Fundamentals of Language and Literacy

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1. 
Theorists such as Piaget explained that students' knowledge is organized into cognitive structures or files in mental filing cabinets known as:
a. repetends
b. scaffolds
c. schemata
d. zones
 
schemata
 
2. 
educators who believe that learning is the result of stimulus and response actions subscribe to a theory known as:
a. inquiry learning
b. behaviorism
c. reader response
d. constructivism
 
behaviorism
 
3. 
six-year-old carmen is learning to speak english and often makes statements such as "I have a pen blue" instead of "i have a blue pen". That type of error shows that carmen is having difficulty with is the:
a. semantic system
b. phonological system
c. morphemic system
d. syntactic system
 
syntactic system
 
4. 
shared writing differs from modeling because in shared writing:
a. students work with their parents
b. students contribute to the writing activity
c. teachers edit the students' work
d. teachers select the writing topics
 
students contribute to the writing activity
 
5. 
texts used for guided reading instruction should be written at the students':
a. frustration level
b. independent level
c. listening level
d. instructional level
 
instructional level
 
6. 
during guided reading instruction, students usually work in:
a. mixed-age groupings
b. heterogeneous ability groups
c. self-selected groupings
d. homogeneous ability groups
 
homogeneous ability groups

 
7. 
commercially produced reading programs which typically include a student's textbook, accompanying workbook, supplemental instructional materials, and teacher's guide are known as:
a. literature focus units
b. workshop programs
c. basal reading programs
d. expository text programs
 
basal reading programs

 
8. 
teachers can serve as a model of fluent reading by:
a. guiding students as they complete worksheets
b. providing big books in the classroom
c. encouraging parents to read to their children
d. reading aloud to students
 
reading aloud to students
 
9. 
as a new sixth grade teacher was selecting books for his classroom library, an experienced teacher correctly advised him that students within a typical classroom:
a. read at a wide range of levels
b. prefer the same authors
c. all read at the same grade level
d. enjoy the same reading topics
 
read at a wide range of levels
 
10. 
theorist such as louise rosenblatt have explained that students dont try to figure out the author's meaning that makes sense to them based on the words they are reading and their existing knowledge. The work of these theorists reflects:
a. interactive theory
b. reader response theory
c. critical literacy
d. behaviorism
 
behaviorism
 
11. 
the second grade class read a book about games usually played at children's birthday parties. Juan, who had recently moved to the US, became very confused and asked why anyone would pin a tail on a donkey. The teacher then relaized that Juan would have difficulty reading the birthday text primarily because he lacked the necessary:
a. vocab
b. phonemic awareness
c. vocab
d. background knowledge
 
background knowledge
 
12. 
during guided reading, students should read books at their:
a. independent level
b. listening level
c. frustration level
d. instructional level
 
instructional level
 
13. 
every day first grade teacher Mary Tomlin works with a small group of students who are reading at the same level. She selects a book at their instructional level and helps the children apply strategies as they read. This teacher is using the instructional technique known as:
a. SSR
b. echo reading
c. guided reading
d. buddy reading
 
guided reading
 
14. 
sixth grade teacher Kate Kane finds that the struggling readers in her class don't understand the ways in which more capable readers apply reading strategies. The principal wisely advise that the best way to help the students become more thoughtful, strategic readers would be for the teacher to:
a. encourage her students to read to the first grade students
b. use a think-aloud to demonstrate the thought processes that more capable readers use
c. talk with parents to explain the importance of skills based instruction
d. invite guest readers to visit the classroom
 
use a think-aloud to demonstrate the thought processes that more capable readers use
 
