Exam #3 sociology

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1. 
Crime is a violation of a society's formally enacted law. What is deviance?
 
Deviance is the violation of cultural norms.What is crime?
 
2. 
Emile Durkheim's basic insight is that deviance is what for society?
 
Emile Durkheim believed that deviance provides 4 things.1) affirms cultural norms/values2) clarifies moral boundaries3) brings people together4) encourages social change
 
3. 
In Robert Merton's Strain Theory, what is the term used to describe a person who gets rich by committing fraud while working at a bank?
 
According to Robert Merton's Strain theory, a person who uses unconventional means to acquire a culturally approved goal, such as getting rich, is participating in "Innovation".
 
4. 
In Robert Merton's Strain Theory, what is the term used to describe a low-paid, yet compulsively conforming bank teller?
 
According to Robert Merton's Strain theory, a person that compulsively performs honestly, without the chance of ever becoming rich, is participating in "Ritualism".
 
5. 
When friends begin to criticize John as a "boozer", pushing him out of their social circle, he began to drink even more and become bitter. he ended up joining a new group of friends, all of whom are heavy drinkers. According to Lemert, this situation illustrates what type of deviance?
 
According to Lemert, John the drinker's response illustrates a Secondary Response- a reactionary response to others badgering.
 
6. 
Edwin Sutherland's differential association theory links deviance to__.
 
Edwin Sutherland's differential association theory links deviance to how much others encourage, or discourage, misbehavior.
 
7. 
According to the social-conflict approach, what society labels as deviant is based mostly on what?
 
According to the social-conflict approach, what society labels as deviant is based mostly on the categories of people that hold rank in a society. It results in social inequality. Norms, including laws, reflect the interests of powerful (rich) members of society.
 
8. 
What is the term for crimes committed by persons of high social ranking in the course of doing their job?
 
The term for crime committed by persons of high social ranking in the course of doing their job is White Collar Crime.
 
9. 
What term refers to the illegal actions of a corporation or people acting on it's behalf?
 
The term refers to the illegal actions of a corporation or people acting on it's behalf is Corporate Crime.
 
10. 
Explain what qualifies as a hate crime--
 
A hate crime is a criminal act against a person or their property which was motivated by racial or other bias.
 
11. 
Criminal statistics gathered by the FBI reflect what types of crime as they pertain to the police?
 
Criminal statistics gathered by the FBI reflect violent crimes against people (the willful killing of one person by another, aggravated assault, forcible rape, and robbery) and crimes against property (burglary, larceny theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson). Victimless crimes are not reported in any databases, and all reporting of any crime to the FBI is voluntary.
 
12. 
Victimization surveys show that the actual amount of crime in the US is ___ times higher than what official reports indicate.
 
Victimization surveys show that the actual amount of crime in the US is 3 times higher than what official reports indicate.
 
13. 
Which justification of punishing criminals rests on using the threat of punishment to discourage further criminality?
 
The justification of punishing criminals rests on using the threat of punishment to discourage further criminality is Deterrence.
 
14. 
What term refers to a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy?
 
The term refers to a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy is "Social Stratification".
 
15. 
An Ascribed status is gained at birth.When do you receive an Achieved status?
 
An Achieved status is gained after reaching a milestone- a new job or graduating from college.When do you receive an Ascribed status?
 
16. 
What is the name for a term referring to a shift in the social position of large numbers of people due to changes in society, other than individual efforts? Examples include when factories draw the poor in and turn out the lower middle class.
 
The name for a term referring to a shift in the social position of large numbers of people due to changes in society, other than individual efforts is Structural Social Mobility.
 
17. 
Davis and Moore believe that inequality promotes productivity how?
 
Davis and Moore believe that inequality promotes productivity by offering incentive for people to learn highly specialized skills and earn high paying jobs. Without higher pay, what is the incentive to go through so much school?
 
18. 
Work involving mostly manual labor is called what type of work?
 
Work involving mostly manual labor is called Blue Collar.
 
19. 
Max Weber considered an individual's social position to be mostly a matter of what?
 
Max Weber considered an individual's social position to be mostly a matter of Socio-economic status -a composite ranking based on various dimensions of social inequality.
 
20. 
Evidence suggests that as the US moves further into the post-industrial phase of economic development, that economic equality is likely to what?
 
Evidence suggests that as the US moves further into the post-industrial phase of economic development, that economic equality is likely to increase.
 
21. 
The wealthiest 5% of US families control what portion of US money?
 
The wealthiest 5% of US families control 60% of US money.
 
22. 
Compared to the upper class, the middle class is richer in what respect?
 
The middle class is richer in diversity than the upper class.
 
23. 
INTRA-generational Social mobility is a change in social position which occurs during that person's lifetime. What is INTER-generational Social mobility?
 
