Fluid and Electrolytes made easy

Total Flash Cards » 80
 
1. 

A liquid such as water that can hold another substance in a solution.

 

Solvent

 
2. 

A substance that is either dissolved or suspended in a solution.

 

Solute

 
3. 

A solution that has the same concentration of solutes as another solution.

 

Isotonic Solution

 
4. 

A solution that has MORE solutes than another solution.

 

Hypertonic Solution

 
5. 

A solution that has FEWER solutes than another solution.

 

Hypotonic Solution

 
6. 

0.9 Sodium Chloride or NS is an example of ______ used in a hospital setting.

 

Isotonic Solution

 
7. 

Elements or compounds that dissolve in water and separate into ions that carry an electric current.

 

Electrolytes

 
8. 

What is the percentage of body water in a young adult, the elderly, and infants. (3 answers)

 

Young Adult: 60%

Elderly: 45%

Infants: 80%

 
9. 

An infants BSA is greater than that of an adult relative to his/her weight, with that and a high metabolism and Immature kidneys, these factors puts the infant at a risk for:

 

Fluid Volume Defecit

 
10. 

This is triggered by the hypothalamus. As we age it becomes diminished, putting the elderly at risk for fluid volume defecit.

 

Thirst Mechanism

 
11. 

What electrolyte mainy controls the distribution of water throughout the body?

 

Sodium

 
12. 

What is the dominant Cation in ICF?

 

Pottasium (K+)

 
13. 

What is the dominant Anion in ICF?

 

Phosphorous (PO4-)

 
14. 

What is the dominant Cation in ECF?

 

Sodium (Na+)

 
15. 

What is the dominant Anion in ECF?

 

Chloride (Cl-)

 
16. 

What amount of body water is intracellular fluid?

 

2/3

 
17. 

What amount of body water is extracellular?

 

1/3

 
18. 

Estracellular fluid consists of two compartments. What are they?

 

Interstitial Fluid

Intravascular Fluid

 
19. 

What four processes do solutes and solvents move across the membranes?

 

Diffusion

Osmosis

Filtration (Hydrostatic Pressure)

Active Transport (requires energy)

 
20. 

The MOVEMENT OF WATER through a semipermiable membrane from a solution with a lower solute concentration to one with a higher solute concentration.

 

Osmosis

 
21. 

What is the pulling power of a solution for water?

 

Osmotic Pressure

 
22. 

Term used to express osmotic pressure?

 

Osmolality*

*The higher the osmolality the greater the pulling power of water

 
23. 

What is the Normal Serum Olsmolality Level?

 

280-300 mOsm/kg

 
24. 

The process by which large particles, such as protien, that can pull fluid from tissues into the vessels by osmosis?

 

Colloidal Osmotic Pressure

 
25. 

The movement of a solute in a solution across a semipermable membrane from an area of higher solute concentration to a area of lower solute concentration until both sides are equal.

 

Diffusion

 
26. 

This requires energy to move substances across cell membranes. It allows larger molecules to enter the cell moving thise particles uphisl from areas of lower concentration to areas of higher concenteration.

 

Active Transport

 
27. 

This hormone is manufactured in the hypothalamus and is stored in the posterior pituitary gland . It makes the kidneys more permable to water.

 

ADH

 
28. 

This hormone is realesed by the Adrenal Cortex it causes the kidneys to reabsorb Na+ and water while exreting K+.

 

Aldosterone

 
29. 

Because Sodium retention leads to water retention, Aldosteron acts as a _______.

 

Volume Expander

 
30. 

The production of Aldosterone is stimulated by:

Decreased _____ _____ _____ _____ and

increased _____

 

Decreased: B/P, Blood Volume, Sodium (Na+)

Increased: Potassium (K+)

 
31. 

Aldosterone is NOT produced with

Increased _____ _____ _____ _____ and decreased _____

 

Increased: B/P, Blood Volume, Sodium (Na+)

Decreased : Potassium (K+)

 
32. 

The average adult releases ____-____ ml of fluid output daily

 

2600-3600 ml

 
33. 

With what four organs does fluid ouput occur?

 

Kidneys 1500 ml/day (Sensible)

Skin 600ml/day (Insensible

lungs 400ml/day (Insensible)

GI tract 100 ml/day (Sensible)

 
34. 

When fluid loss is not perceived b the individual, it is called _________

 

Insensible Fluid Loss

 
35. 

When fluid loss is perceived by the individual, it is called ________

 

Sensible Fluid Loss

 
36. 

What is the functioning unit of the kidney?

 

Nephron

 
37. 

The nephron filters blood at a rate of _______/min

 

125ml

 
38. 

What amounf of uring/kg of body weight/hour is produced by all ages.

 

1 ml/hr

 
39. 

Name two common fluid imbalances in the body.

 

Edema and

Dehydration

 
40. 

When water and electrolytes gained or lost in equal proportion

 

Isotonic fluid imbalances

 
41. 

When only water is gained or lost

 

Osmolar fluid imbalances

 
42. 

What occurs when water and electrolytes are lost in equal proportions?

 

Isotonic Dehydration

 
43. 

Fluid losses are primarily in the ____ (the least stable fluid compartment)

 

Extra Cellular Fluid (ECF)

 
44. 

