Culture : Old Kingdom Egypt
Significance : Elite officials were depicted in two kinds of ideal images. The youthful and the mature. This is a depiction of the youthful stage in life.

 
22. 

Identification

 

Title : Prince Ank-haf
Date : ca. 2600 BCE
Medium :
Culture : Old Kingdom Egypt
Significance :

 
23. 

Identification

 

Title : Sheik el Beled
Date : ca. 2500 BCE
Medium : Wood
Culture : Old Kingdom Egypt
Significance : His round figure and old appearance shows his higher more comfortable status in egyptian society. Depiction is more naturalistic.

 
24. 

Identification

 

Title : Prince Rahotep and his wife Nofret
Date : ca. 2160 BCE
Medium : Painted Limestone
Culture : Old Kingdom Egypt
Significance : A more naturalistic appearance.

 
25. 

Identification

 

Title : Ti watching a Hippopotamus Hunt
Date : ca. 2150 -2460 BCE
Medium : Painted Limestone
Culture : Old Kingdom Egypt
Significance : Funerary art depicting a leisurely activity for the deceased to take part in in the afterlife. Boats were the vehicle that carried the Ka through it's eternal journey in the afterlife.

 
26. 

Identification

 

Title : Geese
Date : ca. 2300 BCE
Medium :
Culture : Old Kingdom Egypt
Significance :

 
27. 

Identification

 

Title : Rock Cut Tomb
Date : ca. 2040 - 1674 BCE
Medium : Rock
Culture : Middle Kingdom
Significance : Located in Beni Hasan. These tombs contained false doors, tunnels that changed direction, and blocked passages to deceive and confuse thieves.

 
28. 

Identification

 

Title : Hall of Bulls
Date : 15,000 - 12,000 BCE
Medium : Paint on Limestone
Culture : Paleolithic
Significance : Sympathetic magic-connected spirituality to the animal, reenacting the hunt in the safety of the cave, preparing success for themselves

 
29. 

Paleolithic Era

 

( The Old Stone Age ) Primitive homonid forms existed. Tools were used and temporary structures created. A Hunter Gatherer Nomadic society.

 
30. 

Neolithic Era

 

(The New Stone Age) Move from nomadic to agricultural society.

 
31. 

Megalith

 

A large stone

 
32. 

Menhir

 

A prehistoric monument in the form of a single, large, upright stone

 
33. 

Dolmen

 

Prehistoric tomb made of large upright stones, capped with a horizontal stone and originally buried under an earth mound


 
34. 


 

Title : Altamira Cave Paintings
Date : ca. 12,000 BCE
Medium : paint on limestone
Culture : Paleolithic
Significance : Prehistoric art was first discovered in the Altamira caves.

 
35. 

Identification

 

  • Catal Huyuk
  • Culture : Neolithic
  • no streets or doors
  • openings in roof provided ventilation and access into interiors
  • houses were made of mud brick and timber frames
  • walls and floors plastered and painted
  • houses served as perimeter wall

 
36. 

Identification

 

  • Catal Huyuk\Neolithic
  • world's first LANDSCAPE (picture of natural setting in its own right, without any narrative content)
  • mountain is thought to be HASAN DAG.

 
37. 

Relief

 

A 3 dimensional quality emerging from a flat surface. Comes in low and high depth.

 
38. 

Current authoritative explinations why Paleolithic paintings were created include:

 

Purely aesthetic reasons
Shamanistic rituals
Magical influence on reality
Historical record of the hunt

 
39. 

Modeling

 

Producing a 3 dimensional effect by changes in color, the use of light and shade.

 
40. 

Incising

 

Carving or engraving into a hard material

 
41. 

Trilithon

 

Two upright stones supporting a third horizontal one.

 
42. 

Cromlech

 

A circle of large upright megaliths

 
43. 

Alignment

 

an arrangement in rows

 
44. 

Post-and- lintel

 

Two upright stones supporting a third horizontal stone

 
45. 

Capstone

 

Horizontal stone ontop of a post-and-lintel

 
46. 

Canon

 

A law or rule or standard of art

 
47. 

Palette

 

a low relief late or slab used for crushing makeup

 
48. 

Register

 

Horizontal Rows

 
49. 

Stele

 

Upright stone sometimes decorated. Monumental "pillar" erected to commemorate a historical event

 
50. 

Paleolithic Conventions

 

Emphasis on animals
Female figure
Limited depictions of humans
No permanent structures
Hand prints

 
51. 

Cuneiform

 

Earliest known (to date) writing

 
52. 

Cylinder Seal

 

Means of designating ownership;
practical art form which continues in the Near East for over three thousand years

 
53. 

Lamassu

 

An Ancient Near Eastern Guardian of a palace, oten shown in sculpture as a human-headed bull or lion with wings.

 
54. 

Near East Building Material

 

Mud Brick
Clay was easily found and worked
Hot, dry climate for backing bricks
Stones not always available;trees scarce

 
55. 