INTER-generational Social mobility is upward or downward social mobility in relation to a person's parents. What is INTRA-generational Social Mobility?
 
24. 
The anthropologist Oscar Lewis suggested that the cause of poverty lies in what?
 
The anthropologist Oscar Lewis suggested that the cause of poverty lies in the poor becoming trapped in a "Culture of Poverty", which is a lower class subculture that can destroy peoples' ambition to improve their lives.
 
25. 
Sociologist William Julius Wilson suggests that the cause of poverty lies in what?
 
Sociologist William Julius Wilson suggests that society is primarily responsible for poverty.
 
26. 
Rough estimates suggest that roughly how many Americans are homeless at one point during the year?
 
Rough estimates suggest that roughly 1.5 million Americans are homeless at one point during the year.
 
27. 
The wealthiest 20% of the global population receive about what share of all global income?
 
The wealthiest 20% of the global population receive about 80% of all global income.
 
28. 
One system for classifying the world's nations places the rich, industrial countries into what category?
 
One system for classifying the world's nations places the rich, industrial countries into the category of First World Countries.
 
29. 
High-income nations are found where on the planet?
 
High-Income nations are found above the equator.
 
30. 
Where are Las Colonias, communities which contain the extremely impoverished, located?
 
Las Colonias are located near College Park, Texas.
 
31. 
Compared to poverty in the US, poverty in low-income nations is what?
 
Compared to poverty in the US, poverty in low-income nations is more severe.
 
32. 
Relative poverty refers to the resources that are taken for granted by some, ie clean drinking water, shelter etc. What does the concept "Absolute Poverty" refer to?
 
Absolute Poverty refers to a lack of resources that is life threatening. What is "Relative Poverty"?
 
33. 
Approximately how many people die each year due to starvation?
 
Approximately 15 million people each year die due to starvation.
 
34. 
Which type of slavery consists of employers holding workers by paying them too little to cover their debts?
 
Debt Bondage is the type of slavery consists of employers holding workers by paying them too little to cover their debts.
 
35. 
The term that claims that a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of technological and cultural differences between nations is what?
 
Modernization Theory is a model of economic and social development that explains global inequality in terms of technological and cultural differences between nations.
 
36. 
Dependency theory claims that poor nations:
 
Dependency theory claims that poor nations have been exploited by richer ones. Examples include un-payable debts, in which the richer country owns the interest rate; and rich countries taking advantage of the poorer countries lack of resources.
 
37. 
What is Samual Wallersteins term for the middle income countries of the world?
 
Samual Wallersteins term for the middle income countries of the world is semi-periphery.
 
38. 
The Global region that has seen the greatest reduction of poverty is?
 
The Global region that has seen the greatest reduction of poverty is Southeast Asia. They receive the award for sticking it to the man.
 
39. 
What is the term used to identify traits and social positions that members of a society attach themselves to being based on their sex?
 
The term used to identify traits and social positions that members of a society attach themselves to being based on their sex is gender.
 
40. 
What is the form of social organization in which females dominate males?
 
Matriarchy
 
41. 
In global perspective, women's social power, in relation to men, is lowest on which continent?
 
In global perspective, women's social power, in relation to men, is lowest in Africa.
 
42. 
What concept refers to attitudes and activities that a society links to people of each sex?
 
A gender role refers to attitudes and activities that a society links to people of each sex.
 
43. 
What share of today's US women are working for income?
 
59% of today's US woman are working for income. (71% are working for income full-time)
 
44. 
The "Beauty Myth" refers to the idea that___?
 
The "Beauty Myth" refers to the idea that society teaches women to measure their worth in terms of their physical beauty.
 
45. 
What are some other names for "Comparable Worth"?
 
"Comparable Worth" is also known as "Equal Pay for Equal Work".
Also, the idea has been broached as to whether women should receive compensation for being a stay at home mom.
 
46. 
What term refers to the invisible barrier which keeps women from achieving anything past middle-management jobs?
 
The Glass Ceiling
 
47. 
Explain why women are considered minorities, even white women.
 
Women are considered minorities because they make less than men, even though they outnumber them; and any category of people distinguishable by a physical characteristic would be considered a minority.
 
48. 
Intersection theory focuses on what?
 
Intersection theory focuses on the multiple dimensions of disadvantage which results in people with more than one minority status. For example, a black woman has two minority statuses, and they intersect. Like a crossroad. I used to go see movies at The Crossroads Cinemas.
 
49. 
What type of feminism accepts the basic structure of human society, but believes that men and women should have equal rights?
 
Liberal Feminism accepts the basic structure of human society, but believes that men and women should have equal rights.
 
50. 
What type of feminism seeks to end patriarchy by eliminating the idea of gender itself?
 
Radical feminism seeks to end patriarchy by eliminating the idea of gender itself.