Gender and Development

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Social Roles Our rules in our society
Gender Stereotypes beliefs about how males and females differ in personality traits, interests, and behaviors
Gender Roles a type of social role
Why do we, as society, have gender stereotypes? This exist because it eliminates all the unwanted information
Instrumental Trait
-Traits associated wtih males.
-They describe individuals who act on the world and influence it.
Ex: agressive, providers, protectors
Expressive Traits
-Traits associate with females.
-They describe emotional functioning and individuals who value interpersonal relationships.
Ex: emotional, caring, nurturing, care takers, maintain harmony
When do children understand gender stereotypes? Children understand gender stereotypes by the time they enter kindergarten.
How does our knowledge of gender stereotypes/roles develop?
Their understanding grows throughout the elementary-school years.
By the time they enter middle school, their ideas of gender stereotypes are virtually as formed as those of adults.
-They begin to understand that gender stereotypes do not always apply.
Consider a 4-year old and an 8-year old--how wold their knowledge of stereotype differ?
4 year olds:
-Hypothetical boys would like masculine toys
-Hypothetical girls would like feminine toys
8 year olds:
-Hypothetical boys whose interests were not stereotypic would be more interested in feminine toys
-Hypothetical girls whose interests were not stereotypic would be more intersted in masculine toys
Older children are more willing than younger children to ignore gender stereotypes.
Males and Females differences in Physical Development
As infants, boys are more active thatn girls.
-This difference increases during childhood.
-Girls tend to be healthier than boys
Males and Females differences in Intellectual Ability
-Females tend to have greater verbal ability than males.
-Males tend to have greater spatial ability than females
-Intially girls excel in math computation, but later boys excel in math problem solving.
Males and Females difference in personality and social behaviors
-Boys are more physically aggressive than girls.
-Boys and men are more aggressive in virtually all cultures and in nonhuman species.
-Females are more easily influenced by others--more persuadable
-Young girls are more likely to comply and seen an adult's request and help.
Motor skills and physical aggression are the largest differences.
Rapport Talk
The language of conversation and a way fo establishing connections and negotiating relationships.
(builds relationships, intimacy, exchange info, more concerned of being liked, 2way communication)
Report Talk
Talk that contreys inforamtion such as public speaking.
(not emotional driven, 1 person is the lead, 1 way convo after he's done the other may talk)
How do PARENTS influence gender development?
-From birth fathers tend to interact more with sons than daughters, while mothers interact more with daughters.
- Mothers play traditionals games like peek-a-boo whereas fathers play mroe physical, rough-and-tumble activities.
How do PEERS influence gender development?
-Once children learn rules about gender-typical play they often harshly punish peers who violate those rules.
-Between 2 and 3 years of age, children begin to prefer playing with same-sex peers, and it increases in preadolescence.
Enabling Interactions
-Actions amd remarks that ten to support other and sustain the interaction
-Girls interactions with other girls (harmony and relationship building)
Constricting Interactions
-One partner tries to emerge as the vitor by threatening or contradicting the other, by exaggerating, etc...
-Boys interactions with other boys
How does televison influence gender development? Children who watch alot of television end up with more stereotyped views of males and famales and they prefere gender-typed activities to a greater extent than do children who are less avid viewers.
Gender Labeling
By age 2 or 3, children undersatand that they are either boys or girls and label themselves accordingly.
Gender Stability During preschool years, children begin to understand that gender is stable--boys become men and girls become women.
Gender Consistency
Between 4 and 7 years, most children understand that maleness and femaleness do not change over situations or according to personal wishes.
When children understand labels, stability, and consistency.
Adrogynous persons are rated high on both instrumental and expressive dimensions.