Armana Period

 

Softer more naturalistic style in the arts (More Feminine)
Growth in power of the Aten (creator, creation)
Moved Egyptian capital to Armana or Akhenaten

 
56. 

Hypostyle

 

Columned hallway

 
57. 

Sphinx

 

lion's body and head of man

 
58. 

Mastaba

 

Rectangular bench like egyptian tomb. Limestone blocks built over the shaft of a grave. Maintained the integrity of the body to make an easier transition into the afterlife.

 
59. 

Obelisk

 

Pillar topped with a Pyramidion. Pyramid on a stick

 
60. 

Step Pyriamd

 

Burial structure made of several superimposed Mastabas.

 
61. 

Ka

 

Life force that continues past death;
permitted the deceased to eat and drink offerings

 
62. 

Egyptian Art

 

For the most part a stable social and religious culture.
Geography of the region enables preservation of items.
Funerary Art produced to ensure a blissful after life. Paintings and sculptures found in these tombs had an eternal purpose.
An art of permanence created mainly for the tombs of the Elite.
Rigidity
Stressed the importance of the afterlife
Importance conveyed by Size

 
63. 

Egyptian Tombs Function

 

A permanent marker for the living
Indicated the status of the dead
Perpetuated a memory of them
Preservation of the deceased's life force (Ka)

 
64. 

Identification

 

Title : Ziggurat at Ur
Date : ca. 2100 BCE
Medium : Mud Brick
Culture : Sumerian
Significance : Link between heaven and earth. A place where the priest could commune with god. Dedicated to the moon god.

 
65. 

Identification

 

Title : Warka Vase
Date : 3300 -3000 BCE
Medium : Alabaster
Culture : Sumerian
Significance : One of the earliest examples of a narrative. A Key monument of Sumerian culture. Organized in registers depicting vegetation, animals, bearers of of offerings, and an image of these gifts being offered to the goddess Ishtar.

 
66. 

Identification

 

Title : Ram in a Thicket
Date : 2300 - 2340
Medium : Gold Foil, wood, lapis lazuli
Culture : Sumerian
Significance : Funerary context . Sumerian artists great skill in representing nature.

 
67. 

Identification

 

Title : Soundbox of a harp
Date : ca. 2685 BCE
Medium : Shell and bitumen
Culture : Sumerian
Significance : Music was tremendously important in the Sumerian culture. Depicts animals performing human activities.

 
68. 

Identification

 

Title : Figures from Tell Asmar
Date : 2900 - 2600 BCE
Medium : Mostly clay and stone
Culture : Sumerian
Significance : Prayer statues used as substitutions for worshipers. Seeing was a major channel of communication with God. Eyes wide open in admiration to God's awesomeness.

 
69. 

Identification

 

Title : Stele of Naram Sin
Date : ca. 2254 - 2218 BCE
Medium : Limestone
Culture : Akkadian
Significance : A record of Akkadian invasion and the ascent of Naram Sin to a more divine status.

 
70. 

Identification

 

Title : Head of an Akkadian ruler
Date : ca. 2300 - 2100 BCE
Medium : Bronze
Culture : Akkadian
Significance : Found in a trash heap. Transition from Akkadian rule back to Sumerian rule. Shows Akkadian skill at metal work.

 
71. 

Identification

 

Title : Seated Gudea / Standing / Head
Date : ca. 2120 BCE
Medium : Diorite
Culture : Neo-Sumerian
Significance : Depicts the king of Lagash doing the traditional job of a King. Praying and communicating to the Gods. Covered in cuneiform script. (A prayer) A mark of his piety.

 
72. 

Identification

 

Title : Lilith
Date : ca, 2025 - 1763
Medium : Terracotta plaque
Culture : Neo-Sumerian/Babylonian
Significance : Depiction of the goddess of the underworld (death, night, and justice after death) Measuring life & value of an individual.

 
73. 

Identification

 

Title : Stele of Hammurabi
Date : 1792 - 1750 BCE
Medium : Diorite
Culture : Babylonian
Significance : Law codes given to King Hammurabi from the sun god Shamash.

 
74. 

Identification

 

Title : Lion Gate
Date : ca. 1400 BCE
Medium : Mud Brick / Fire Clay
Culture : Hittites
Significance : Shows the Hittites lack of elegance with stone work as opposed to their skill with metal.

 
75. 

Pigment

 

a coloring matter or substance

 
76. 

Prehistoric

 

Before history. Before writing and record keeping.

 
77. 

Henge

 

a prehistoric circular area with standing stone

 
78. 

Rock cut Tomb

 

a burial structure caverns that were tunneled into natural rock.

 
79. 

Lagash

 

A City

 
80. 

Rhyton

 

Elaborate drinking cup

 
81. 

lost-wax casting

 

steps which are usually used in casting small statues in wax. A Method of duplicating a work by pouring a hardening substance such as wax.

 
82. 

Ziggurat

 

Large structure made out of baked clay bricks.Resembles a pyramid but terminates to a flat platform at the top. Served as a temple to communicate to God.

