Euro Final

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European overseas expansion was facilitated by all of the following innovations except
A. Use of sail power
B. Caravel
C. Mounting of cannon on naval vesselss
D. Galley
D. Galley
The primary motivation for European explorers was
Material Profit
The peace of westphalia was signed in ________.
October 1648
___________ Publised the Edict of Nantes in 1598. Henry IV
The seven Northern Provinces of the Netherlands formed the ______________ and in 1581 declared independance from spain. Union of Utrecht
The St. Bartholomews day massacre exemplified _____________________. The hatred between the french catholics and Portestants
What was a caravel? A three-masted sailing vessel developed in portugal.
The introduction of slavery into the americas was conditioned most by the production of_________. sugar.
Huguenots were _________. French calvinists.
Most of the current critisism of columbus is ahistorical because____________________. Current assessment of his accomplishments is based on modern morality rather than morality of Columbus's time.
What ultimately save france was a small group of ______________ who were both catholics and huguenots and who believed that only the restoration of the monarchy could save the country from chaos. Politiques.
Charles V, King of spain, was holding on to the (spanish) Netherlands because ____________. These lands had important ports such as Amsterdam and Antwerp.
__________ backed up the dutch with money and arms. England.
To crush this country Philip II launched the __________________ in 1588 to solve this problem once and for all. The spanish armada.
The thirty years war ended for __________ reasons. Political
What is Amerigo Vespucci famous for? Our country is named after him.
He was the one that said Columbus was full of shit and that it wasn't India.
The discovery of the St. Lawrence River was important because it______________________. Gave access to North America's interior and thus control over most of the continent.
___________ was the first European who explored the St. Lawrence. Jacques Cartier.
16th century is call the Golden century of ____________. spain.
17th century, especially after signing the westphalia peace treaty of 1648 is called the golden age of __________. The Netherlands.
Runaway inflation in Europe during the 17th century is called the ___________________. Price revolution.
As a result of the Peace Treaty of Westphalia which religion gained an equal status alongside Catholocism and Lutheranism? Calvinism
A state my be teremed __________ when it posseses a monolpoly over the instruments of justice and the use of force within a clearly defined territory. Sovereign.
The Fronde refers to ___________________. A rebellion by aristocrats and others early in the reign of Luis XIV.
Medieval kings claimed to rule by ____________. Divine right.
The cause of the war of the spanish succession was __________________. The prospect of Luis XIV controlling both the French and Spanish thrones.
___________________, Henry IV's cheif minister, was a devout protestant. Sully
French Intendants were alomst always recruited from the _______________. New nobility who used to be members of the middle class.
The guilding force behind Cardinal Richelieu's domestic policies was ______________________. The subordination of all groups and institutions to the monarchy.
The english Navigation act of 1651 Required that ______________________ English goods be transported on English ships.
English political philosopher Thomas Hobbes held that _________________. The power of the ruler was absolute but derived from an implicit contract with the governed.
Richleu's notion of ___________ Justified actions on behalf of the state that would be condemned if carried out by private individuals. Raison d' etat.
Mecantilist theory postulated that _________________. government should intervene to secure the largest share of limited resources.
The spark that caused the English Glorious Revolution was the ______________. Fear of a catholic dynasty being esablished by james II
Luis XIV installed his royal court at _______________. Versailles.
The State that gained the most from the war of the Spanish Succession was _______________. England.
John Locke was a great spokesman __________ (when)? Of the Glorious Revolution on 1688
The final collapse of spain as a great military power was symbolized by the defeat at the battle of rocroi and the resulting Treaty of____________. The Pyrenees.
What values consonant with buisness success did Calvinism Promote? Hard work, Thrit, and postponment of gratification
Oliver Cromwell's protectorate is best described as ______________. Puritan, military dictatorship
Charles II was restored to the English throne in _______. 1660
What did England gain at Utrech in 1713? Gibraltar and minorca
The Untited stats is
A. a direct democracy
B. a constitutional monarchy
C. a constitutional republic
D. a direct absolutist state
C. A constitutional Republic.
John Locke said that the dty of the government is to protect " life, liberty, and ___________." Property
Thomas Hobbes wrote a highly influential book during the English Civil war about the so-called social contract between the ruler and the ruled called _____________. Leviathan.
The English parliment replaced James II with William of orange because James was a/an ______________. Catholic
In the 1600's the house of commons was made up of predominatly ____________. Landed gentry.
Salvation attained through faith and good works
Catholocism or protestantism
Authority rests on scripture alone and faith alone
Catholocism or protestantism
The concience of the individual is the highest authority
Catholocism or protestantism
Pastors may marry
Catholocism or protestantism
Salvation attained through faith alone.
Catholocism or protestantism
Authority rests on scriptures as well as tradition. Pope and church tradition define dogma.
Catholocism or protestantism
The reason that labor shortages led to freedomfor peasants in western europe and bondage for peasants in eastern europe was__________________. Labor shortage was worse in western Europe.
In responce to the promeblems of the 14th and 15th centuries, the landlords of eastern Europe____________________. Used political power to gain control of the peasants.
East of the _________ river, serfdom became the norm for the peasants. Elbe
Eastern landlords undermined the privilages of the town by ____________________. Selling raw materials directly to the source by cutting out the middle man.
The first tactic employed by the landlords to cope with labor shortages was to _________________. Restrict peasant freedom of movement.
