CNA: Exam 4 Study Guide

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1. 
Thoracic Lymph duct collects from what part of the body? Right Lymph Duct?
 
Thoracic: Left side and lower right (below chest). Right: Rt. side from chest up.
 
2. 
COPD & CAD
 
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease / Coronary Artery Disease
 
3. 
Hypertension Numbers? Prehypertension Numbers? Normal Numbers?
 
Hypertension: 140+/90+ Prehypertension: 120-139/80-89 Normal: -120/ -80
 
4. 
During a Myocardial Infarction... what is the BP usually? Pulse?
 
BP: Low / Pulse: weak or irregular
 
5. 
Pulmonary Edema is what?
 
Fluid in the lungs. Emergency!!!
 
6. 
What position is preferred for person's with CAD and pneumonia?
 
Semi-fowlers
 
7. 
Cardioversion is the same as ______
 
Defibrillation
 
8. 
to treat dysrhythmia, areas of heart sending abnormal rhythms are destroyed.... a process called_______
 
Ablation
 
9. 
COPD involves what 2 diseases?
 
Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema
 
10. 
Soft tissues of the throat relax and close airway when sleeping
 
Obstructive Sleep Apnea
 
11. 
Brain doesn't send signals to the muscles to breathe when sleeping
 
Central Sleep Apnea
 
12. 
Most common complication of flu in older persons
 
Pneumonia
 
13. 
In pneumonia, Breathing and Pulse will appear to be ______
 
Breathing: rapid , shortness of breath / Pulse: rapid
 
14. 
Can an asymptomatic person with TB spread the disease? How long can a person possibly stay asymptomatic?
 
No / many years
 
15. 
Blood in sputum may be a sign of ____
 
TB
 
16. 
Apical pulse is where?
 
Chest
 
17. 
Pulse at wrist
 
Radial Pulse
 
18. 
Pulse at fold in arm
 
Brachial Pulse
 
19. 
Slow heart rate, less than 60/min, is called____
 
Bradycardia
 
20. 
difference between the apical pulse and the radial pulse is called the _______
 
Pulse deficit
 
21. 
Rapid heart rate, 100+/min, is called ____
 
Tachycardia
 
22. 
Vital Signs consist of _____(4)
 
BP, Temp, Pulse, Respiration
 
23. 
DUS stands for ______
 
Doppler Ultrasound Stethescope
 
24. 
Normal temperatures for: Oral, Rectal, Axillary, Tympanic Membrane, Temporal Artery
 
Oral: 89.6 / Rectal: 99.6 / Axillary: 97.6 / Tympanic: 98.6 / Temporal Artery: 99.6
 
25. 
Oral glass thermometers are left in place for how many minutes
 
2-3 minutes
 
26. 
For confused patients, what 2 thermometers are best?
 
Temporal or Tympanic
 
27. 
What position is used for a rectal thermometer? How far is the insertion? What color are they?
 
Sim's Position / 1/2 inch / Red
 
28. 
What pulse is taken during CPR and other emergencies?
 
Carotid Pulse
 
29. 
What pulse site is used for children and infants under 2 years
 
Apical Pulse
 
30. 
In general pulse rate decreases as we age... normal pulse rate for 12+ years is between _____
 
60-100
 
31. 
In order to measure the FORCE of pulse you use____
 
Your touch. Equipment doesn't measure this.
 
32. 
Apical pulses are taken for how long?
 
1 minute
 
33. 
What is used to check a pedal pulse? Why is a pedal pulse taken?
 
Doppler Ultrasound Stethoscope (DUS) / To check foot circulation
 
34. 
Respiration rate decreases as we age... Healthy adult respiration is between _____ /minute
 
12-20 breaths
 
35. 
Children respiratory rate and percieved abnormal respiration should be counted for how long?
 
1 minute
 
36. 
After menopause, women's BP tends to ____
 
Rise
 
37. 
In a state of shock, BP tends to be _______
 
seriously low
 
38. 
When lying down, BP tends to be _____. When standing suddenly or changing positions, it tends to be _________
 
Higher / Lower
 
39. 
Alcohol does what to BP
 
Raises it
 
40. 
Change in BP due to sudden change in position is called ______
 
Orthostatic Hypotension
 
41. 
Person's with bariatric needs may require this type of BP measuring device
 
Wrist Monitor
 
42. 
A person should rest how long before BP is taken? How long if a 2nd test is needed?
 
10-20 minutes / 30-60 seconds
 
43. 
Infants temperature should be taken how?
 
Rectally
 
44. 
Atelectasis is _________
 
Collapse of a portion of a lung
 
45. 
Rapid and deep respirations followed by 10-30 seconds of Apnea that occurs with nervous system disorders is called ____
 
