Genetics Final

Total Flash Cards » 249
 
1. 

the stronger allele which is expressed of only on one chromosome

 

dominant

 
2. 

an allele which must be present on both chomosomes to be expressed

 

recessive

 
3. 

visible expression of the alleles

 

phenotype

 
4. 

actual alleles present to form a trait

 

genotype

 
5. 

chromosomes that do not differ betweenn the sexes

 

autosomes

 
6. 

one chromosomes pair, either XX or XY

 

sex chromosomes

 
7. 

a feild in genetics which addressees many issues in applying medical thechnology

 

bioethics

 
8. 

a feild in genetics which considers many genes at a time

 

genomics

 
9. 

a new field that considers the proteins made in a particular cell type

 

proteomics

 
10. 

the use of organisms to produce goods or services

 

biotechnology

 
11. 

the complete set of genetic information characteristic of an organism

 

genome

 
12. 

all the alleles in a population

 

gene pool

 
13. 

Life is organized into how many domains?

 

three, Archea, Bacteria, Eukaryotes.

 
14. 

Human cells are organized into this many categories

 

4; epithelial, muscle, nervous, connective tissues.

 
15. 

A macromolecule that is onvolved in nerve transmission, blood clotting,a dn making enzymes is a what?

 

protein

 
16. 

A macromolecule that is involved in making hormones, storing energy, and insulation is a ...

 

lipid

 
17. 

The pahses of mitosis occur in the following order

 

prophase, metaphase anaphase telophase

 
18. 

a cell will replicate its DNA in the

 

s phase

 
19. 

the function of CAM's involve

 

enabling cells to adhere to others

 
20. 

the number of cell lines that stem cells can develop into is approximately

 

330

 
21. 

stem cells that are taken from the very early embryo are termed

 

totipotent

 
22. 

sperm are produced in the

 

seminiferous tubules

 
23. 

sturctures that secret an alakline mucus that coat the urethra before sperm are relased are

 

bulbourethral glands

 
24. 

a structure that stores and matures sperm is the a

 

epididymis

 
25. 

oocytes are

 

hapolid cells

 
26. 

a type of miscarriage called a "blighted ovum" is cuased by sperm fertilizing

 

a polar body

 
27. 

when an ovary releases an oocyte a woman is in the

 

ovulation phase

 
28. 

six weeks after conception, a human would be termed an

 

embryo

 
29. 

when an embryo dividees after the point at which the two groups of cells can develop as two individuals is

 

conjoined twins

 
30. 

The embryo forms

 

the basic layers, endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm

 
31. 

The idea that an inherited trait is unchangeable and its appearance inevitable is the concept of

 

genetic determinism

 
32. 

a more accepted term for the"cell membrane" is the

 

plasma membrane

 
33. 

the chromosome tips that function like a cellular fuse that burns down as pieces are lost from the very ends are called

 

telomeres

 
34. 

toward the middle of prophase I in emiosis, the homologs exchange parts in a process called

 

crossing over

 
35. 

the third primary germ layer that forms in the middle is the

 

mesoderm

 
36. 

The time when genetic abnormalities, toxic substances, or virusus can alter a specific stucture in an embryo is called its

 

critical period

 
37. 

when blastomeres form a solid ball of sixteen or more cells the embryo is called a

 

morula

 
38. 

Microtubules, microfilaments, and interemediate filaments are three major types of elements of the

 

cytoskeleton

 
39. 

Organisms in the Archae and Bacteria consists of

 

prokaryotic cells

 
40. 

the notochord is a structure that forms the basic framework of the

 

nervous system

 
41. 

single base sites that differ among individuals

 

single nuecleotide polymorphisms SNPs

 
42. 

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

 

manufactures or synthesizes lipids in the cell

 
43. 

rough endoplasmic reticulum

 

manufactures proteins; have ribosomes on them m

 
44. 

mitochondria

 

break down nuterients taken in by the cell to form Adnosine triphosphate or ATP

 
45. 