15. 
the most authentic type of reading is:
a. echo reading
b. independent reading
c. guided reading
d. oral reading
 
independent reading
 
16. 
during shared reading, children should:
a. read books at their independent level
b. be invited to join in the reading of predictable refrains and rhyming words
c. be reminded to remain silent as the teacher reads
d. listen to the teacher read and not be distracted by the text
 
be invited to join in the reading of predictable refrains and rhyming words
 
17. 
of the following, the best way to help students understand a comprehension strategy would be to:
a. ask students to read with a partner
b. teach a minilesson on strategy use
c. administer daily quizzes
d. assign additional homework
 
teach a minilesson on strategy use
 
18. 
when her students are engaged in the prewriting stage, fifth grade teacher Betty Mcintyre encourages them to draw because drawing often:
a. leads to improved spelling
b. makes their texts longer
c. helps students organize their ideas
d. helps children work together
 
helps students organize their ideas
 
19. 
problem-solving tactics thatstudents apply as they read are known as:
a. rubrics
b. skills
c. strategies
d. basals
 
strategies
 
20. 
third grade teacher Eileen Baker relies upon research findings to guide her instruction. Research suggests that students' reading and writing ability shows the most improvement when:
a. reading and writing instruction are integrated
b. writing instruction precedes reading instruction
c. reading instruction precedes writing instruction
d. reading and writing strategies are taught separately
 
reading and writing instruction are integrated
 
21. 
six-year-old Madison selected a book, Junie B Jones and the Stupid Smelly Bus, from the classroom library. Madison was able to read most of the words but she needed her teacher's help to fully comprehend the story. Consequently, this book fit Madison's
a. lexile level
b. frustration level
c. instructional level
d. independent level
 
instructional level
 
22. 
scoring guides that are used to evaluate student performance in reading and writing according to specific criteria and levels of achievement are known as:
a. running records
b. informal reading inventories
c. rubrics
d. miscue analyses
 
rubrics
 
23. 
systematic and meaningful collections of artifacts documenting students' literacy development over a period of time are known as:
a. rubrics
b. running records
c. informal reading inventories
d. portfolios
 
portfolios
 
24. 
george lives on a farm and enjoys reading books about farm animals. of the following, the most likely reason why george can read books about farm animals independently is that books with:
a. varied sentence patterns are usually easier to read
b. predictable text are usually more difficult to read
c. familiar objects and experiences are usually easier to read
d. decodable text are usually more difficult to read
 
familiar objects and experiences are usually easier to read
 
25. 
a reading test which is composed of graded word lists, graded passages from stories and informational books, and comprehension questions is known as a(n):
a. DIBELS
b. miscue analysis
c. portfolio assessment
d. informal reading inventory
 
informal reading inventory
 
26. 
when mary orally read a paragraph from the text, Little House on the Prairie, she stumbled over most of the words and required a great deal of assistance from her teacher. Mary was unable to state the main idea of the selection. This book was a Mary's
a. frustration level
b. instructional level
c. lexile level
d. independent level
 
frustration level
 
27. 
high-stakes testing differs from classroom assessment in many ways. one significant way in which high-stakes testing and classroom assessment differ is that classroom assessment usually:
a. includes only oral presentations
b. is based upon national norms
c. can be conducted by a paraprofessional
d. provides more information for making daily instructional decisions
 
provides more information for making daily instructional dicisions
 
28. 
high-stakes tests are designed to objectively measure students' ability to meet:
a. their parents' expectations
b. their personal goals
c. grade-level standards
d. teacher-created rubrics
 
grade-level standards
 
29. 
third grade teacher Bea Taylor writes brief notes as she observes students. Which of the following notes would be most helpful in planning instruction?
a. clara used context clues to determine the meaning of the words 'shore' and 'seashell'
b. clara earned an A on her report
c. Clara wrote an essay in neat cursive handwriting
d. clara is a good student
 
clara used context clues to determine the meaning of the words "shore" and "seashell"
 
