Digestive System

Total Flash Cards » 45
Text Size » S M L     
 
1. 
What are 4 functions of the digestive system?
 
1. ingestion- food/liquid enter digestive tract, 2. mechanical processing- chewing, churning, mixing, 3. digestion-chemical, enzymatic breakdown of food, 4. secretion-by glandular accessory organs
 
2. 
And the other 4 functions?
 
5. Absorption-organic molecules, electrolytes, vitamins, 6. compaction-dehydration of indigestible materials, waste; 7. excretion- waste products secreted into the digestive tract; 8. defecation-elimination of fecal material from the body
 
3. 
What is the histology (tissue) of the digestive tract?
 
mucosa, submucosa, muscalaris externa, serosa
 
4. 
What is the mucosa made up of?
 
Mucosal epithelium, lamina propia, and muscularis mucosa. Plica folds the mucosa so it can absorb more
 
5. 
What is the submucosa made of?
 
areolar tissue surrounding musclaris mucosa, contains blood vessels, lymphatics, exocrine glands
 
6. 
What is 'Peristalis'?
 
Process which moves bolus by wavelike contractions in the musclaris externa, circular and longitudinally oriented muscles,
 
7. 
What is segmentation
 
Process whereby the circular muscles of muscalaris externa churn and mix the bolus to break it up
 
8. 
What makes the stomach growl?
 
Peristalis begins two hours no matter what after you eat, except now the digestive tract is empty
 
9. 
What is the difference between the parietal and and visceral peritoneum?
 
Parietal peritoneum is on the inner lining of the digestive tract's body wall, visceral peritoneum/serosa is located on the outer lining of the tract
 
10. 
Mesentaries?
 
fused, double sheets of peritoneal membrane
 
11. 
Locations of the specific mesentaries?
 
lesser omentum- lies between stomach and liver, greater omentum- "fatty apron" that hangs beneath the stomach, disgusting looking; Mesentary proper-suspends and wraps most of the small intestine; Mesocolon- suspends and wraps part of the large intestine
 
12. 
What are the functions of the mesentary?
 
stabilize the organs and provide access routes for veins, arteries and nerves to the digestive tract
 
13. 
Intraperitoneal organs
 
stomach, liver, jejunum, ileum, transverse colon, sigmoid colon, appendix
 
14. 
retroperitoneal organs (fused with posterior abdominal wall
 
doudenum, pancreas, ascending colon, descending colon, kidneys, adrenal glands
 
15. 
Digestive functions of the oral cavity
 
analysis of ingested products (tongue), mechanical processing (chewing), lubrication, digestion of carbohydrates
 
16. 
What are the three salivary glands and where are they located?
 
1) Parotid salivary glands-deep in the head 2)sublingual-under the tongue 3)submandibular-in the jaw area under sublingual
 
17. 
1st phase of swallowing
 
Buccal phase- compression of bolus against hard palate, elevation of soft palate and retraction of tongue
 
18. 
2nd phase of swallowing
 
pharyngeal phase- bolus contacts posterior pharyngeal wall, elevation of larynx, folding of epiglottis
 
19. 
3rd phase of swallowing
 
esophageal phase- opening of upper esophagal sphincter, peristalsis, opening of lower espohagual sphincter
 
20. 
Functions of the stomach
 
1. bulk storage, 2. mechanical breakdown of digested foods 3. chemical digestion begins 4. beginning absorption of water, aspirin, alcohol
 
21. 
define rugae
 
longitudinal folds in the mucosa that allow the expansion of the gastric lumen
 
22. 
What are the four types of cells located in the stomach?
 
mucous, parietal cells break down acids, Chief cells=pepsinogen, Enteroendocrine cells=gastrin (hormone)
 
23. 
Define peptic ulcer
 
a sore or hole in the lining of the stomach caused by bacteria
 
24. 
What are the sections of the small intestine
 
doudenum (10in) Jejuneum (8ft) ileum (12ft)
 
25. 
functions of the doudenum
 
the "mixing bowl', recieves chyme from the stomach and digestive enzymes (bile) from pancreas and liver
 
26. 
functions of jejunuem
 
where bulk of chemical and nutrient absorption takes place
 
27. 
functions of ileum
 
controls flow of material into the large intestine
 
28. 
small intestine secretions
 
goblet cells-secrete mucous; enteroendocrine cells-secrete many hormones
 
29. 
divisions of the large intestine
 
1) Cecum 2) colon=ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid 3) rectum=anal canal and anus
 
30. 
large intestine functions
 
1) reabsorption of water and electrolytes 2) compaction of intestinal contents into feces 3) absorption of vitamins 4) storage of fecal material before defecation
 
31. 
define epiploic appendages
 
fat pouches that hang off the large intestine
 
32. 
define Haustra
 
sacules between bands of circular muscles are accentuated taenia coli muscle contractions
 
33. 
movement through the large intestine
 
1) slow passage of material through with Haustral Churning 2) periodic mass movement via powerful muscle contractions 3) distension of rectal wall to stimulate conscious urge to defecate
 
34. 
define difference between Internal and External anal sphincter
 
Internal- involuntary smooth muscle External- voluntary smooth muscle whose relaxation allows for defecation
 
35. 
define diverticulitis
 
inflammation of abnormal pouches (diverticulum) that are not even normally found in the large intestine
 
36. 
Functions of the liver
 
performs 200+ functions relating to 1) metabolic regulation 2) hematological regulation=blood reservoir and filter/remover of dead blood cells and 3) bile production
 
37. 
How is bile drained from the liver?
 
drained through right and left hephatic ducts into the common hephatic duct
 
38. 
where does bile emanate after a fatty meal is eaten
 
comes from gallbladder (where it's stored) by way of common bile duct which empties into the doudenum. helps facilitate breakdown of lipids
 
39. 
define hephatic portal system
 
blood flowing from veins in digestive system drain into the liver by way of the hephatic portal vein, blood is then filtered by sinusoids
 
40. 
define cirrhosis of the liver
 
destruction of hepatocytes, often due to alcohol
 
41. 
functions of the pancreas
 
1) exocrine secretion- secretion of pancreatic juice to aid in digestion 2) secretion of hormones to regulate blood sugar levels by way of Islets of Langerhans, hormones=insulin and glucagon
 
42. 
What are the 3 unpaired branches of abdominal aorta that supply blood to the digestive tract?
 
1) Celiac trunk 2) Superior mesenteric artery 3) Inferior mesenteric artery
 
43. 
What does the celiac trunk supply?
 
stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, and part of the doudenum
 
44. 
What does the Superior Mesenteric artery supply?
 
most of the doudenum, jejunuem, ileum, cecum, appendix, ascending colon, and 1/2 of the transverse colon
 
45. 
What and where is the appendix?
 
tube connected to the cecum of the large intestine-has no real purpose