Lysosomes

 

float around the ell and get rid of toxic waste in the cell

 
46. 

programmed cell death

 

apoptosis

 
47. 

finger-like projections that extend from the area of the embryonic disc close to the uturine wall

 

chorionic villi

 
48. 

lins woman and fetus for the rest of the pregnancy providing nutrients and oxygen to the fetus

 

placenta

 
49. 

forms around the blood vessels and attaches to the center of the placenta

 

umbilico cord

 
50. 

supporting stuctures that manufacture blood cells during pregnancy

 

yolk sac

 
51. 

units of heredity

 

genes

 
52. 

DNA

 

deoxyribonucleic acid

 
53. 

changing in DNA sequencing that distinuishes alleles

 

mutation

 
54. 

DNA wrapped around proteins; humans have 23 pairs of these, 46 totale

 

chromosomes

 
55. 

karyotype

 

pictures of all 23 chromosomes

 
56. 

traits an illnesses determined by single genes

 

mendelian traits

 
57. 

dertimed by one or more gene and the enviornmnet

 

multifactorial

 
58. 

comparing DNA sequences to rule out identity, relationships, and ancestry

 

DNA profiling

 
59. 

where sugars and synthesized and linked, or they attach to proteins, and proteins finish folding where?

 

Golgi Apparatus

 
60. 

breaks down lipids and rare biochemicals; synthesizes bile acids

 

peroxisome

 
61. 

communication from outside the cell to inside the cell

 

signal transduction

 
62. 

proteins that enable a cell to sick to other cells

 

CAMS

 
63. 

shapes cells

 

cytoskeletion

 
64. 

three phases of "interphase

 

G1 S G2

 
65. 

phases of mitosis

 

prophase metaphase anaphase telophase

 
66. 

what does cytokinesis do?

 

separates the cytoplasm

 
67. 

how do cells know how many times to divide?

 

telomeres

 
68. 

taking nucleus of a healthy adult cell and putting it into an egg of another cell?

 

somatic cell nuclear transfer

 
69. 

defect in which cell organelle would most likely cause fatigue

 

mitochondria

 
70. 

another name for sex cells

 

gametes

 
71. 

another term for reproductive organs

 

gonads

 
72. 

main mail reproductive organs

 

testes

 
73. 

sperm develop in the

 

seminiferious tubules

 
74. 

a zygote divides by mitosis, betginning a period of frequent cell division called

 

cleavage

 
75. 

when the blastomeres form a colid ball of sixteen or more cells

 

morula

 
76. 

the ball of cells holoows out and its center fills with fluid creating a

 

blastocyst

 
77. 

anoher term for "fraternal" twins

 

dizygotic

 
78. 

chemicals or other agents that cuase birth defects are called

 

tetratogens

 
79. 

long tube in the male reproductive structure which joins to the urethra

 

vas deferens

 
80. 

secretes flud that activates sperm to swim

 

prostate

 
81. 

prenatal human considered a _____ for the first eight weeks

 

embryo

 
82. 

Meiosis occurs in germline cells

 

true

 
83. 

crossing over occurs in prophase of meiosis 1

 

true

 
84. 

a chaisma is anothe rname for an allele

 

false

 
85. 

meiosis 2 in the ovum is complete after....

 

fertilization

 
86. 

the skin eyelense and nervous system are form from the endoderm

 

false

 
87. 

Armadillos always give birth to identical quadruplets. are the offspring clones?

 

yes, natural clones

 
88. 

mendel followed the inheritance of triat throug several generations in

 

pea plants

 
89. 

mendel called physical units responsible for the inheritance of traits "characters" the basis for his first law is that characters

 

separate from each other during meiosis

 
90. 

mendels characters are

 

genes

 
91. 

a person who has two identical elleles for a particular gene is __ for that gene

 

homozygoues

 
92. 

alleles are

 

alternate forms of a single gene

 
93. 

the genotype of a particular trait refers to

 

the combination of alleles of a gene

 
94. 

