Criminal justice

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1. 

1. The vast majority of American law enforcement agencies are:

A) local

B) federal

C) multi-jurisdictional

D) state

 
A) local p. 145
 
2. 

2. The basic concepts of American law enforcement and criminal justice originated in:

A) New England

B) Texas

C) New York

D) England

 
D) England p. 146
 
3. 

3. Under the tithing system, groups of 10 families (or a tithing) would follow three of the principles listed below. Which one does NOT belong?

A) Agree to follow the law

B) Keep the peace in their areas

C) Select one man from each parish as chief peacekeeper

D) Bring law violators to justice

 
C) Select one man from each parish as chief peacekeeper P.146
 
4. 

4. The Statute of Winchester formalized the ____ system of protection.

A) shire reeve

B) constable-watch

C) tithing

D) hue and cry

 
B) constable-watch
 
5. 

5. According to Peel, the main function of the police was to ____ by ____ of the community.

A) solve crime; active investigation

B) prevent crime; preventive patrol

C) solve crime; preventive patrol

D) prevent crime; active investigation

 
B) prevent crime; preventive patrol
 
6. 

6. Earlier in American history, two forms of police protection began to evolve—the ____ in the villages, towns, and cities; and the ____ in the rural areas, unincorporated areas, and counties.

A) sheriff; tithing system

B) sheriff; constable-watch system

C) constable-watch system; sheriff

D) constable-watch system; tithing system

 
C) constable-watch system; sheriff p.149
 
7. 

7. Early American citizens ____ the formation of the first police departments.

A) resisted

B) encouraged

C) controlled

D) privately funded

 
A) resisted p.149
 
8. 

8. Which was the first American city to create a paid and unified municipal police force?

A) Boston

B) Chicago

C) Philadelphia

D) New York

 
D) New York p.149
 
9. 

9. After the Civil War, municipal police officers began to take on the characteristics of today's police. Three of these characteristics are listed below. Which one does NOT belong?

A) They began to carry nightsticks

B) They began to carry firearms

C) They began to wear uniforms

D) They began to form posses

 
D) They began to form posses
 
10. 

10. Which of the following statements is NOT true of the first black police officers?

A) they were “free men of color”

B) they were slaves

C) they were hired around 1805 to serve as members of the New Orleans city watch system

D) they were hired primarily because other people did not want the job

 
B) they were slaves
 
11. 

11. Following the backlash to Reconstruction and the loss of jobs of black police officers, during which of the following periods were black police officers hired again in most southern cities?

A) 1890s and 1900s

B) 1920s and 1930s

C) 1940s and 1950s

D) 1960s and 1970s

 
C) 1940s and 1950s
 
12. 

12. In the South, the earliest form of policing was the:

A) slave patrols

B) hue and cry

C) sheriff and posse

D) constable-watch system

 
A) slave patrols
 
13. 

13. The slave codes held slaves responsible for their crimes and other acts that were not crimes if committed by free persons. Three typical restrictions against slaves are listed below. Which one does NOT belong?

A) Enslaved people could not hold meetings.

B) Enslaved people could not learn to read and write.

C) Enslaved people could not learn skilled trades.

D) Enslaved people could not carry a firearm.

 
C) Enslaved people could not learn skilled trades.
 
14. 

14. One similarity between the slave patrols and the constable-watch system was that:

A) people could hire others to perform their duties for them.

B) citizens resented their use of firearms.

C) they had many of the trappings of today's police.

D) they developed into today's sheriffs’ departments.

 
A) people could hire others to perform their duties for them.
 
15. 

15. The idea of ____ remains very popular in the South and the West.

A) federal police protection

B) police commissioners

C) self-protection

D) mounted militia units

 
C) self-protection p.152
 
16. 

16. August Vollmer advocated three principles to professionalize American policing. Which of the following does NOT belong?

A) He advocated training as a key ingredient in professionalizing policing.

B) He believed that citizens needed training in methods of self-policing.

C) He believed strongly that the police should stay out of politics and that politics should stay out of policing.

D) He advocated education as a key ingredient in professionalizing policing.

 
B) He believed that citizens needed training in methods of self-policing.
 
17. 

17. At various times in American history, local police have acted in several different roles. Three of the roles listed in your textbook are below. Which one does NOT belong?

A) Social workers

B) Firefighters

C) Public servants

D) Peacekeepers

 
B) Firefighters p.155
 
18. 