30. 
an informal reading inventory can be used to measure:
a. only comprehension
b. word recognition, comprehension, and numerical fluency
c. only word recognition
d. word recognition and comprehension
 
word recognition and comprehension
 
31. 
when Mai, an ELL, read the sentence "Blow out your birthday candles", she became confused because she had never had a birthday cake. A lack of background knowledge that affects comprehension can be categorized as a:
a. miscue
b. reader factor
c. text factor
d. semantic error
 
reader factor
 
32. 
comprehension depends on the 2 factors of:
a. the reader and the text
b. phonics and background knowledge
c. word recognition and thought
d. vision and cognition
 
the reader and the text
 
33. 
as she was reading the novel Charlotte's Web, Helen thought about the farm on which she lived and the baby pig she received on her birthday. In this situation, Helen made a:
a. text-to-text connection
b. text-to-word connection
c. text-to-self connection
d. text-to-world connection
 
text-to-self connection
 
34. 
before they read a new text, fourth grade teacher Harry Clifton helps his students focus their attention and remember important details by:
a. engaging them in readers' theatre
b. helping them set a purpose for reading
c. engaging them in round-robin reading
d. assigning related homework
 
helping them set a purpose for reading
 
35. 
before her vacation, ten-year-old Gloria will visit the local library to elect books for leisure reading. For this purpose, Gloria should select books written at her:
a. independent level
b. instructional level
c. scaffold level
d. frustration level
 
independent level
 
36. 
research suggests that a student's motivation to read increases when:
a. he is punished if he doesn't read
b. the classroom has a collaborative atmosphere
c. the classroom has a competitive atmosphere
d. the teacher selects the books for literature circles
 
the classroom has a collaborative atmosphere
 
37. 
new teacher Katrina Smith said that her students didn't seem to form inferences as they read. Her principal correctly responded that:
a. teachers can use modeling to help students form inferences
b. students can't be taught to form inferences
c. struggling students should read only expository texts
d. struggling students should read only narrative texts
 
teachers can use modeling to help students form inferences
 
38. 
capable readers usually:
a. create mental images as they read
b. prefer to read orally
c. focus upon decoding
d. read only written at their independent level
 
create mental images as they read
 
39. 
effective literacy teachers encourage students to make predictions:
a. only when reading an informational text
b when reading any type to text
c. to help them apply phonics generalizations
d. only when reading a narrative text
 
when reading any type of text
 
40. 
to monitor comprehension, a teacher asked his students to supply missing words in the following passage:
Today is Kyle's birthday. His father will bake a _______. Kyle's friends will come to his _____.
That type of assessment is known as a(n):

a. informal reading inventory
b. DRA
c. cloze procedure
d. retelling
 
cloze procedure
 
41. 
stories are often categorized according to:
a. miscues
b. genres
c. schema
d. phonemes
 
genres
 
42. 
brief narratives designed to teach a moral are referred to as:
a. fantasies
b. plots
c. fables
d. genres
 
fables
 
43. 
in the short story, Another Old car, the central character, Mary Grady, is embarrassed to ride in her father's used car. This story could best be classified as:
a. informational text
b. expository text
c. realistic fiction
d. scaffold fiction
 
realistic fiction
 
44. 
ancient peoples created stories to explain natural phenomena. These stories were known as:
a. myths
b. haiku
c. expository texts
d. biographies
 
myths
 
45. 
ten-year-old richard wrote a story about a little boy and his dog. the story seemed realistic until the dog began to sing and dance. consequently, the story could best be classified as a(n):
a. fantasy
b. decodable text
c. expository text
d. autobiography
 
fantasy
 
46. 
children in the town of ridley park enjoy hearing stories about claude, the town's first postmaster. Stories which have been passed down from generation to generation are known as:
a. genres
b. folklore
c. fantasies
d. repetends
 
folklore

 
47. 
while teaching a social studies unit on the revolutionary war, a fourth grade teacher sought books which would accurately describe the clothing, recreation, and culture of the period. to accomplish this goal, the school librarian wisely suggested that the teacher should select:
a. historical fiction
b. fantasies
c. gables
d. science fiction
 
historical fiction
 
48. 
the underlying meaning of a story is referred to as its:
a. appearance
b. theme
c. conflict
d. plot
 
theme
 
49. 
when she won a medal in a gymnastics competition, 12 year old Alicia decided to tell her story in a poem. Poems that tell a story are:
a. narrative poems
b. free verse
c. concrete poems
d. haiku
 
