Euro Final

Total Flash Cards » 113
 
1. 

European overseas expansion was facilitated by all of the following innovations except
A. Use of sail power
B. Caravel
C. Mounting of cannon on naval vesselss
D. Galley

 

D. Galley

 
2. 

The primary motivation for European explorers was

 

Material Profit

 
3. 

The peace of westphalia was signed in ________.

 

October 1648

 
4. 

___________ Publised the Edict of Nantes in 1598.

 

Henry IV

 
5. 

The seven Northern Provinces of the Netherlands formed the ______________ and in 1581 declared independance from spain.

 

Union of Utrecht

 
6. 

The St. Bartholomews day massacre exemplified _____________________.

 

The hatred between the french catholics and Portestants

 
7. 

What was a caravel?

 

A three-masted sailing vessel developed in portugal.

 
8. 

The introduction of slavery into the americas was conditioned most by the production of_________.

 

sugar.

 
9. 

Huguenots were _________.

 

French calvinists.

 
10. 

Most of the current critisism of columbus is ahistorical because____________________.

 

Current assessment of his accomplishments is based on modern morality rather than morality of Columbus's time.

 
11. 

What ultimately save france was a small group of ______________ who were both catholics and huguenots and who believed that only the restoration of the monarchy could save the country from chaos.

 

Politiques.

 
12. 

Charles V, King of spain, was holding on to the (spanish) Netherlands because ____________.

 

These lands had important ports such as Amsterdam and Antwerp.

 
13. 

__________ backed up the dutch with money and arms.

 

England.

 
14. 

To crush this country Philip II launched the __________________ in 1588 to solve this problem once and for all.

 

The spanish armada.

 
15. 

The thirty years war ended for __________ reasons.

 

Political

 
16. 

What is Amerigo Vespucci famous for?

 

Our country is named after him.
He was the one that said Columbus was full of shit and that it wasn't India.

 
17. 

The discovery of the St. Lawrence River was important because it______________________.

 

Gave access to North America's interior and thus control over most of the continent.

 
18. 

___________ was the first European who explored the St. Lawrence.

 

Jacques Cartier.

 
19. 

16th century is call the Golden century of ____________.

 

spain.

 
20. 

17th century, especially after signing the westphalia peace treaty of 1648 is called the golden age of __________.

 

The Netherlands.

 
21. 

Runaway inflation in Europe during the 17th century is called the ___________________.

 

Price revolution.

 
22. 

As a result of the Peace Treaty of Westphalia which religion gained an equal status alongside Catholocism and Lutheranism?

 

Calvinism

 
23. 

A state my be teremed __________ when it posseses a monolpoly over the instruments of justice and the use of force within a clearly defined territory.

 

Sovereign.

 
24. 

The Fronde refers to ___________________.

 

A rebellion by aristocrats and others early in the reign of Luis XIV.

 
25. 

Medieval kings claimed to rule by ____________.

 

Divine right.

 
26. 

The cause of the war of the spanish succession was __________________.

 

The prospect of Luis XIV controlling both the French and Spanish thrones.

 
27. 

___________________, Henry IV's cheif minister, was a devout protestant.

 

Sully

 
28. 

French Intendants were alomst always recruited from the _______________.

 

New nobility who used to be members of the middle class.

 
29. 

The guilding force behind Cardinal Richelieu's domestic policies was ______________________.

 

The subordination of all groups and institutions to the monarchy.

 
30. 

The english Navigation act of 1651 Required that ______________________

 

English goods be transported on English ships.

 
31. 

English political philosopher Thomas Hobbes held that _________________.

 

The power of the ruler was absolute but derived from an implicit contract with the governed.

 
32. 

Richleu's notion of ___________ Justified actions on behalf of the state that would be condemned if carried out by private individuals.

 

Raison d' etat.

 
33. 

Mecantilist theory postulated that _________________.

 

government should intervene to secure the largest share of limited resources.

 
34. 

The spark that caused the English Glorious Revolution was the ______________.

 

Fear of a catholic dynasty being esablished by james II

 
35. 

Luis XIV installed his royal court at _______________.

 

Versailles.

 
36. 

The State that gained the most from the war of the Spanish Succession was _______________.

 

England.

 
37. 

John Locke was a great spokesman __________ (when)?

 

Of the Glorious Revolution on 1688

 
38. 

The final collapse of spain as a great military power was symbolized by the defeat at the battle of rocroi and the resulting Treaty of____________.

 

The Pyrenees.