18. By the 1970s, research began to show three of the following findings. Which one does NOT belong?

A) Unattended disorderly behavior in neighborhoods is a signal to more serious criminals that residents do not care what goes on in their community and that the criminals can move in and operate with impunity.

B) A rapid response to crime does not necessarily lead to more arrests.

C) Having more police officers using methods made popular under the professional or reform model does not significantly reduce crime.

D) Neighborhood-based policing projects had high success rates because of low costs, administrative efficiency, and high citizen interest.

 
D) Neighborhood-based policing projects had high success rates because of low costs, administrative efficiency, and high citizen interest.
 
19. 

19. Three emphasis areas of community policing are listed below. Which one does NOT belong?

A) Fighting crime

B) Delivering social services

C) Eradicating the causes of crime in a community

D) Keeping peace

 
C) Eradicating the causes of crime in a community
 
20. 

20. Approximately how many local, state, and federal public law enforcement agencies operate in the United States?

A) 1

B) 9,000

C) 18,000

D) 36,000

 
C) 18,000
 
21. 

21. State-level law enforcement officers include three of the following groups. Which one does NOT belong?

A) Highway patrols

B) Watercraft officers

C) Park rangers

D) Sheriffs

 
D) Sheriffs
 
22. 

22. In 2000, ____ of American local police departments required a high school diploma or higher educational achievement.

A) 14 percent

B) 83 percent

C) 99 percent

D) 51 percent

 
C) 99 percent
 
23. 

23. One general grouping in your textbook lists four categories of local duties. Three are listed below. Which is NOT one of the duties discussed in your text?

A) Public education

B) Service

C) Information gathering

D) Peacekeeping

 
A) Public education
 
24. 

24. Breaking up a fight, holding back a crowd at a sporting event, or intervening in a domestic dispute before it gets violent are examples of which of the following local police duties?

A) law enforcement

B) order maintenance or peacekeeping

C) service

D) information gathering

 
B) order maintenance or peacekeeping p.178
 
25. 

25. Taking people to the hospital, escorting funeral processions, delivering mail for city officials, or chasing bats out of a caller's house are examples of which of the following local police duties?

A) law enforcement

B) order maintenance or peacekeeping

C) service

D) information gathering

 
C) service
 
26. 

26. In which of the following years was the first woman elected to the position of sheriff in the United States?

A) 1868

B) 1916

C) 1972

D) 1992

 
D) 1992 p.182
 
27. 

27. Which of the following is usually NOT a county law enforcement function?

A) protecting the governor and the capitol grounds and buildings

B) serving summonses, warrants, and various writs

C) providing courtroom security and confine and transport prisoners

D) investigating crimes and enforcing the criminal and traffic laws of the state

 
A) protecting the governor and the capitol grounds and buildings p.182
 
28. 

28. Three of the following statements describe how politics affects the role of sheriff in most counties. Which one does NOT belong?

A) The authority to appoint special deputies and to award patronage jobs contribute to the sheriff's power and influence in a county.

B) The sheriff's office is limited to counties that vote to approve it.

C) Local politics governs the operation of the sheriff's department.

D) The sheriff must operate as a partisan politician to remain in office.

 
D) The sheriff must operate as a partisan politician to remain in office.
 
29. 

29. Which of the 50 United States does not have a state policing agency?

A) Hawaii

B) Alaska

C) Montana

D) Idaho

 
A) Hawaii p.183
 
30. 

30. There are three major differences between federal law enforcement and local and state police agencies. They are listed below. Which one does NOT belong?

A) Federal agencies such as the FBI operate across the entire nation and even have agents serving abroad.

B) Some federal law enforcement agencies have extremely narrow jurisdictions.

C) A significant function performed by a special category of federal law enforcement officers is university or campus policing.

D) Federal police agencies do not, as a rule, have the peacekeeping or order maintenance duties typical in local policing.

 
C) A significant function performed by a special category of federal law enforcement officers is university or campus policing.
 
31. 

31. Among federal law enforcement agencies in 2002, the ______ employed the largest percentage of women, while the ______employed the smallest percentage of women.

A) Federal Bureau of Investigation-Federal Bureau of Prisons

B) U.S. Marshals Service-U.S. Secret Service

C) Internal Revenue Service-Drug Enforcement Agency

D) U.S. Customs Service-Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms

 

C) Internal Revenue Service-Drug Enforcement Agency

 
32. 