 
83. 

Cone Masaic

 

Repetitive zigzag or lozenge patterns formed by embedding many clay cones

 
84. 

Pectoral

 

protective jewelry that hangs down to the chest/breast area

 
85. 

Pylon

 

A gateway. Monumental entrance to an egyptian temple.

 
86. 

Punt

 

an ancient Egyptian name of an area not absolutely identified .

 
87. 

Amun

 

State God.

 
88. 

Mesopapotamian Art

 

Was Used to effect and reflect political power . To display visual narratives, and to explore story telling through art.

 
89. 

Identification

 

Title : Female Head
Date : 3500 - 3000 BCE
Medium : Limestone
Culture : Sumerian
Significance : A cult statue found in the Eanna Sanctuary of Inanna (Goddess of Love and War)

 
90. 

Identification

 

Title : Ishtar Gate
Date : ca. 575 BCE
Medium : Glazed Brick
Culture : Neo-Babylonian
Significance : The vivid coloristic effect of glazed brick. Named after the goddess of love and war

 
91. 

Identification

 

Title : Nimrud palace of Assurnasirpal
Date: ca 850 BCE
Medium : Architecture
Culture : Assyrian
Significance :

 
92. 

Identification

 

Title : Palace of Darius
Date : 518 - 460 BCE
Medium : Architecture
Culture : Persian
Significance :

 
93. 

Identification

 

Title : Lion Head Rhyton
Date : ca 550 - 450 BCE
Medium : Gold
Culture : Persian
Significance :

 
94. 

Three Statues of Hatshepsut

 

Date : ca 1473-1458 BCE
Culture : New Kingdom
Significance : Female Queen depicted more masculine

 
95. 

Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut

 

Date : 1473 -1458 BCE
Culture : New Kingdom

 
96. 

Identification

 

Title : Face of a Queen
Date : 1352-1336 BCE
Medium : Yellow Jasper
Culture : New Kingdom

 
97. 

Identification

 

Title : Funerary Mask of Tutankhamun
Date : ca. 1327
Medium : Gold inlaid with glass and semiprecious stones
Culture : New Kingdom
Significance : Most of the tomb and its treasures remained intact which is unusual because tombs were robbed frequently.

 
98. 

Identification

 

Title : Stela Depicting the Royal Family
Date : ca. 1352 -1336 BCE
Medium : Painted Limestone
Culture : New Kingdom
Significance : depiction of a loving family.

 
99. 

Identification

 

Title : Head of Queen Tiy
Date : ca. 1352 BCE
Medium : Gold , Clay , boxwood
Culture : New Kingdom

 
100. 

Identification

 

Title : Bust of Queen Nefertiti
Date : ca. 1352 - 1336
Medium : Painted Limestone
Culture : New Kingdom
Significance : Possibly a naturalistic depiction of the Queen but there's another bust of a much older woman beneath it.

 
101. 

Identification

 

Title : Abu Simbel
Date : ca. 1279 - 1213 BCE
Medium : rock
Culture : New Kingdom
Significance : massive rock temples built by Ramses.

 
102. 

Identification

 

Title : Face of a Queen
Date : 1352 - 1336 BCE
Medium : Yellow Jasper
Culture : New Kingdom
Significance : From a statue composed of many different materials.

 
103. 

Identification

 

Title : Colossoal Statue of Akhenaten
Date : ca. 1352 -1336 BCE
Medium : Sandstone
Culture : New Kingdom
Significance : Akhenaten's worship of the Aten god of creation and sun influencing the art work to be more feminized/ naturalistic.

 
104. 

Identification

 

Title : Colossal Statue of Amenhotep III and Queen Tiy
Date : ca. 1390 - 1352 BCE
Culture : New Kingdom

 
105. 

Neolithic Time Period?

 

8000 - 2300 BCE

 
106. 

Paleolithic Time Period?

 

40,000 - 8000 BCE

 
107. 

Predynastic Egypt Time Period?

 

before ca. 3150 BCE

 
108. 

Early Dynastic Egypt Time Period?

 

ca. 3150 -2575 BCE

 
109. 

Old Kingdom Egypt Time Period?

 

ca. 2700 - 2150 BCE

 
110. 

Middle Kingdom Egypt Time Period?

 

ca. 2040 - 1674 BCE

 
111. 

Sumerian Art Time Period

 

ca. 3500 - 2300 BCE

 
112. 

Akkadian Art Time Period?

 

ca. 2300 - 2100 BCE

 
113. 

Neo-Sumerian and Babylonian Art Time Period ?

 

ca. 1792 - 1700 BCE

 
114. 

Hittites Time Period?

 

ca. 1600 -1300 BCE

 
115. 

Assyrian Art

 

ca. 1000 - 615 BCE

 
116. 

Neo-Babylonian Art

 

ca. 612 - 539 BCE

 
117. 

Persian Art

 

ca. 539 -331 BCE

 
118. 

New Kingdom Art

 

ca. 1550 - 1069 BCE