 
39. 

What values consonant with buisness success did Calvinism Promote?

 

Hard work, Thrit, and postponment of gratification

 
40. 

Oliver Cromwell's protectorate is best described as ______________.

 

Puritan, military dictatorship

 
41. 

Charles II was restored to the English throne in _______.

 

1660

 
42. 

What did England gain at Utrech in 1713?

 

Gibraltar and minorca

 
43. 

The Untited stats is
A. a direct democracy
B. a constitutional monarchy
C. a constitutional republic
D. a direct absolutist state

 

C. A constitutional Republic.

 
44. 

John Locke said that the dty of the government is to protect " life, liberty, and ___________."

 

Property

 
45. 

Thomas Hobbes wrote a highly influential book during the English Civil war about the so-called social contract between the ruler and the ruled called _____________.

 

Leviathan.

 
46. 

The English parliment replaced James II with William of orange because James was a/an ______________.

 

Catholic

 
47. 

In the 1600's the house of commons was made up of predominatly ____________.

 

Landed gentry.

 
48. 

Salvation attained through faith and good works
Catholocism or protestantism

 

catholocism

 
49. 

Authority rests on scripture alone and faith alone
Catholocism or protestantism

 

protestantism

 
50. 

The concience of the individual is the highest authority
Catholocism or protestantism

 

protestantism

 
51. 

Pastors may marry
Catholocism or protestantism

 

protestantism

 
52. 

Salvation attained through faith alone.
Catholocism or protestantism

 

potestantism

 
53. 

Authority rests on scriptures as well as tradition. Pope and church tradition define dogma.
Catholocism or protestantism

 

Catholocism

 
54. 

The reason that labor shortages led to freedomfor peasants in western europe and bondage for peasants in eastern europe was__________________.

 

Labor shortage was worse in western Europe.

 
55. 

In responce to the promeblems of the 14th and 15th centuries, the landlords of eastern Europe____________________.

 

Used political power to gain control of the peasants.

 
56. 

East of the _________ river, serfdom became the norm for the peasants.

 

Elbe

 
57. 

Eastern landlords undermined the privilages of the town by ____________________.

 

Selling raw materials directly to the source by cutting out the middle man.

 
58. 

The first tactic employed by the landlords to cope with labor shortages was to _________________.

 

Restrict peasant freedom of movement.

 
59. 

The importance of liberty of eastern European towns were undermined in large part by _________________.

 

Nobles selling agricultural commodities directly to foreign capitalists.

 
60. 

Fredrick William I was nicknamed the ________- King because of his austere lifestyle void of all luxuries and his devotion to the army.

 

Soldire.

 
61. 

The Soldire kings's view of politics was _________.

 

Dog eat dog, and getting the best army.

 
62. 

The Pragmatic sanction issues by Charles Vi in 1713 Stated that _________________.

 

The habsburg lands were never to be divided.

 
63. 

The sultan of the ottoman empire filled the top ranks of his bureaucracy with ____________________.

 

slaves, many of them taken from the christian balkans as boys and converted them to islam.

 
64. 

The Politics and actions of Frederick william I were based on his belief that the welfare of the king and state depending on the ___________.

 

Army.

 
65. 

The most enduring legacy of Fredrick Willam I was ________________.

 

molding the most militaristic country of modern times.

 
66. 

Prussia's landowning class were known as the ________.

 

Junkers

 
67. 

Russia was under the Mongol ___________ for over three centuries.

 

yoke

 
68. 

The name of ivan the terribles first wife was Anastasia ________.

 

Romanov

 
69. 

The only son of Ivan the Terrible, _____________ was not capable of holding power in his hands.

 

Theodore

 
70. 

Oprichniki under Ivan IV were ____________________.

 

Ivan's personal police force to intimidate boyars.

 
71. 

Ivan IV carried out a reign of terror against the muscovite ____________.

 

Boyars.

 
72. 

One important factor in the rise of princes of moscow to domination over other Slavic cities in the area was_________.
A. Moscow's greater antiquity
B. Military Aid from Byzantium
C. cooperation with the Mongols
D. The Fertility of the land around Moscow and the wealth of mineral resources.

 

C. Cooperation with the Mongols.

 
73. 

What did russia gain from defeating the sweden. (not St. Petersburg)

 

Access to the baltic sea and livonia.

 
74. 

What did russia gain from defeating the ottoman turks?

 

Access to the black sea.

 
75. 

Peter I's primary goal was to _____________.

 

Build a strong army

 
76. 