32. Where is the current headquarters of the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center located?

A) Quantico, Virginia

B) Glenn County, Georgia

C) Washington, DC

D) Charleston, South Carolina

 
A) Quantico, Virginia
 
33. 

33. According to the Homeland Security Act of 2002, which of the following agencies or organizations has “primary responsibility for investigating and prosecuting acts of terrorism”?

A) the Department of Homeland Security

B) the U.S.military

C) federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies

D) the CIA

 
A) the Department of Homeland Security
 
34. 

34. Which of the following is the largest directorate in the Department of Homeland Security?

A) Border and Transportation Security

B) Emergency Preparedness and Response

C) Science and Technology

D) Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection

 
C) Science and Technology
 
35. 

35. With which of the following agencies are permanent legal attaches or “legats” associated?

A) the CIA

B) the FBI

C) the U.S. Secret Service

D) the Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement

 
B) the FBI
 
36. 

36. What is currently the top priority of the FBI?

A) being a federal police agency

B) protecting the president and other government leaders

C) being an intelligence and counterterrorism agency

D) enforcement of the country's immigration laws

 
C) being an intelligence and counterterrorism agency
 
37. 

37. A number of factors have triggered the growth of private security in the United States. Three are listed below. Which one does NOT belong?

A) Fewer constitutional limitations

B) Lowered citizen contact

C) Better control and attention to the problem

D) Declining revenues for public policing

 
B) Lowered citizen contact
 
38. 

38. ______ refers to protective services that a private security firm provides to people, agencies and companies that do not employ their won security personnel or that need extra protection, while ______ refers to in-house protective services that a security staff provides for the entity that employs it.

A) proprietary security-contract security

B) external security-internal security

C) contract security-proprietary security

D) internal security-external security

 
C) contract security-proprietary security
 
39. 

39. Your textbook lists four unresolved problems and issues relating to private security. Three are listed below. Which one does not belong?

A) Public policing in a private capacity

B) Diminished public responsibility

C) Qualifications and training

D) Political corruption from patronage jobs

 
D) Political corruption from patronage jobs
 
40. 

40. _____ is a model of state law enforcement services in which the agency and its officers have the same law enforcement powers as local police, anywhere within the state.

A) state police model

B) highway patrol model

C) constable-watch system

D) slave patrols

 
B) highway patrol model
 
41. 

41. _____ is a technological and management system that aims to make the police better organized and more effective crime fighters.

A) Compstat

B) Community policing

C) Tithing

D) Constable-watch

 
A) Compstat
 
42. 

1. For most people, the only personal experience they have with the criminal justice process is contact with a:

A) Federal police officer

B) courtroom

C) correctional institution

D) local police officer

 
D) local police officer
 
43. 

2. Your textbook describes four characteristics that generally define the role of the police. Three are listed below. Which one is NOT described in your textbook?

A) The police perform ongoing educational roles in the community.

B) The police are community leaders in public safety.

C) The police occasionally serve in a hostile or dangerous environment.

D) The police solve sociological and technological problems for people on a short-term basis.

 
A) The police perform ongoing educational roles in the community.
 
44. 

3. In 2002, how many police officers were feloniously killed in the line of duty?

A) 0

B) 22

C) 56

D) 142

 
D) 142
 
45. 

4. John Broderick classified police officers by their degree of commitment to maintaining order and their respect for due process. Three of these classifications are listed below. Which one does NOT belong?

A) enforcers

B) punishers

C) idealists

D) optimists

 
B) punishers
 
46. 

5. Which of the following is unquestionably the most time-consuming and resource-intensive task of any police agency?

A) patrol

B) investigation

C) DNA profiling

D) field interrogation

 
A) patrol
 
47. 

6. Patrols that are “systematically unsystematic” and observant in an attempt to both deter and ferret out crime on their beats are known as random or ____ patrol.

A) foot

B) directed

C) preventive

D) aggressive

 
C) preventive p.213
 
48. 

7. In ____ patrol, officers are given guidance on how to use their patrol time, which is often based on the results of crime analyses that identify problem areas.

A) directed

B) preventive

C) aggressive

D) foot

 
A) directed
 
49. 

8. When an entire patrol section is instructed to make numerous traffic stops and field interrogations, the practice is referred to as ____ patrol.

A) foot

B) aggressive

C) directed

D) preventive

 
B) aggressive
 
50. 

