Foundations of Western Culture II - Exam 3

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The concept that the social ownership of property, unlike the private ownership of property would benefit society as a whole is known as: Socialism
According to Malthus, humanity was at great risk because: An increase in population would out-strip food supplies.
Marx and Darwin both argued that: Humans were locked in evolutionary struggle based on competition.
Historically, the notion that individual freedom is best safeguarded by limited government intervention in personal and economic life is known as: Liberalism
The "Communist Manifesto" was written by: Marx
The "underground man" was: Sick and spiteful
What were influences on Marx? Hegel, classical economics, socialism.
What is the theory of natural selection? The belief that the most fit biological specimens in a given species will ultimately survive and reproduce.
According to Ricardo's "Iron Law of Wages": Workers would not ultimately benefit from a rise in wages.
Who were three important socialists? Owen, Fourier, St. Simon.
**Ricardo was NOT.
What most accurately reflects Malthus's theories? The working class is responsible for its own poverty.
Who was the main architect of German unification? Otto von Bismarck
What was positivism? A theory that the careful study of facts would generate accurate laws of society.
Claude Henri: Coined the terms "industrial" and "industrialist."
Who were three Utopian socialists? Owen, Tristan, Fourier.
**Marx was NOT.
Who is most associated with materialism? Marx
_________ advocated evolutionary theory to promote their racist, sexist, and nationalist agendas. Social Darwinists
What, according to Dostoevsky, defies scientific classification? Free will.
________ both advocated creation of ideal communities and questioned the structures and values of capitalism and advocated social ownership of property. Utopian socialists
Marx believed that the key to understanding history is: Class struggle
Who was a nationalist? Bismarck.
**Marx, Owen, Corbet were NOT.
________ is a radical program bent on changing property relations by violence. Communism.
The term ________ refers to urban workers. Proletariat
Historically, Liberalism stood for: Limits on state intervention in private life.
Who was the architect of the buildup of German naval power? Alfred von Tirpitz
For Karl Marx, what did materialism mean? That the fundamental organizations of a society derived from relationships arising from work or production.
________ is defined as ideas and movements aimed at the emancipation of women. Feminism
Which belief held that through science one could discover enduring social laws based on rationally determined principles? Positivism.
At its conception, feminism was closely connected with ________. Socialism
As the minister-president under _________ of Prussia, Otto von Bismarck was instrumental in achieving German unification. William I.
What are three phases of nationalism? Purely cultural, political, mass support.
**Stability is NOT.
What is a good example of Realism? Dostoevsky's "Notes From the Underground."
In "Notes From the Underground," Dostoevsky presented ________ as a source of delight. Free will
What countries made up the Triple Alliance? Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy.
Which countries made up the Triple Entente? France, Russia, and Great Britain.
Liberalism did NOT: Favor the working classes
The notion that economic forces are at the heart of reality is associated with _________. Materialism.
"Notes From the Underground" may be considered a response to: Positivism and Darwinism
Believing that the Roman Catholic Church impeded the progress of nationalism, who engaged in a Kulturkampf against Catholic influence? Otto von Bismarck
Social Darwinists Used distorted versions of evolutionary theory to lobby for racist, sexist, and nationalist policies.
What played a part in Bismarck's plan to unify Germany? The Danish War
________ is a doctrine that holds that all people should have political states to express their common language and shared cultural values. Nationalism
Bismarck's system of alliances was designed to: Restrain Russia and isolate France
The basic postulate of positivism is that: Scientific laws underlie human affairs
The "underground man" was NOT: A figure driven by the need to progress in a secret way.
Darwin explained the development of the natural world through his theory of: Evolution
________ is the depiction of contemporary life emphasizing fidelity to everyday experience and the facts and conditions of everyday life. Literary realism
Who was one of the Liberals? Richardo
**Fourier, Dostoevsky, Bismarck were NOT.
Why is the Crystal Palace so important in "Notes From the Underground"? It represented science for the main character.
The goal of the Congress of Vienna was to: Achieve stability by establishing secure states with guaranteed borders.
What painter argued that an artist should "never permit sentiment to overthrow logic" and thus portrayed laborers at backbreaking work? Gustave Courbet
Who was one of the founders of the political theory of anarchism? Mikhail Bakunin