Endocrine System

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1. 

_______are secreted by the

endocrine system.

 

Hormones

 
2. 

The Nervous system works with the endocrine

system by ____________ _____________.


 

nervous impulses


 
3. 

The target cells of the endocrine system are

all the ________________ of the body.

 

cells

 
4. 

_______________ glands are responsible for

releasing their products into ducts (inside the

body or on body surfaces).

 

exocrine

 
5. 

____________ glands are ductless and release

their products into the blood.

 

endocrine

 
6. 

Thyroid (T3 and T4), steroids hormones, and

gas (Nitric Oxide) are examples of __________

soluble hormones.

 

lipid

 
7. 

Name four steroid hormones that are derived

from cholesterol and are lipid soluble.

__________, _________, _________, and __________.

 

Aldosterone, Testosterone, Estrogen, Progesterone

 
8. 

________________ and norepinephrine are

modified forms of amino acids tyrosine and

are produced in the adrenal medulla.

 

Epinephrine

 
9. 

Eicosanoids, Peptides and Proteins, and Amine

hormones are examples of _________________

soluble hormones.

 

Water

 
10. 

Anterior and Posterior Pituitary hormones,

Pancreatic hormones, and Parathyroid

hormones are derived from amino acids. Which

category of hormones do they belong?

 

Proteins and Peptides

 
11. 

________________ are derived from a fatty acid

(Arachidonic acid), mostly local (work where

they are released), two examples are

Prostaglandinsand Leukotrienes.

 

Eicosanoids

 
12. 

_________________ behave as though they are

water soluble.

 

Eicosanoids

 
13. 

Parathyroid releases parathormone

 causes bones to release Ca2+

 blood Ca2+ level rises

 parathyroid turns off

 parathormone levels drop and blood Ca2+ drop

 parathyroid begins to release parathormone.

This process is an example of ________________

feedback.

 

Negative feedback system


 
14. 

Hormones only effect ________________ cells

that contain receptor (proteins) molecules on the

peripheral cells.

 

Target cells

 
15. 

Which gland works as an endocrine and

exocrine gland

 

Pancreas

 
16. 

________________ gas behaves as both a

hormone and a neurotransmitter.

 

Nitric oxide

 
17. 

We can consider the hypothalamus a

___________organ.

 

Neuroendocrine

 
18. 

Oxytocin is released by _____________

mechanism.

 

Positive feedback mechanism

 
19. 

Chemical substances secreted by cells into the

extracellular fluids that regulate the metabolic

function of other cells in the body are

called______.

 

Hormones

 
20. 

Virtually all of the protein or amino acid-based

hormones exert their effects by means of

intracellular _____________.

 

Second-messenger

 
21. 

The ________________ produces hormones that

regulate glucose levels in the body.

 

Pancreas


 
22. 

________________ gland produces a hormone that

controls blood levels of calcium and potassium

by their removal from bone tissue.


 

Parathyroid


 
23. 

The _________________ gland produces the

body's major metabolic hormones.

 

Thyroid

 
24. 

________________ effect is the situation when

one hormone cannot exert its full effect without

another hormone being present. (ex. estrogen

and progesterone are needed for ovulation)

 

Permissive (priming) effect


 
25. 

_________________ effect occurs in situations

where more than one hormone produces the

same effect at the target cell and their

combined effects are amplified.


(thyroxin and human growth hormone

contribute to growth and development;

epinephrine and glucagon cause liver to

release glucose to the blood)

 

Synergistic effect

 
26. 

The Anterior Pituitary gland

 


 
27. 

Pituitary gland

 


 
28. 

Antidiuretic hormone is

produced by

 


 
29. 

Two tropic hormones

 


 
30. 

Human growth hormone

and prolactin are examples

of?

 


 
31. 

Norepinephrine (NE)

 



 
32. 

Prolactin

 


 
33. 

Oxytocin

 


 
34. 

Sudoriferous

 


 
35. 

Catecholamines

 


 
36. 

Pituitary is functionally

linked to

 


 
37. 

Chief cells secrete

 


 
38. 

One of the two hormones, that are working

together, acts to return the body conditions to

within acceptable limits from opposite

extremes are called?

 


 
39. 

Hyposecretion of the adrenal cortex causes

________________disease.

 


 
40. 

Hyposecretion of the thyroid in adults causes

________________.

 


 
41. 

The size and shape of a pea; produces

hormones that stimulate other endocrine

glands is called ____________________.

 


 
42. 

The ________________ gland that controls the

fight-or-flight reaction.

 


 
43. 

ADH is inhibited by_____.


 


 
44. 

The neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of the

pituitary gland is not a true endocrine gland

because ___________________.

 


 
45. 

Insulin, a small (51-amino-acid) protein, is

synthesized by the beta cells of the pancreas.

This hormone is released when the body's

glucose level needs to be ______________.

 


 
46. 

The _____________ operates by binding to

specific receptors and employing the services

of the G protein.

 


 
47. 

When it becomes necessary to enlist the fight-

or-flight response, a hormone that is released

during the alarm phase of the general adaptation

syndrome is ________.

 


 
48. 

______________ systems, activated when a hormone

binds to a plasma membrane receptor, activate G-

proteins within the cell that alter enzyme activity.

 


 
49. 

_____________ hormone promotes ovulation in

females and production of gonadal hormones.

 


 
50. 

