# "Define" objectives

Total Flash Cards » 44
 1. displacement distance in a given direction 2. velocity speed in a given direction 3. speed rate at which a moving object covers distance 4. acceleration rate of change of velocity in a given direction 5. linear momentum the quantity of motion of a moving body, measured as a product of mass and velocity 6. impulse a force acting briefly on a body and producing a finite change of momentum, Force times change in time 7. power the rate of working, work/time 8. efficiency the ratio of the useful work performed by a machine or in a process to the total energy expended or heat taken in 9. mole amount of substance that contains as many elementary particles as there are in 0.012 kg of carbon-12 10. molar mass the mass in grams of one mole of a substance 11. Avogadro constant the number of atoms or molecules in one mole of a substance, equal to 6.023 × 10^23 12. specific heat capacity the quantity of thermal energy required to raisse the temperature of one kilogram of a substance by one degree Kelvin 13. thermal capacity the number of heat units needed to raise the temperature of a body by one degree 14. specific latent heat the thermal energy which a particle absorbs or releases when changing phases. 15. pressure force exerted over an area 16. displacement (oscillations) the distance from its equilibrium position at any particular instant during the oscillation 17. amplitude the maximum displacement of an oscillating system from its equilibrium position 18. frequency the number of complete oscillations made by the system in one second 19. period the time for one complete oscillation 20. phase difference the difference in phase between two oscillating systems 21. simple harmonic motion motion if the(1) acceleration of a system is directly proportional to its displacement from its equilibrium position and (2) is always directed toward its equilibrium position, then the system will excecute SHM 22. displacement (wave) distance from its equilibrium position to any particular instant during the oscillation 23. amplitude (wave) maximum displacement of a particle from its equilibrium position 24. frequency (wave) number of oscillations made per second by a particle 25. period the time it takes for a particle to make one complete oscillation 26. wavelength distance along the medium between two successive particles that have the same displacement 27. wave speed the speed with which energy is carried in the medium by the wave 28. intensity the energy that a wave transports per unit time across unit area of the medium through which it is travelling 29. electric potential difference work done per unit charge to move a positive test charge from point A to point B; V = W/q; unit: Volts (V) 30. electron-volt The energy acquired by an electron as it moves through a potential difference of 1 volt; 1 eV = 1.6 x 10^-19J 31. electric current the flow of charged particles through a material when a potential difference is applied across it; rate flow of charge; unit: Ampere (A) 32. resistance a measure of how difficult a charge can flow in a material; Unit: Ohms (Ω); R = V/I 33. electromotive force (emf) the amount of energy per unit charge supplied to a circuit by a power source 34. gravitational field strength Every material particle in the Universe attracts every other material particle with - a force that is directly proportional to the product of the masses of the particles and that is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them 35. electric field strength the force per unit charge exerted on a positive test chargeE = F/q 36. magnitude & direction (magnetic field) F = IlBsin(theta); F = force, I = current, L = the length of the conductor in the magnetic field, B = strength of the magnetic field. 37. nucleon number (A) number of particles in the nucleus 38. proton number (Z) number of protons in the nucleus 39. neutron number (N) number of neutrons in the nucleus 40. radioactive half-life the time it take the activity of a sample of the element to halve in value or the time it takes for half the atoms in the sample of element to decay 41. unified atomic mass unit 1/12 the mass of a nucleus of carbon-12 or, to put it another way, a carbon nucleus as a mass of exactly 12 u. Units: kg, MeV c^-2, GeV c^-2. 42. mass defect (concept) extra energy left after a physics reaction 43. binding energy (concept) the energy required to separate the nucleus into its individual nucleons or the energy that would be RELEASED in assembling a nucleus from its individual nucleons 44. binding energy per nucleon (concept) the more energy required to separate the nucleus into its individual nucleons, the more stable the nuclei. Increase in binding energy per nucleon due to more nucleons is not linear (graph)