9. Your textbook names five roles that investigators may play in a police department. Three are listed below. Which one does NOT belong?

A) Investigators conducting background checks of applicants to the police department.

B) Uniformed patrol officers investigating the crimes they have been dispatched to or have encountered on their own while on patrol.

C) Uniformed police officers conducting field interrogations and other types of aggressive patrol.

D) Internal affairs investigators conducting investigations of alleged crimes by police personnel.

 
C) Uniformed police officers conducting field interrogations and other types of aggressive patrol.
 
51. 

10. Criminal investigation has been defined as a lawful search of people and things to achieve three of the following goals. Which of the following is NOT one of the goals of criminal investigation?

A) Apprehend or determine the guilty party

B) Reconstruct the circumstances of an illegal act

C) Aid in the state's prosecution of the offender

D) Conduct preventive patrol to ferret out crime

 
D) Conduct preventive patrol to ferret out crime
 
52. 

11. Police detectives seem to have a number of advantages over patrol officers, and seven of these advantages are listed in your textbook. Three are listed below. Which is NOT one of these advantages?

A) They have offices and desks.

B) They enjoy more freedom than patrol officers do from the police radio and geographical boundaries.

C) They often move on to patronage jobs.

D) In many agencies, they receive higher compensation and hold a higher rank.

 
C) They often move on to patronage jobs.
 
53. 

12. Your textbook gives three reasons why, despite low crime-solving rates by detectives, many police departments continue to employ them. Three are listed below. Which one does NOT belong?

A) Detectives have interrogation and case presentation skills that assist in prosecution.

B) Detectives have wider jurisdiction than patrol officers do, and can arrest and book some suspects that other police officers cannot.

C) Law enforcement executives can assign detectives to a major, high profile case to demonstrate to the public that they are committing resources to the matter.

D) Technical knowledge, such as knowing about burglary tools, does help in some investigations and prosecutions.

 
B) Detectives have wider jurisdiction than patrol officers do, and can arrest and book some suspects that other police officers cannot.
 
54. 

13. With DNA profiling, a unique genetic profile can be derived from ____ found at the scene of a crime or on a victim.

A) hair

B) semen

C) blood

D) all of the above

 
D) all of the above p.219
 
55. 

14. Your textbook names three distinct functions of DNA profiling. They are listed below. Which of the following is NOT one of these distinct functions?

A) Collecting samples from all people at birth, so that a complete DNA database can be compiled.

B) Clearing innocent people convicted of rape and murder years after they began serving their sentences.

C) Linking or eliminating identified suspects to a crime.

D) Identifying "cold hits" where a sample from a crime scene is matched against numerous cases in a DNA database and a positive match is made.

 
A) Collecting samples from all people at birth, so that a complete DNA database can be compiled.
 
56. 

15. Your textbook names three reasons why many victims of cybercrime fail to report these crimes to authorities. Which of the following is NOT one of the reasons listed in your textbook?

A) The fear of being implicated in the crime

B) The shame of not providing adequate security to protect trusted assets

C) The fear of losing public confidence as a result of being a victim

D) The attention to their vulnerability that a crime report would attract

 
D) The attention to their vulnerability that a crime report would attract
 
57. 

16. The knowledge to carry out cybercrimes is readily available at hacker:

A) chat rooms

B) message boards

C) web sites

D) all of the above

 
D) all of the above
 
58. 

17. Your textbook describes several ways in which cybercriminals can illegally access, manipulate, or steal computer data. Three of these ways are listed below. Which is NOT one of the ways listed in your textbook?

A) Cybercriminals can alter computer records at financial, business, and educational institutions.

B) Cybercriminals alter DNA records, thus hampering and sometimes destroying criminal investigations.

C) Cyber criminals often illegally enter computer systems and introduce viruses or worms.

D) Cyber criminals illegally transfer millions of dollars to their accounts.

 
B) Cybercriminals alter DNA records, thus hampering and sometimes destroying criminal investigations.
 
59. 

18. Each year, nearly twice as many people are ____ as are ____.

A) killed in automobile accidents; murdered

B) kidnapped; killed in automobile accidents

C) murdered; kidnapped

D) murdered; killed in automobile accidents

 
A) killed in automobile accidents; murdered
 
60. 

19. Some of the more important functions of traffic units are:

A) to recommend traffic engineering changes that will enhance the flow of traffic and promote safety.