Secreted by the thyroid gland, ______________ is a

peptide hormone that lowers blood calcium by

inhibiting osteoclast activity, and stimulates

Ca2+ uptake and incorporation into the bone

matrix.

 


 
51. 

______________ secretion is regulated by the renin

angiotensin mechanism, fluctuating blood

concentrations of sodium and potassium ions,

and secretion of ACTH.


 


 
52. 

The _____________ produces thymopoietin, thymic

factor, and thymosin, which are essential for the

development of T lymphocytes and the immune

response.

 


 
53. 

______________ gland indirectly receives input from

the visual pathways in order to determine the

timing of day and night.

 


 
54. 

The major targets of growth hormone are

______________ and ______________.


 


 
55. 

The _____________ is responsible for synthesizing

ANP.

 


 
56. 

Alpha islet cells of the pancreas produce

______________, an extremely potent hyperglycemic

(increased level of blood glucose) hormone.

 


 
57. 

______________ hormone cause release of glucose

to the blood by the liver cells, which causes

blood glucose levels to rise.


 


 
58. 

_____________ hormone stimulates gamete

(ovarian follicle; sperm) production.

 


 
59. 

_______________ hormone lowers glucose levels in

blood.

 


 
60. 

________________disease is an autoimmune

problem involving the thyroid gland.

 


 
61. 

Hyposecretion (low secretions) of growth

hormone is described as _________________.

 


 
62. 

Hyposecretion (low secretions) of the pancreas

causes __________________.

 


 
63. 

Hypersecretion (excessive secretion) of the

adrenal cortex causes _______________disease.

 


 
64. 

Hypersecretion (excessive secretion) of growth

hormone before puberty causes _______________.

 


 
65. 

Hyposecretion (low secretions) of the thyroid

hormones in infants causes _________________.

 


 
66. 

Normal development of the immune response is

due in part to hormones produced by the_______.


 


 
67. 

The neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of the

pituitary gland is not a true endocrine gland

because ____________.

 


 
68. 

Leptin is secreted by ________________.

 


 
69. 

The hormone that raises blood sugar

levels

 


 
70. 

An essential element required for the

synthesis of thyroxine.


 


 
71. 

The ________ are the pancreatic islet (Islets of

Langerhans) cells that produce insulin.


 


 
72. 

The parathyroid glands maintain adequate

levels of blood calcium. This is accomplished

through _____________.


 


 
73. 

Thyroid hormone exerts its influence by________.

 


 
74. 

The _________________ hormone promotes long

bone growth during the formative years.

 


 
75. 

Beta islet cells produce ______________, an

extremely potent hypoglycemic (lowers blood

glucose) hormone.


 


 
76. 

______________, is a disorder caused by excess

production of growth hormone.

 


 
77. 

______________ soluble hormones are able to

penetrate through the cell membrane, without

the aid of a receptor protein and bind to

receptors located inside the cell.

 


 
78. 

In adult humans the outer _________ comprises

about 80 to 90 percent of each adrenal gland.

 


 
79. 

The thyroid is stimulated by the anterior

______________ gland hormone TSH to produce

two hormones, thyroxine (T4) and

triiodothyronine (T3) in the presence of iodide.

 


 
80. 

______________ is a hormone that increases the

reabsorption of sodium and water and the

release (secretion) of potassium in the kidneys.

 


 
81. 

Second messengers include ______________,

______________, and ______________.

 


 
82. 

Infections, emotions, and temperature extremes

are typical ______________ that trigger a stress

response.

 


 
83. 

The ______________ is the first stage in the

general adaptation syndrome or stress

response.

 


 
84. 

The ______________ hormone is responsible for

increasing blood sugar from glycogen, fat (lipid)

breakdown, and cell growth via protein

synthesis.

 


 
85. 

Name the three roles or unknown roles regarding the hormone oxytocin. __________, ___________, and __________.

 


 
86. 

The ______________ is the primary target organ

for the action of glucagon.

 


 
87. 

The ______________ hormone is responsible for

triggering the production of the ova by the

ovaries.

 



 
88. 

The ______________ pituitary hormone controls

the release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal

cortex.

 


 
89. 

Hypersecretion of growth hormone can cause

gigantism if it begins in childhood, but is more

likely to cause _____________ if it begins in

adulthood.

 


 
90. 

Destruction of the β cells of the pancreas would

cause a loss of ______________ secretion.

 


 
91. 

e hormone makes a target cell more responsive

to another hormone that follows later, the first

hormone is said to have a _____________ effect.

 


 
92. 

Parathyroid hormone is antagonized by ________.

 


 
93. 

Rather than being synthesized in the cell like

other second messengers, _____________ enters

the cell through the plasma membrane.

 


 
94. 

Tropic hormones are different from other

hormones because they ____________.

 


 
95. 

The thymus secretes the hormones _____________

and _____________ which regulate______________.

 


 
96. 

The stress response, or general adaptation

syndrome (GAS), primarily involves the elevated

levels of these two hormones.

 


 
97. 

The most common forms of moderate and

severe hypoglycemia occur as a complication of

treatment of diabetes mellitus treated with

_________________.

 


 
98. 

The ________________ controls secretions of the

adenohypophysis by way of ________________.


 


 
99. 

In the second stage of General Adaptation

Syndrome (GAS) the ________________,

________________, and ________________ glands

release hormones.

 


 
100. 

If a person suffers from Diabetes mellitus they

would experience _____________, ______________,

_____________, and _____________.