Foundations of Western Culture II - Exam 3

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1. The concept that the social ownership of property, unlike the private ownership of property would benefit society as a whole is known as: Socialism
2. According to Malthus, humanity was at great risk because: An increase in population would out-strip food supplies.
3. Marx and Darwin both argued that: Humans were locked in evolutionary struggle based on competition.
4. Historically, the notion that individual freedom is best safeguarded by limited government intervention in personal and economic life is known as: Liberalism
5. The "Communist Manifesto" was written by: Marx
6. The "underground man" was: Sick and spiteful
7. What were influences on Marx? Hegel, classical economics, socialism.
8. What is the theory of natural selection? The belief that the most fit biological specimens in a given species will ultimately survive and reproduce.
9. According to Ricardo's "Iron Law of Wages": Workers would not ultimately benefit from a rise in wages.
10. Who were three important socialists? Owen, Fourier, St. Simon.
**Ricardo was NOT.
11. What most accurately reflects Malthus's theories? The working class is responsible for its own poverty.
12. Who was the main architect of German unification? Otto von Bismarck
13. What was positivism? A theory that the careful study of facts would generate accurate laws of society.
14. Claude Henri: Coined the terms "industrial" and "industrialist."
15. Who were three Utopian socialists? Owen, Tristan, Fourier.
**Marx was NOT.
16. Who is most associated with materialism? Marx
17. _________ advocated evolutionary theory to promote their racist, sexist, and nationalist agendas. Social Darwinists
18. What, according to Dostoevsky, defies scientific classification? Free will.
19. ________ both advocated creation of ideal communities and questioned the structures and values of capitalism and advocated social ownership of property. Utopian socialists
20. Marx believed that the key to understanding history is: Class struggle
21. Who was a nationalist? Bismarck.
**Marx, Owen, Corbet were NOT.
22. ________ is a radical program bent on changing property relations by violence. Communism.
23. The term ________ refers to urban workers. Proletariat
24. Historically, Liberalism stood for: Limits on state intervention in private life.
25. Who was the architect of the buildup of German naval power? Alfred von Tirpitz
26. For Karl Marx, what did materialism mean? That the fundamental organizations of a society derived from relationships arising from work or production.
27. ________ is defined as ideas and movements aimed at the emancipation of women. Feminism
28. Which belief held that through science one could discover enduring social laws based on rationally determined principles? Positivism.
29. At its conception, feminism was closely connected with ________. Socialism
30. As the minister-president under _________ of Prussia, Otto von Bismarck was instrumental in achieving German unification. William I.
31. What are three phases of nationalism? Purely cultural, political, mass support.
**Stability is NOT.
32. What is a good example of Realism? Dostoevsky's "Notes From the Underground."
33. In "Notes From the Underground," Dostoevsky presented ________ as a source of delight. Free will
34. What countries made up the Triple Alliance? Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy.
35. Which countries made up the Triple Entente? France, Russia, and Great Britain.
36. Liberalism did NOT: Favor the working classes
37. The notion that economic forces are at the heart of reality is associated with _________. Materialism.
38. "Notes From the Underground" may be considered a response to: Positivism and Darwinism
39. Believing that the Roman Catholic Church impeded the progress of nationalism, who engaged in a Kulturkampf against Catholic influence? Otto von Bismarck
40. Social Darwinists Used distorted versions of evolutionary theory to lobby for racist, sexist, and nationalist policies.
41. What played a part in Bismarck's plan to unify Germany? The Danish War
42. ________ is a doctrine that holds that all people should have political states to express their common language and shared cultural values. Nationalism
43. Bismarck's system of alliances was designed to: Restrain Russia and isolate France
44. The basic postulate of positivism is that: Scientific laws underlie human affairs
45. The "underground man" was NOT: A figure driven by the need to progress in a secret way.
46. Darwin explained the development of the natural world through his theory of: Evolution
47. ________ is the depiction of contemporary life emphasizing fidelity to everyday experience and the facts and conditions of everyday life. Literary realism
48. Who was one of the Liberals? Richardo
**Fourier, Dostoevsky, Bismarck were NOT.
49. Why is the Crystal Palace so important in "Notes From the Underground"? It represented science for the main character.
50. The goal of the Congress of Vienna was to: Achieve stability by establishing secure states with guaranteed borders.
51. What painter argued that an artist should "never permit sentiment to overthrow logic" and thus portrayed laborers at backbreaking work? Gustave Courbet
52. Who was one of the founders of the political theory of anarchism? Mikhail Bakunin