narrative poems
 
50. 
while enjoying a book of poetry, a teacher reminded her students that:
a. text factors do not apply to poetry
b. poems and prose share the same text factors
c. poems have unique text factors
d. rhyme is essential to poetry
 
poems have unique text factors
 
51. 
To become a fluent reader, a student must:
a. define function words clearly
b. spell high frequency words correctly
c. automatically recognize high-frequency words
d. articulate multi-syllabic words
 
automatically recognize high-frequency words
 
52. 
6 year old Bill said he could read the word "will" because it looked like his name. Bill used the strategy of:
a. morphemes
b. syllabic analysis
c. phonic analysis
d. analogies
 
analogies
 
53. 
the ability to orally read sentences expressively, with appropriate phrasing and intonation, is known as:
a. choral reading
b. prosody
c. decoding
d. automaticity
 
prosody
 
54. 
to read fluently, students need to read at least:
a. 100 words per minute
b. 50 words per minute
c. 6 books per week
d. 10 books per week
 
100 words per minute
 
55. 
students must develop a large stock of words that they recognize automatically because it is impossible for them to analyze every word that they encounter while reading. these recognizable words are known as:
a. predictable text
b. function words
c. sight words
d. decodable text
 
sight words
 
56. 
of the following, the best way to assess students' reading fluency is to:
a. use morphemic analysis
b. listen to them read aloud
c. engage in partner reading
d. use a miscue analysis
 
listen to them read aloud
 
57. 
of the following, the best way to help students develop reading fluency is to use:
a. phonics drills
b. readers theatre
c. popcorn reading
d. round-robin reading
 
readers theatre
 
58. 
of the following, the best way to imporve students' reading speed is to use:
a. phonics drills
b. word walls
c. repeated readings
d. repetends
 
repeated readings
 
59. 
reading fluency involves the 3 components known as:
a. reading speed, word recognition, and prosody
b. reading speed, word recognition, and comprehension
c. reading stamina, prosody, and articulation
d. reading stamina, automaticity, and comprehension
 
reading speed, word recognition, and prosody
 
60. 
books that children use for fluency should be:
a. restricted to expository texts
b. just below their frustration level
c. just below their instructional level
d. restricted to narrative texts
 
just below their instructional level
 
61. 
research suggests that for students in grades three and up, the activity which leads to the greatest growth in vocabulary is:
a. writing
b. conversation with adults
c. conversation with peers
d. reading
 
reading
 
62. 
fourth grade teacher Anna Scott was frustrated. The poorest readers in her class read very few books while the most capable readers read many books and enlarged their vocabularies. This situation is an example of the:
a. concepts about print
b. peter effect
c. matthew effect
d. alphabetic principle
 
matthew effect
 
63. 
a teacher has been encouraging her students to enliven their writing by using words that have nearly the same meaning as the tired words they have been using. this teacher should give a lesson in using:
a. graphemes
b. antonyms
c. synonyms
d. homonyms
 
synonyms
 
64. 
sets of words such as "deer" and "dear" and "blue" and "blew" are known as:
a. phonemes
b. homographs
c. synonyms
d. homonyms
 
homonyms
 
65. 
when 8 year old Eli encountered a word that he didn't know, he used the surrounding words and sentences to determine its meaning. In that situation, Eli used:
a. analogy
b. decoding skills
c. the alphabetic principle
d. context clues
 
context clues
 
66. 
expressions which must be translated figuratively such as "raining cats and dogs" are known as:
a. similes
b. refrains
c. idioms
d. metaphors
 
idioms
 
67. 
while reading about the olympic games, a fourth grade class made a list of sports related words and then made a grid to classify the words according to their distinguishing characteristics. Those students participated in a(n):
a. phonics analysis
b. elkonian box
c. semantic feature analysis
d. context clue
 
semantic feature analysis
 
68. 
the expression "quiet as a mouse" is an example of a:
a. simile
b. morpheme
c. metaphor
d. miscue
 