The second generation resulting from a typical genetic cross is

 

F1

 
95. 

In a family that starts with you and your spouse, your grandchildren qould be considered the

 

f2

 
96. 

monohybrid cross

 

Bb xBb

 
97. 

An autosomal dominant trait

 

can affect either sex

 
98. 

a __ cross yeilds a genotypic ratio of 1:2:1 and a phenotypic ratio of 3:1

 

monohybrid

 
99. 

the pheotypic ratio expected from a dihybrid cross is

 

9:3:3:1

 
100. 

a man and his wife are bothe carries or the recessive allele cauing tay-sachs disease. If they have a normal child, what is the probability that the child is a carrier not a sufferer of Tay sachs

 

2/3

 
101. 

No matter how many children carriers of an autosomal recessive disorder have, the chances that their child will get the disorder is

 

1/4

 
102. 

in a human pedigree that traces the inheritance of sickle cell diease, a half- filled square represents

 

heterozygous female

 
103. 

Mendel's laws derive from

 

meiosis

 
104. 

In a pedigree, autosomal receissive traits tend to

 

skip generations

 
105. 

Some combinations of alleles cause problems so severe that the fetus ceases to develop. Such lethal allele combinations appear to alter Mentalian ratios because

 

homozygotes do not appear as progeny class

 
106. 

Allele T (Long tongue) exhibits incomplete dominance over the recessive allele t (short) tongue.A herterozygote for the tongue gene would have

 

a tongue of intermediate length

 
107. 

Different alleles that are bothe expressed in a heterozygote are c

 

codominant

 
108. 

Can a woman with blood type A have a child with blood type O with a man qho is AB

 

yes because of epistasis between the I and H genees

 
109. 

Some poeple with polydactyly have more than 5 fingers, while others do not. This is an example of a phenotype that is e

 

incompletely penetrant

 
110. 

A family has an autosomal dominant condition where the second toe is attached by webbing to the third tow and is linger than the big toe. Only some familyi memberswho inherit the mutant gen have the odd toe, and the extend of webbing, variies. This pheotype is

 

incompletely penetrant and variable expressed.

 
111. 

a mendelian disorder that has many assoicaited symptoms is

 

pleiotropic

 
112. 

A trait caused by an enviornmental invluence that appears to be inherites is

 

a phenocopy

 
113. 

In a heterozygote for two linked genes, when both dominant alleles are on one chromosome and both recessive alleles are on the other, the gens are in

 

cis

 
114. 

A gene may have many alleles but a person only has tow alleles because

 

a gene can be altered in many ways, but a person has only two ccopies of any gene

 
115. 

The alleles that control wchich blood grop antigens appear on the surfaces of red blood cells are

 

codominant

 
116. 

A man with a recessive deafness allele on chromosome 17 marries a woman who also has a recessive deafness allele, but on chromosome 3. The probabiility that their children will be deaf is closest to

 

0%

 
117. 

Mitochondiral DNA differs from nuclear DNA in that it

 

lacks repair mechanisms, introns, and doees not cross over.

 
118. 

Name a disease caused by a mutation in mitochondiral DNA

 

Leber's hereditart optic neurophathy.

 
119. 

The mode of transmission of all mitochondrial traits is unusual in that it pases fro

 

mothers to all children

 
120. 

x-linked genes have different patterns of exxpression in females and males because

 

there is no second copy of these genes

 
121. 

Linkage maps of the Y chromosome have been difficult to construct because

 

the Y chromosome has no homolog with which to cross over.

 
122. 

in males, genes on the X chromosome are

 

expressed

 
123. 

in humans, a male inherits on

 

one X from his mother and his father's Y

 
124. 

If a woman has a brother who is color blind she has a ___ chance of being a carrier

 

50%

 
125. 