This occurs when more water is lost than electolytes

 

Osmolar Dehydration

 
45. 

A lower Serum Osmolality suggests...

 

Fluid Overload

 
46. 

A higher Serum Osmolality suggests...

 

Fluid Dehydration

 
47. 

These two values are often high due to Hemoconcentration.

 

Hct and BUN

 
48. 

Normal Serum Soduim Level

 

135-145 mEq/L

 
49. 

Normal Serum Potassium Level

 

3.5-5.0 mEq/L

 
50. 

Normal Serum Calcium Level

 

8.5-10.5mg/dl

 
51. 

Normal Serum Chloride Level

 

95-108 mEq/L

 
52. 

Normal Serum Phosphate Level

 

2.5-4.5 mg/dL

 
53. 

Normal Serum Magnesium Level

 

1.4-2.1 mEq/dL

 
54. 

Normal Serum Bicarbonate Level

 

22-26 mEq/dL

 
55. 

Name the 3 types of IV Solutions

 

Isotonic (NS 0.9)

Hypotonic (1/2 NS 0.45)

Hypertonic (D5NS)

 
56. 

What is the main role of Na+

 

To control water distribution and maintian normal fluid balance

 
57. 

Sodium dilution from increased volume states

 

Dilutinal Hyponatremia

 
58. 

This is caused by excessive administration of hypotonic fluids, diseases that add increased volume, an increase in ADH, drining excessive amounts of water, excessive Na+ losses from profuse perspiration , GI losses, and Diuresis

 

Hyponatremia

 
59. 

Signs and symptoms of Hyponatremia

 

Water shifts from vascular space into the cells causeing headache and altered mental status

Abdominal cramps, anorexia, nausea, and diarrhea.

 
60. 

This is caused by Excess sodium intake, or excessive infusion of sodium fluids, decreased sodium loss, excessive water loss, Renal failure, increased aldosterone

 

Hypernatremia

 
61. 

Signs and symptoms of Hypernatremia

 

Whater shifts from Cells (cellular dehydration) into the vascular space. Dry mucous membranes, thirst, decreased urin ouput, agitation , dosorentation , seizures

 
62. 

What is the main role of K+

 

maintain cell membrane electric potential. Neuromuscular function

 
63. 

Duretics, excessive loss of GI fliuds, increase secretion of Asldosterone, and high glucose levels leading to diuresis leads to

 

Hypokalemia

 
64. 

Signs and symptoms of Hypokalemia

 

Weak thready pulse, EKG changes, Paralytic ileus and Muscle weakness: leg cramps

 
65. 

This is caused by excessive intake from foods, salt substitues, IV infusion of KCL, decreased secretion due to renal failure, adrenal insufficiency, ACE inhibitors, decreased Aldosterone, massive Tissue trauma and it is rare in those individuals with normally functioning kidneys

 

Hyperkalemia

 
66. 

Signs and symptoms of Hyperkalemia

 

EKG changes, Irregular slow heart rate, Increased peristalsis, causeing nausea, vomiting or diarrhea

 
67. 

Principle functions of this elecrolyte include enhanced bone strength, normal clotting of the blood and regulation of neuromuscular irritability

 

Calcium

 
68. 

Hypoparathyroidism , decreased magnesium leves inadequate Vitamin D, increased Phosphorus levels cause this

 

Hypocalcemia

 
69. 

Signs and Symptoms of Hypocalcemia

 

Decreased blood pressure and decreased myocardial contractility, increased bleeding, nubness of fingers and toes, Tetany, positive Chvostek's sign and Positive Trousseau's sign

 
70. 

Positive Chvostek's sign is described as

 

Tapping on the face at the point just anterior to the ear and just below the cheek bone. Positive if twitching of the facial muscles occurs

 
71. 

Positive Trousseau's sign is described as

 

inflating a B/P cuff above systolic blood pressue for several minutes. Positive if flexion of the wrist and metacarpophalageal joints and hyperesxtension of the fingers and flexion of the thumb on palm occurs

 
72. 

Bones stones and grones, hyperparathyroidism, metastic cancer and decreased phosphourus levels are significant in patients with

 

Hypercalcemia

 
73. 

this is clossaly associated with serum sodum levels, principle functions include serum osmolality and water balance, regulation of pH of stomach

 

Chloride (Cl-)

 
74. 

Caused by decreased intake or absorption, prolonged vomiting , sweating, diarrhea, or GI drainage, Na+ and K+ deficiency

 

Hypochloremia

 
75. 

Caused by certain drugs that lead to retention, usually associated with increased Na+ levels

 

Hyperchloremia

 
76. 

Thees two elecrolytes have an inverse relationship when one is up the other is down

 

Calcium and Phosphorus

 
77. 

This causes Increased Serum Calcium Levels (hypercalcemia)

and Decresed Serum Phosphorus Levels(hypophosphatemia)

 

Hyperparathyroidism

 
78. 

This causes Decreased Serum Calcium Levels (hypocalcemia) and Increased Serum Phosphorus Levels (hyperphosphatemia)

 

Hypoparathyroidism

 
79. 

Name the common complications with IV therapy

 

Infiltration

Phlebitis/Thrombophlebitis

Infection (local or systemic)

Fluid Overload

Bleeding

 
80. 

the

 

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