B) to enforce traffic laws, particularly when violations of those laws cause traffic accidents.

C) to educate motorists in a community about traffic safety and proper driving procedures.

D) all of the above

 
D) all of the above p.222
 
61. 

20. The professional model of policing, which police followed in the decades before community policing, rested on three foundations. They are listed below. Which of the following is NOT one of these three foundations?

A) preventive patrol

B) proactive patrol

C) follow-up investigation

D) quick response time

 
B) proactive patrol
 
62. 

21. Researchers discovered that ____ of citizens wait 5–10 minutes to call the police, which prevents police from catching the criminal at the scene.

A) 25 percent

B) 5 percent

C) 62 percent

D) 90 percent

 
D) 90 percent
 
63. 

22. One of the interesting findings of foot patrol research was that foot patrol officers were better able to deal with:

A) several investigative functions, including finding DNA evidence

B) drug dealers and gang problems, especially in urban areas

C) minor annoyances—rowdy youths, panhandlers, and abandoned cars—that irritate citizens

D) long-term vice cases that involved several suspects

 
C) minor annoyances—rowdy youths, panhandlers, and abandoned cars—that irritate citizens
 
64. 

23. With community policing:

A) police focus more heavily on preventive patrol for public safety

B) citizens share responsibility for their community's safety

C) citizens are encouraged to learn policing methods and tactics

D) police adopt a legalistic (or sometimes watchman) style of policing

 
B) citizens share responsibility for their community's safety
 
65. 

24. Following are three parts of the acronym SARA, which some community policing advocates recommend as a four-step problem-solving process. Which of the following is NOT one of the components of SARA?

A) Arrival—determining the situation's timeliness

B) Assessment—determining the solutions' effect

C) Response—developing and implementing solutions

D) Scanning—identifying problems

 
A) Arrival—determining the situation's timeliness
 
66. 

25. The crime triangle is a view of crime and disorder as an interaction among three variables, which are:

A) preventive patrol, investigation, and follow-up

B) citizens, police, and criminals

C) urban, suburban, and rural locations

D) victim, offender, and location

 
D) victim, offender, and location
 
67. 

26. The most widely used crime-mapping application is probably ______.

A) crime scene investigations

B) the determination of gunshot origins

C) resource allocation

D) CompStat

 
C) resource allocation
 
68. 

27. Which of the following is currently the most complete DNA database?

A) CompStat

B) CODIS

C) GIS

D) GPS

 
B) CODIS
 
69. 

28. Which of the following agencies has the largest AFIS?

A) the Florida Department of Law Enforcement

B) the New York City Police Department

C) the U.S. Secret Service

D) the FBI

 
D) the FBI
 
70. 

29. Which of the following drug enforcement strategies accounts for the greatest number of drug arrests and seizures?

A) street-level enforcement

B) mid-level investigations

C) major investigations

D) drug demand reduction

 
A) street-level enforcement p.225
 
71. 

30. Which of the following reasons accounts for the relative ineffectiveness of marijuana eradication strategies?

A) large quantities are generally grown in remote, largely inaccessible areas making eradication efforts time-consuming, labor-intensive, and dangerous

B) spraying crops with chemicals can be hazardous to people, water supplies, animals and other vegetation

C) the huge profits that can be made from a marijuana crop create a powerful incentive not to be deterred by eradication efforts

D) all of the above are reasons

 
D) all of the above are reasons
 
72. 

31. In which of the following ways can community policing contribute to drug enforcement?

A) foot patrol and problem-oriented policing can reduce street-level dealing

B) community policing may increase public support for drug enforcement efforts by encouraging citizens to report drug crimes and identify drug dealers

C) community organizing may empower citizens to resist drug dealers and drug abusers who invade their communities

D) all of the above are ways

 
D) all of the above are ways
 
73. 

32. Which of the following is NOT true about civil asset forfeiture as a tool in drug enforcement?

A) it is the preferred tool in drug enforcement

B) the government only has to have probable cause to seize a person's property

C) an owner must be proactive to get his or her property back

D) the state must only prove by a preponderance of evidence that the property was used in a crime

 
D) the state must only prove by a preponderance of evidence that the property was used in a crime
 
74. 