X-linked alleles pass from

 

mothers to sons and daughters

 
126. 

human males are

 

hemizygous

 
127. 

females are the

 

homogametic sex

 
128. 

males and females are genetically equavalet

 

because an X chromosome is in activated in female cells

 
129. 

A gene that determines the heaviness of a man's beard is

 

sex-linked

 
130. 

An allele that is dominant in one sex but recessive in the other is

 

Sex-influenced

 
131. 

A gene on the Y crhomosome that determines maleness is called

 

SRY

 
132. 

in genomic imprinting, the expression of a genetic disorder depends on which

 

parent transmits the diesase causing allele

 
133. 

Disorders that are seen in men who have grandsons through their daughters who also express the disorder (the grandson) have an

 

X linked recessive disorder

 
134. 

Prader-willi and Angelman syndromes ar related to one another as a result of

 

genomic imporint

 
135. 

causes death before the individual can reporduce

 

lethal alleles

 
136. 

because of mutation, these can exist in more than two forms and are called (Cystic fibrosis)

 

multiple alleles

 
137. 

the heterozygous phenotype is distinct from either homzygous phenotype ; may be an intermediate phenotype vs. the homozygous dominant (ususally completely healthy on a molecular and whole body level) or homozygous recessessive (unhealthy on whole body and molecular level)

 

incomplete dominance

 
138. 

both alleles are expressed in heterozygotes; blood type

 

codominance

 
139. 

one gene affects the epression of a second gene ; H protein on ABO blood type. Refers to ainteraction between different genes, nnot between the alleles of the same gene.

 

epistaiss

 
140. 

all or none expression of a genotype; the phenotype is not always observed among individuals carryingt the genotype, expresed or not <--- incomplete

 

penetrence

 
141. 

severity or extent; variable; phenotype that varies in intensity

 

expressivilty

 
142. 

one gene has many symptoms

 

pleiotropy

 
143. 

different gense can produce identical phenotypes

 

genetic heterogeneity

 
144. 

what do 13 of the 37 mitochondrial genes code for?

 

proteins that function in cellular respiration

 
145. 

DNA sequences have counterparts on the X chromsome and can cross over with them

 

psuedoautosomal regions

 
146. 

controls the expression of other genes

 

transcription factors

 
147. 

human males are this for X linked traits because they only have ones set of X linked genes

 

hemizygous

 
148. 

affects a structure or function of the body that is present in only males or only females

 

sex-limited traits

 
149. 

an allele is dominant in one sex both recessive in the other.

 

se-influenced

 
150. 

balences out inequality in the expression of genes on the X chromosome

 

X inactivation

 
151. 

friedick griffith discovered the process of

 

transformation

 
152. 

the cientist who confirmed that DNA was the gentic mateial through experiments with radioactively labeld viruses and bacteria were

 

Hershey and Chase

 
153. 

Erwin Chargaff showed that DNA contains

 

equal parts of of adenine and thymine

 
154. 

the sides of the DNA ladder consists of

 

sugars and phosphates

 
155. 

the ters 5 prime and three prime refer to

 

numbered carbons on the sugars

 
156. 

the nitrogen bases in DNA are held together

 

by hydrgen bonds

 
157. 

which of the following is not part of the substance "chromatin"

 

ligase

 
158. 

An enzyme that can unwind DNA and can repair errors in the replicated DNA is called

 

DNA polymerase

 
159. 

the major replication enzyme that has the job to add bases to an existing strand is

 

RNA polymerase

 
160. 

The enzyme that seals the sugar-phosphate backbone of the pieces formed is

 

ligase

 
161. 

Three mRNA bases in a row form a genic fcorde word calle

 

a codon

 
162. 

A special sequence that signals the start of a gene is

 

a promoter

 
163. 

the parts of mRNA that are translated are

 

exons

 
164. 

Central dogma of biology

 

DNA to RNA to protein

 
165. 