The statute of laborers, enacted in the aftermath of the plague
A. Garenteed a minimum wage for artisans
B. Limited wages to pre plague levels
C. Barred laborers from moving from one city to another.
D. Goverened working conditions in early factories
E. barred laborers from moving from one profession to another.

 

B. Limited wages to a pre- plague level

 
77. 

The writings of John Wycliffe inspired the ___________.

 

Lollards.

 
78. 

The basic argument of the conciliarists was that ________________.

 

General council working with the pope was best suited to lead the faithful.

 
79. 

Joan of Arc gave the french __________.

 

A sense of national identity.

 
80. 

in 1309 under pressure from the french, pope clement V moved the papacy to _________.

 

Avignon.

 
81. 

The establishment of 2 competing popes in 1378 was known as the ____________.

 

Great Schism.

 
82. 

Advocates of the conciliar movement sought to create a church in which __________.

 

A representative council regulated the actions of the pope.

 
83. 

As a result of black death
A. skilled artisans found little demand for their products.
B. noble landowners gained increased control over serfs
C. Womens' Status and rights increased
D. Cities became ghost towns, never to return to their former glory
E. Wages for farm laborers and artisans increased

 

E. Wages for farm laborers and artisans increased.

 
84. 

The church was threatened by what radical idea of jan hus and john wycliffe?

 

That priests were not the only ones who could receive communion and interpret the bible.

 
85. 

The Hundred years war led to the development of a ______________________ in England.

 

Strengthened national parliment.

 
86. 

During the black death some extremists joined groups of __________  who whipped themselves as penance for their and society's sins, in the belief that the balck death was God's punishment for humanity's wickedness.

 

Flagellents.

 
87. 

The fall of _________ and the end of the Hundred Years' war were in the same year of 1453

 

constantinopal.

 
88. 

Hundred years' war promoted the growth of ___________, the feeling of unity and identity that binds people together.

 

Nationalism

 
89. 

Simony is ______________.

 

The purchasing of many offices.

 
90. 

Pluralism is _____________.

 

Being able to hold many offices.

 
91. 

absenteesism is _________.

 

Taking revenues from a district or state you are not present at

 
92. 

___________ wrote that papal claims of temporal power had no foundation in the scriptures and that the scriptures alone should be the standard of christian belief.

 

Wycliffe

 
93. 

Dante Alighiere wrote ________.

 

Divine comedy.

 
94. 

Geoffrey Chauccer wrote__________.

 

Canterbury tales.

 
95. 

Gallileo's greatest achievment was _____ of the experimental method

 

elaboration and consolidation

 
96. 

_______ put the earth at rest and thus detroyed the geocentric view of the unvierse

 

capernican hypothesis

 
97. 

an entire college was founded in England in order to find a way to determine ______

 

longitudes

 
98. 

before the scientific revolution, europes view of the universe was basedon the ideas of _____

 

Aristotle

 
99. 

Capernicus' theaories of the universe postulated _____

 

A sun centered view of the universe

 
100. 

Before 1500, science was primarily a branch of _____.

 

thoelogy

 
101. 

according to ________'s theories of inertia, rest is not the natural state of objects.

 

Galileo

 
102. 

Key feature of Newton's system, was the law of _____.

 

Universal Graviation

 
103. 

Impericism emphasized ____, a phenonmena

 

the actual observation

 
104. 

The 2 men generally given credit for creating a modern science method were _________ and _________

 

francis bacon and Rene Descartes

 
105. 

In his essay concerning human understanding, John Locke claimed that ________ beause the human mind was a "rasa Tabula", or blank slate.

 

Human development is determined by education and society.

 
106. 

______ reduced all substances to matter and mind

 

Rene Descartes

 
107. 

The separtion of thet world into 2 fundamental entities is also known as _______.

 

Catesian Dualism

 
108. 

The key ideas of the Enlightenment were _____.

 

progress, the modern science method, and cultural relativism.

 
109. 

In his spirit of laws, Montesquieu argued for ________.

 

The separation of government powers.

 
110. 

D Hollbacks system of nature represented ______.

 

A merchantistic, atheistic philophy.

 
111. 

Pierra Bales' _____ meant that nothing can ever be known beyond all doubt. Therfore, the best hope was open minded toleration.

 

Skeptiscism

 
112. 

The social contract was one of the best known works of _______.

 

Rousseau

 
113. 

How did Voltaire understand and see god?

 

He was a deist who believed that God built the universe and left.