33. Which of the following is NOT a criticism of civil asset forfeiture laws?

A) civil asset forfeiture laws place the burden of proof on the property owner to show that the property seized was not used in a drug-related crime

B) the costs involved in a civil asset forfeiture proceeding can be prohibitively high

C) the standard of proof in civil asset forfeiture cases is too high

D) innocent owners can lose their property when someone else uses it without their permission or knowledge to commit a drug crime

 
C) the standard of proof in civil asset forfeiture cases is too high
 
75. 

34. Which of the following is NOT true about the War on Drugs, at least according to its critics?

A) abuse or misuse of illegal drugs has contributed to more deaths annually than either alcohol or tobacco

B) the drug war is racist

C) the drug war is hugely expensive

D) the government has exaggerated the dangers of illegal drug use

 
A) abuse or misuse of illegal drugs has contributed to more deaths annually than either alcohol or tobacco
 
76. 

35. In 2001, approximately ______ percent of federal prisoners and ______percent of state prisoners were incarcerated for drug offenses.

A) 10; 5

B) 55; 20

C) 20; 55

D) 5; 20

 
B) 55; 20
 
77. 

36. Which of the following is NOT true about terrorism?

A) it is one of the oldest forms of human conflict

B) it has been used by both right-wing and left-wing political organizations, by ethnic and nationalistic groups, by revolutionaries, and by the armies and secret police of established governments

C) the modern era of terrorism began with the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor in 1941, according to the FBI

D) the terrorist acts of 9/11 constituted the bloodiest day on American soil since the Civil War

 
C) the modern era of terrorism began with the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor in 1941, according to the FBI
 
78. 

37. Which of the following is the FBI's definition of terrorism?

A) the unlawful use of force and violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives

B) the systematic use of terror or unpredictable violence against governments, publics, or individuals to attain a political objective

C) premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience

D) the unlawful use, or threatened use, of force or violence by a group or individual based and operating entirely within the United States or its territories without foreign direction committed against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives

 
B) the systematic use of terror or unpredictable violence against governments, publics, or individuals to attain a political objective
 
79. 

38. According to FBI estimates, approximately what percent of international terrorist incidents that occur annually in the United States and abroad are directed at U.S. interests?

A) 1-5

B) 5-10

C) 20-30

D) 50-60

 
C) 20-30
 
80. 

39. Which of the following is NOT one of President Bush's general policy principles that guide law enforcement personnel in dealing with terrorists?

A) only grant concessions to terrorists if U.S. citizens are held hostage and no viable alternative exists

B) bring terrorists to justice for their crimes (no matter how long it takes)

C) isolate and apply pressure on states that sponsor terrorism to force them to change their behavior

D) bolster the counterterrorist capabilities of those countries that work with the United States and require assistance

 
A) only grant concessions to terrorists if U.S. citizens are held hostage and no viable alternative exists p.242
 
81. 

1. What percent of blacks believe that police brutality against blacks happens occasionally or more often in their communities?

A) 15%

B) 33%

C) 60%

D) 80%

 
D) 80%
 
82. 

2. Following are the three I's of police selection. Which one of these does NOT belong?

A) Intuition

B) Interaction skills

C) Integrity

D) Intelligence

 
A) Intuition
 
83. 

3. According to your text, three highly important qualities for police are:

A) the three I's of police selection, common sense, and compassion.

B) strength, endurance, and compassion.

C) Strength, common sense, and the three I's of police selection.

D) The three I's of police selection, appearance, and compassion

 
A) the three I's of police selection, common sense, and compassion.
 
84. 

4. Police work is intrinsically satisfying because it is:

A) generally outdoors

B) nonroutine

C) people-oriented

D) all of the above

 
D) all of the above
 
85. 

5. Failure to fairly represent all genders and races within police departments has led to several negative consequences. Which of the following is NOT one of the negative consequences listed in your textbook?

A) Expensive lawsuits

B) Court-ordered quotas to achieve the desired diversity

C) Consent decrees

D) Sensational publicity

 
D) Sensational publicity p.258
 
86. 

6. Three successful police recruiting practices are listed below. Which of the following does NOT belong?

A) Using television, radio, and newspaper advertisements

B) Going to colleges and to schools in minority communities

C) Waiting for ideal job applicants to gravitate toward one's department

D) Working with local employment offices

 
C) Waiting for ideal job applicants to gravitate toward one's departmen
 
87. 

7. Your textbook names three successful police recruitment programs, which are listed below. Which of the programs listed below is NOT one of these programs?