Molecule that carries amino acids to the ribsomes where they are joined to rom a polypeptide

 

tRNA

 
166. 

After transcription and before translation, eikaryotic mRNA is modified by adding a

 

 

cap of modified nucleotides and a poly-A tail

 
167. 

The linear order of aminoacids in a polypeptide is the ___ structure of a protein

 

Primary

 
168. 

Spongiform encephalopathies, such as mad cow disease, are caused by

 

Misfolded proteins

 
169. 

Polymerase Chain reaction is used to

 

Create millions of copies of a piece of DNA

 
170. 

Nucleotides consists of

 

Deoxyribose, phosphate group and a nitrogenous base

 
171. 

Pyrimidines are

 

Guanine and cytosine

 
172. 

DNA’s orientation. 5’ to 3’; forms the double helix

 

Antiparallelism

 
173. 

Segments of DNA that have been sealed off by ligase

 

Okazaki fragments

 
174. 

Speeds up the hydrolysis of single nucleotides from the end of a DNA or RNA strand

 

Exonuclease

 
175. 

Place in which DNA is opened and divided into the template and coding side


 

Replication fork

 
176. 

4 SNRPs together; take out introns to make mature RNA

 

Spliceosome

 
177. 

One side of the parent DNA is present in the first generation offspring. They are exact copies, but the original DNA is replicated to 2 offspring in generation 2

 

Semiconservative

 
178. 

3 types of RNA

 

Transfer Messenger ribosomal

 
179. 

The conformation of a protein refers to its number of peptide bonds

 

False

 
180. 

The site on the ribosome which holds the next amino acid to be added to the chain is the “a site”

 

True

 
181. 

A protein with 2 ubiquitin tags may straighten itself out and refold correctly

 

False

 
182. 

A TATA region is surrounded on both sides by repeating guanines (GGGGG)

 

False

 
183. 

Proteins consisting of more than one polypeptide form a tertiary structure

 

False

 
184. 

Replication proceeds in a 5’ to 3’ direction

 

True

 
185. 

3mRNA bases in a row

 

Codon

 
186. 

3 tRNA bases in a row

 

Anticodon

 
187. 

75-80 nucleotides in a loop

 

Shape of tRNA

 
188. 

Base sequence TATA surrounded by long stretches of G and T

 

TATA box

 
189. 

Small proteins to form smaller nuclear ribonucleoproteins

 

Snurps

 
190. 

In humans the most frequently aneuploid is

 

Trisomy 21

 
191. 

A chromosome that the centromere divides into two arms of about equal length is

 

metacentric

 
192. 

A chromosome that results when the centromere splits in the wrong plane during meiosis, forming identical arms, is

 

Isochromosome

 
193. 

Uniparental disomy results when a child inherits

 

Two alleles from one parent

 
194. 

A cell that has three copies of every chromosome is

 

Triploid

 
195. 

Polyploidy can result when

 

Two sperm fertilize an egg

 
196. 

Fetal karyotypes can reveal which of the following

 

Gender

 
197. 

Maps that show chromosome size, bands and individual genes are called

 

Ideograms

 
198. 

This type of cell could not be used for karyotyping

 

Red blood cell

 
199. 

An extra set of chromosomes constitutes

 

Polyploidy

 
200. 

In cytogenetic studies, chromosomes are usually examined during mitotic

 

Metaphase

 
201. 

Males born with an extra y chromosome

 

May be tall but are otherwise normal

 
202. 

A chromosomal inversion that does not include the centromere is

 

Paracentric

 
203. 

Only nine types of aneuploids are known in newborns because

 

Most types of aneuploids are lethal early in development

 
204. 

Spindle fibers (microtubules) attach to a chromosome’s ____ during mitosis

 

Centromere

 
205. 

A child with cat’s cry syndrome has

 

A missing part of chromosome 5

 
206. 