simile
 
69. 
effective teachers use minilessons to teach students about specific words. These minilessons:
a. should always be provided before students read the text
b. should only be provided for struggling readers
c. can be provided before or after students read the text
d. should always be provided after students have read the text
 
can be provided before or after students read the text
 
70. 
as she was reading with her teacher, 6 year old Megan encountered a word she didnt recognize. Her teacher correctly said that if an unknown word is not essential to the meaning of the text, Megan should:
a. skip the word and continue reading
b. stop reading and decode the word
c. stop reading and use a dictionary
d. write the word on the classroom word wall
 
skip the word and continue reading
 
71. 
young children are surrounded by word. print such as logos on cereal boxes and signs for a favorite toy store or restaurant is known as:
a. predictable print
b. environmental print
c. concept print
d. decodable print
 
environmental print
 
72. 
Effective teachers have learned that it is best to teach letters of the alphabet:
a. in alphabetical order
b. using drills and writing activities
c. using children's own names and environmental print
d. before introducing whole words
 
using children's own names and enviornmental print
 
73. 
a group of first grade students would enjoy the book "If you give a mouse a cookie" but they are not read to read it independently. to help the children enjoy and use the book effectively, their teacher should use the practice of:
a. running records
b. popcorn reading
c. round-robin reading
d. shared reading
 
shared reading
 
74. 
a kindergarten teacher plans to read aloud a predictable text, Mrs. Wishy-Washy. To enable all students to see the text and illustrations, the teacher should use:
a. twin texts
b. decodable print
c. environmental print
d. a big book
 
a big book
 
75. 
5 year old Gloria didn't understand word boundaries or concepts of words. To best address this need, her teachers used the instructional practice of:
a. running records
b. the language experience approach
c. comprehension strategies
d. graphic organizers
 
the language experience approach
 
76. 
the principal wisely suggested that by adding books, pencils, pens, and paper to kindergarten play centers, teachers could enhance their instructional value and transform them into:
a. literacy play centers
b. elkonin boxes
c. repetends
d. assessment centers
 
literacy play centers
 
77. 
being able to name the letters of the alphabet is a good predictor of beginning reading achievement. the most likely explanation for this is that:
a. a child must be able to name every letter in order to read words
b. children who have been actively involved in early and rich literacy activities generally know the letters
c. drill and practice activities lead to reading success
d. children who can name the letters have strong phonemic awareness
 
children who have been actively involved in early and rich literacy activities generally know the letters
 
78. 
young children's introduction and exposure to written language usually begins:
a. when they meet classmates
b. when they enter first grade
c. before they come to school
d. when they enter kindergarten
 
before they come to school
 
79. 
teacher Millie Boyd is helping her students use phonics to decode and spell words. phonics instruction is most appropriate for students in the:
a. fluent reading and writing stage
b. beginning reading and writing stage
c. readiness reading and writing stage
d. emergent reading and writing stage
 
beginning reading and writing stage
 
80. 
tommy is transitioning from pretend reading to reading predictable books. this child is in the:
a. emergent reading and writing stage
b. beginning reading and writing stage
c. readiness reading and writing stage
d. fluent reading and writing stage
 
emergent reading and writing stage
 
81. 
the smallest units of speech are known as:
a. graphemes
b. phonemes
c. phonics
d. morphemes
 
phonemes
 
82. 
a first grade teacher conducted a lesson on word families and asked the children to write words on the chalkboard. this could best be described as a lesson in:
a. phonics
b. literacy strategies
c. phonemic awareness
d. miscue analysis
 
phonics
 
83. 
of the following, the most powerful predictor of later reading achievement appears to be a child's:
a. fine-motor skills
b. phonemic awareness
c. visual discrimination
d. social maturity
 
phonemic awareness
 
84. 
phonemic awareness instruction should be:
a. emphasized at all grade levels
b. integrated with other components of a balanced literacy program
c. used only with children with limited exposure to the english language
d. isolated to emphasize phonics skills
 
integrated with other components of a balanced literacy program
 
85. 
in the english language, there are:
a. 26 phonemes
b. 100 phonemes
c. 44 phonemes
d. over 500 phonemes
 