A) Public safety officer programs

B) High school tech prep programs

C) Police Cadet programs

D) Police Athletic Leagues

 
D) Police Athletic Leagues
 
88. 

8. A merit system of police employment is established when an independent civil service commission, in cooperation with the city personnel section and the police department, sets standards for three of the following issues. Which of the following is NOT set by a merit system?

A) Employment qualifications

B) Recruitment criteria

C) Discipline procedures

D) Performance standards

 
B) Recruitment criteria
 
89. 

9. Your textbook names some of the characteristics of a police chief's job. Three are listed below. Which of the following is NOT listed in your textbook?

A) A typical police chief rarely serves longer than 10 years.

B) Police chiefs must be long-term (preferably lifetime) local residents in order to fully understand the needs of the community.

C) Police chiefs must be politically savvy in order to survive.

D) Much of the political controversy and many of the social problems in major cities and counties end up involving the police department and its chief.

 
B) Police chiefs must be long-term (preferably lifetime) local residents in order to fully understand the needs of the community.
 
90. 

10. Your textbook names three of the characteristics of a typical sheriff. They are listed below. Which of the following is NOT listed in your textbook?

A) Sheriffs sometimes have statewide jurisdiction, especially in states with smaller populations.

B) Sheriffs often have a strong idea of the priorities of a community.

C) Sheriffs wield more influence with prosecutors and in the legislature than do chiefs of police.

D) Sheriffs must be good politicians

 
A) Sheriffs sometimes have statewide jurisdiction, especially in states with smaller populations.
 
91. 

11. The movement to limit the discretion of police officers is the result of:

A) increased police-community relations.

B) lowered crime rates.

C) abuses of that discretion.

D) positive publicity about lowered discretion

 
C) abuses of that discretion.
 
92. 

12. Police officers cannot make an arrest for every violation of law—that is, they cannot provide:

A) limited discretion

B) selective enforcement

C) high discretion

D) full enforcement

 
D) full enforcement
 
93. 

13. The practice of relying on the judgment of the police leadership and rank-and-file officers to decide which laws to enforce is referred to as:

A) limited discretion

B) selective enforcement

C) high discretion

D) full enforcement

 
B) selective enforcement
 
94. 

14. For most violations of the law, a police officer can usually exercise a number of options. Five are listed in your textbook, and three of these are listed below. Which of the following is NOT one of the options listed in your textbook?

A) Making a physical arrest

B) Issuing a written warning

C) Giving a verbal warning

D) Using lethal force

 
D) Using lethal force
 
95. 

15. In cases involving lesser felonies, misdemeanors, and petty offenses, police officers are more likely to:

A) formally report the crime

B) informally handle the crime

C) do nothing

D) make a physical arrest

 
B) informally handle the crime
 
96. 

16. The ____ the complainant, the more likely a patrol officer is to use formal procedures to report and investigate a crime.

A) poorer

B) younger

C) more affluent

D) older

 
C) more affluent
 
97. 

17. For a long time, police looked at domestic violence calls as ____ when, in fact, they should have been treated as ____.

A) criminal matters; routine service calls

B) peacekeeping activities; criminal matters

C) misdemeanors; felonies

D) assault offenses; sexual offenses

 
B) peacekeeping activities; criminal matters
 
98. 

18. Approximately ____ women are victims of domestic violence each year.

A) 50,000

B) 100,000

C) 1 million

D) 5 million

 
C) 1 million
 
99. 

19. Which of the following has/have always made the police the major respondents to domestic violence calls?

A) Ongoing police interest

B) High concern for women’s safety

C) Referrals from other agencies

D) The availability of 24-hour service

 
D) The availability of 24-hour service
 
100. 

20. Police have responded to domestic violence in three distinct ways, which are listed in your textbook. Which of the following is NOT one of these three ways?

A) Arrest both the perpetrator and the victim

B) Separate domestic partners in minor disputes

C) Mediate the dispute

D) Arrest the perpetrator of the assault

 
A) Arrest both the perpetrator and the victim
 
101. 

21. Racial profiling often occurs during ____, where police justify stopping a car because of minor equipment or moving traffic violations that might otherwise be ignored.

A) random patrol

B) pretext stops

C) full enforcement

D) selective enforcement

 
B) pretext stops
 
102. 

22. Your textbook lists several methods that have been prescribed to stop racial profiling. Three are listed below. Which of the following is NOT one of the methods listed in your textbook?