People with Turner syndrome have which chromosome constitution

 

X0

 
207. 

Chromosome _ is the largest

 

1

 
208. 

Chromosome 21 is the

 

Smallest

 
209. 

Meiotic error that results in an aneuploids cell is

 

Nondisjunction

 
210. 

Heterochromatic regions at the ends of chromosomes are

 

Telomeres

 
211. 

People with Kleinfelter syndrome have which chromosome constitution

 

XXY

 
212. 

CVS reveals a fetus has the karyotypes 45 X what is the diagnosis

 

Turner Syndrome

 
213. 

Cells that have an extra 21st chromosome are

 

Trisomic

 
214. 

Edward syndrome has the karyotpe 47 XX + __

 

18

 
215. 

Anueploidy may occur in some cells of an individual if nondisjunction happens in

 

A skin cell in an adult

 
216. 

Part of the chromosome where spindle fibers attach

 

Kinetochore

 
217. 

The light parts of the chromosomes that encode for RNA production and proteins

 

Euchromatin

 
218. 

When the centromeres of a chromosome are at the top of the chromosome, causing two long arms in a chromosome

 

Acrocentric

 
219. 

DNA is flagged on chromosomes w/ specific base pairs and are highlighted

 

FISHing

 
220. 

In the procedure “chorionic villus sampling”

 

A karyotpe is prepared directly from collected fetal tissue cells

 
221. 

The satellite regions that distinguish chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22 are

 

Repeated genes that encode rRna and protein

 
222. 

Karyotype 47, XYY is

 

Jacob’s syndrome

 
223. 

Abnormal chromosomes account for 50%

 

Of spontaneous abortions

 
224. 

A region of a chromosome where genes are repeated is a

 

Duplication

 
225. 

Mutation large enough to see with a light microscope is a

 

Chromosomal aberration

 
226. 

Links chromosome variations to specific traits

 

Cytogenetics

 
227. 

Repetitive DNA sequences

 

Heterochromatin

 
228. 

Protein encoding sequences

 

Euchromatin

 
229. 

Labeled piece of DNA that binds to its counterpart sequence on a chromosome

 

DNA probe

 
230. 

Graphical representation of a karyotype

 

Ideogram

 
231. 

Any group of members of the same species in a given geographical area is a

 

Population

 
232. 

Gene flow is the

 

Movement of alleles between populations

 
233. 

The formation of a new species is the result of

 

Macroevolution

 
234. 

In human populations, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is achieved

 

Infrequently, and in large communities with random mating

 
235. 

In the Hardy-Weinberg Equation, 2pq refers to the

 

Proportion of heterozygotes in a population

 
236. 

In a population in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, frequency of a dominant allele is

 

P

 
237. 

In a population in HWE the frequency of a recessive allele will

 

Remain the same over time

 
238. 

Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is achieved in a population where

 

Mating is random

 
239. 

Which group is used to calculate the frequency of an allele in a population?

 

Homozygous recessives

 
240. 

This cannot alter a gene’s frequency in a population

 

Random mating

 
241. 

The probes used in DNA fingerprinting recognize specific region that

 

Vary greatly among individuals

 
242. 

A founder effect within a founder effect occurred with the ___ population of _____

 

French Canadian; Quebec

 
243. 

The frequency of the allele that causes sickle cell disease is higher in some populations than others because

 

The incidence of malaria differs in different parts of the world

 
244. 

In human populations, inbreeding results in

 

Fewer heterozygotes and more homozygotes

 
245. 

The collection of deleterious alleles in a population is called the

 

Genetic load

 
246. 

Resistance of sickle cell disease carriers to malaria illustrates

 

Balanced polymorphism

 
247. 

These can maintain the frequency of deleterious alleles in a population

 

Mutations

 
248. 

Geographical barriers that influence gene frequencies are called

 

Clines

 
249. 

Consanguineous marriages occur between men and women who are

 

Blood relatives