44 phonemes
 
86. 
a group of second grade students need help spelling high frequency words. the best way for their teacher to help them gain independence in their spelling and writing would be to:
a. post high frequency words on a classroom word wall
b. encourage the students to sound out words
c. administer weekly spelling tests
d. monitor the completion of spelling worksheets
 
post high frequency words on a classroom word wall
 
87. 
of the following, the best way to help children become better spellers is to:
a. administer weekly spelling tests
b. take running records
c. engage them in daily reading and writing activities
d. encourage them to use drill and practice software
 
engage them in daily reading and writing activities
 
88. 
for most children, phonics instruction should be completed by the end of:
a. first grade
b. kindergarten
c. sixth grade
d. thrid grade
 
third grade
 
89. 
phonics instruction should be viewed as:
a. part of a balanced approach that includes authentic reading and writing
b. a complete reading program
c. essential for students in kindergarten to grade six
d. the best way to help students understand morphemes
 
part of a balanced approach that includes authentic reading and writing
 
90. 
when a teacher asks a student to "say the word star without the st" that teacher is primarily monitoring the student's:
a. miscue analysis
b. phonemic awareness
c. morphemic awareness
d. phonics ability
 
phonemic awareness
 
91. 
in october, the 5th grade students in Brady School formed literature circles. throughout the school year, these students should:
a. read only one book per month to promote discussion
b. occasionally form new groups that meet their needs and interests
c. read selected books in a round-robin manner
d. stay in the same groups to maintain academic and social relationships
 
occasionally form new groups that meet their needs and interests
 
92. 
basal readers usually:
a. contain a strong skills component
b. contain authentic literature
c. provide the greatest opportunities for teacher choice
d. provide the greatest opportunities for student choice
 
contain a strong skills component
 
93. 
when discussing reading and writing workshop, the principal correctly advised that reading and writing workshop:
a. reflected a behaviorist theory of literacy instruction
b. reflected a teacher-centered view of instruction
c. could be used as the primary instructional approach in a classroom or as a complement to other instructional approaches
d. should only be used as a supplemental approach to literacy instruction
 
could be used as the primary instructional approach in a classroom or as a complement to other instructional approaches
 
94. 
when students participate in literature focus units, the books they read are usually selected by:
a. the school librarian
b. the teacher
c. a student committee
d. a parent committee
 
the teacher
 
95. 
of the following, the most individualized instructional approach is the:
a. basal reading program
b. literature focus unit
c. literature circle
d. reading workshop
 
reading workshop
 
96. 
of the following, the instructional method that relies most heavily upon teacher direction is the:
a. reading workshop
b. basal reading program
c. literature focus unit
d. literacture circle
 
basal reading program
 
97. 
all of the students in Al Gallo's class are reading a novel. They have grand conversations about each chapter, respond in reading logs, and add important words from the chapters to the class word wall. These students are participating in:
a. content area unit
b. basal reading unit
c. lit focus unit
d. reading workshop
 
lit focus unit
 
98. 
one advantage to using basal reading programs in that these programs:
a. provide the greatest opportunities for individualization
b. have workbooks with authentic activities
c. expose students to many genres
d. provide minimal teacher support
 
expose students to many genres
 
99. 
students often assume roles such as the Discussion Director or Word Wizard when they participate in:
a. basal reading programs
b. lit focus units
c. guided reading
d. lit circiles
 
lit circles
 
100. 
when they met in lit circles, some 2nd grade students used inappropriate language and did not discuss the selected books. After observing this behavior, the principal correctly advised their teacher:
a. eliminate discussion and ask the students to write their responses
b. select more challenging books for the students to read
c. discontinue use of literature circles
d. join the literature circle to model appropriate conversation
 
join the literature circle to model appropriate conversation