A) Having police officers distribute business cards to all motorists and pedestrians they stop

B) Racial and cultural diversity training for police personnel

C) Arresting all perpetrators regardless of race

D) Videotaping all traffic stops

 
C) Arresting all perpetrators regardless of race
 
103. 

23. Which of the following is defined as the harmful physical and emotional outcomes that occur when the requirements of a job do not match the capabilities, resources, or needs of the employee?

A) Racial profiling

B) Stress management

C) Organizational change

D) Job stress

 
D) Job stress
 
104. 

24. Most people's definitions of brutality include three of the following, according to your textbook. Which of the following is NOT included in your book's definition of brutality?

A) Unnecessary stopping, questioning, and searching of pedestrians or those in vehicles

B) Full enforcement

C) Verbal abuse

D) Threats of force

 
B) Full enforcement
 
105. 

25. Which of the following is a measure of coercion beyond what is necessary to control participants in a conflict?

A) Deadly force

B) Job stress

C) Excessive force

D) Harassment

 
C) Excessive force
 
106. 

26. Approximately what percent of the public rates the police “excellent” or “very good” at responding quickly to calls for help and assistance, preventing crime, solving crime, being helpful and friendly, treating people fairly, and not using excessive force?

A) between 10 and 20

B) between 30 and 40

C) between 60 and 70

D) between 80 and 90

 
C) between 60 and 70
 
107. 

27. Approximately what percent of the public has “a great deal” or “quite a lot” of confidence in the police's ability to protect it from violent crime?

A) 20

B) 40

C) 60

D) 80

 
A) 20
 
108. 

28. In 2001, what was the average beginning salary for police officers in cities of 10,000 or more persons?

A) $19.500

B) $32,500

C) $46,000

D) $60,000

 
B) $32,500
 
109. 

29. Approximately what percent of the sworn officers in the nation's police departments are white males?

A) 40

B) 60

C) 80

D) 95

 
C) 80
 
110. 

30. What is the average level of education in policing today?

A) a high school diploma

B) nearly two years of college

C) a 2-year college degree

D) a 4-year college degree

 
C) a 2-year college degree
 
111. 

31. Which of the following is an advantage of hiring college-educated police officers?

A) better written reports

B) enhanced communication with the public

C) fewer citizen complaints

D) all of the above

 
D) all of the above
 
112. 

32. Which of the following programs is intended to (1) address violent crime by increasing the number of police with advanced education and training on community patrol and (2) provide educational assistance to law enforcement personnel and students who possess a sincere interest in public service in the form of law enforcement?

A) the Police Corps

B) the Public Safety Officer Program

C) the Police Cadet Program

D) the High School Tech Prep Program

 
A) the Police Corps
 
113. 

33. When did the systematic psychological testing of police officers begin?

A) 1950s

B) 1960s

C) 1970s

D) 1980s

 
A) 1950s
 
114. 

34. Approximately what percent of recruits in police academy classes fail to complete the program?

A) 0

B) 10

C) 30

D) 50

 
B) 10
 
115. 

35. According to available research on the subject, which of the following factors does NOT influence the exercise of discretion on the part of police patrol officers?

A) nature of the crime

B) departmental policies

C) amount of evidence

D) personal characteristics of officers

 
D) personal characteristics of officers
 
116. 

36. Which of the following is a way to control the amount of discretion exercised by police officers?

A) close supervision by a police agency's management

B) department directives or policies

C) decisions of the United States Supreme Court

D) all of the above

 
D) all of the above
 
117. 

37. Which of the following U.S. Supreme Court decisions severely restricted the police use of deadly force?

A) Furman v. Georgia

B) Tennessee v. Garner

C) Escobedo v. Illinois

D) Woodson v. North Carolina

 
B) Tennessee v. Garner
 
118. 

38. Which of the following is NOT a type of police misconduct identified by Ellywn Stoddard?

A) chiseling

B) extortion

C) bribery

D) all of the above are types of police misconduct

 
D) all of the above are types of police misconduct
 
119. 

39. _____ are officers who actively seek ways to make money illegally while on duty.

A) Meat eaters

B) Grass eaters

C) Vegans

D) Carnivores

 
A) Meat eaters
 
120. 

40. In which of the following decades were police departments required to engage in affirmative action efforts in the hiring process?

A) 1940s

B) 1950s

C) 1960s

D) 1970s

 
C) 1960s