The importance of liberty of eastern European towns were undermined in large part by _________________. Nobles selling agricultural commodities directly to foreign capitalists.
Fredrick William I was nicknamed the ________- King because of his austere lifestyle void of all luxuries and his devotion to the army. Soldire.
The Soldire kings's view of politics was _________. Dog eat dog, and getting the best army.
The Pragmatic sanction issues by Charles Vi in 1713 Stated that _________________. The habsburg lands were never to be divided.
The sultan of the ottoman empire filled the top ranks of his bureaucracy with ____________________. slaves, many of them taken from the christian balkans as boys and converted them to islam.
The Politics and actions of Frederick william I were based on his belief that the welfare of the king and state depending on the ___________. Army.
The most enduring legacy of Fredrick Willam I was ________________. molding the most militaristic country of modern times.
Prussia's landowning class were known as the ________. Junkers
Russia was under the Mongol ___________ for over three centuries. yoke
The name of ivan the terribles first wife was Anastasia ________. Romanov
The only son of Ivan the Terrible, _____________ was not capable of holding power in his hands. Theodore
Oprichniki under Ivan IV were ____________________. Ivan's personal police force to intimidate boyars.
Ivan IV carried out a reign of terror against the muscovite ____________. Boyars.
One important factor in the rise of princes of moscow to domination over other Slavic cities in the area was_________.
A. Moscow's greater antiquity
B. Military Aid from Byzantium
C. cooperation with the Mongols
D. The Fertility of the land around Moscow and the wealth of mineral resources.
C. Cooperation with the Mongols.
What did russia gain from defeating the sweden. (not St. Petersburg) Access to the baltic sea and livonia.
What did russia gain from defeating the ottoman turks?
Access to the black sea.
Peter I's primary goal was to _____________. Build a strong army
The statute of laborers, enacted in the aftermath of the plague
A. Garenteed a minimum wage for artisans
B. Limited wages to pre plague levels
C. Barred laborers from moving from one city to another.
D. Goverened working conditions in early factories
E. barred laborers from moving from one profession to another.
B. Limited wages to a pre- plague level
The writings of John Wycliffe inspired the ___________. Lollards.
The basic argument of the conciliarists was that ________________. General council working with the pope was best suited to lead the faithful.
Joan of Arc gave the french __________. A sense of national identity.
in 1309 under pressure from the french, pope clement V moved the papacy to _________. Avignon.
The establishment of 2 competing popes in 1378 was known as the ____________. Great Schism.
Advocates of the conciliar movement sought to create a church in which __________. A representative council regulated the actions of the pope.
As a result of black death
A. skilled artisans found little demand for their products.
B. noble landowners gained increased control over serfs
C. Womens' Status and rights increased
D. Cities became ghost towns, never to return to their former glory
E. Wages for farm laborers and artisans increased
E. Wages for farm laborers and artisans increased.
The church was threatened by what radical idea of jan hus and john wycliffe? That priests were not the only ones who could receive communion and interpret the bible.
The Hundred years war led to the development of a ______________________ in England. Strengthened national parliment.
During the black death some extremists joined groups of __________  who whipped themselves as penance for their and society's sins, in the belief that the balck death was God's punishment for humanity's wickedness. Flagellents.
The fall of _________ and the end of the Hundred Years' war were in the same year of 1453 constantinopal.
Hundred years' war promoted the growth of ___________, the feeling of unity and identity that binds people together. Nationalism
Simony is ______________. The purchasing of many offices.
Pluralism is _____________. Being able to hold many offices.
absenteesism is _________. Taking revenues from a district or state you are not present at
___________ wrote that papal claims of temporal power had no foundation in the scriptures and that the scriptures alone should be the standard of christian belief. Wycliffe
Dante Alighiere wrote ________. Divine comedy.
Geoffrey Chauccer wrote__________. Canterbury tales.
Gallileo's greatest achievment was _____ of the experimental method elaboration and consolidation
_______ put the earth at rest and thus detroyed the geocentric view of the unvierse capernican hypothesis
an entire college was founded in England in order to find a way to determine ______ longitudes
before the scientific revolution, europes view of the universe was basedon the ideas of _____ Aristotle
Capernicus' theaories of the universe postulated _____ A sun centered view of the universe
Before 1500, science was primarily a branch of _____. thoelogy
according to ________'s theories of inertia, rest is not the natural state of objects. Galileo
Key feature of Newton's system, was the law of _____. Universal Graviation
Impericism emphasized ____, a phenonmena the actual observation
The 2 men generally given credit for creating a modern science method were _________ and _________ francis bacon and Rene Descartes
In his essay concerning human understanding, John Locke claimed that ________ beause the human mind was a "rasa Tabula", or blank slate. Human development is determined by education and society.
______ reduced all substances to matter and mind Rene Descartes
The separtion of thet world into 2 fundamental entities is also known as _______. Catesian Dualism
The key ideas of the Enlightenment were _____. progress, the modern science method, and cultural relativism.
In his spirit of laws, Montesquieu argued for ________. The separation of government powers.
D Hollbacks system of nature represented ______. A merchantistic, atheistic philophy.
Pierra Bales' _____ meant that nothing can ever be known beyond all doubt. Therfore, the best hope was open minded toleration. Skeptiscism
The social contract was one of the best known works of _______. Rousseau
How did Voltaire understand and see god?

He was a deist who believed that God built the universe and left.