Biot's Respirations
 
46. 
Gradual increase in rate and depth of respirations and then become shallow and slow; 10-20 seconds of Apnea may occur. Usually death is near. This is called
 
Cheyne-Stokes Respirations
 
47. 
Bluish color to the skin, lips, mucous membranes and nail beds
 
Cyanosis
 
48. 
Hemoptysis is ____
 
Blood in sputum
 
49. 
Difference between hypoxemia and hypoxia
 
Hypoxemia, is reduced amount of 02 in blood, Hypoxia is not enough O2 in the cells
 
50. 
Very deep an rapid respirations and a signal of diabetic coma.
 
Kussmaul Respirations
 
51. 
Breathing deeply and comfortably only when sitting up is called______ ,and this position is called ______
 
Orthopnea / Orthopneaic Position
 
52. 
When breathing stops
 
Respiratory Arrest
 
53. 
Slow, weak respirations of fewer that 12 per minute is called._____ . If it is only slow and not weak it is called ____
 
Respiratory Depression / Bradypnea
 
54. 
Tachypnea is how many respirations?
 
20+ / minute
 
55. 
SpO2 means ______
 
Saturation of Peripheral Oxygen
 
56. 
An open airway.... term meaning 'open'
 
Patent
 
57. 
measures the amount of oxygen concentration in the blood.
 
Pulse Oximetry
 
58. 
What is the normal range of pulse oximetry?
 
95-100%
 
59. 
Bright light, fake nails, nail polish and movements may adversely affect what test?
 
Pulse Oximetry
 
60. 
machine that measures that amount of air inhaled
 
Spirometer
 
61. 
Flow rate of O2 is in what units? Who sets the rate?(2) Low flow rates- humidified or not?
 
L/min. Nurse or Resp. Therapist / Low flow rates are not humidified
 
62. 
Do you give Oxygen? Can you set up oxygen? If no bubbling or water level is low, do you fill it?
 
No / Yes / No (tell nurse)
 
63. 
Should oxygen devices be tightly secured? If there are signs of hypoxia, should you turn oxygen up?
 
No, secure but not tight / No...tell the nurse at once
 
64. 
blood in the pleural space
 
hemothorax
 
65. 
the escape and collection of fluid in the pleural space
 
pleural effusion
 
66. 
air in the pleural space
 
pneumothorax
 
67. 
ET stands for _____, RT stands for ______
 
Endotracheal / Respiratory Therapist
 
68. 
Obturators should be where after they have inserted the tracheostomy tube?
 
within easy reach for reinsertion if necessary
 
69. 
A tracheostomy tube comes out, and hypoxia signs are present. Do you reinsert the tube?
 
No, call for the nurse
 
70. 
With a trach tube...shower or tub? Med-alert jewelry or no? Scarf or shirt that would cover the stoma when outside?
 
tub / Med-Alert Jewelry, yes / Yes
 
71. 
T/F Hypoxia is not enough oxygen in the blood?
 
False..... in the CELLS
 
72. 
trach care is done how often?
 
Daily or every 8-12 hours
 
73. 
Tracheostomy secureness shoult be how tight? when is too loose?
 
Fingertip, is right / whole finger is too loose
 
74. 
when providing trach care, what 3 things are done? Who does this?
 
Inner tube cleaned, stoma area cleaned, clean ties replace dirty ones (only removed after clean in place) / The Nurse
 
75. 
Before suctioning a person with an ET or Tracheostomy tube what must be done? Who does this?
 
hyperventilation of lungs using an Ambu bag / Nurse or RT
 
76. 
T/F.... Oxygen is treated like a drug
 
Yes, ....and you do not give drugs
 
77. 
Who does suctioning? How long is a suction cycle for an adult? Children? How long between cycles?
 
Nurses...you assist / 10-15 seconds/cycle (adult), 5 seconds/cycle (children) / 20-30 seconds between cycles
 
78. 
For mechanical ventilation, what type of tube is needed? (2)
 
ET or Trach
 
79. 
Mechanical Ventilation: 1 alarm means what? What do you do? Then what? Reset alarm?
 
Person is disconnected from machine / reconnect the tube / tell the nurse about all alarms / No, only nurses reset alarms
 
80. 
T/F.... you can assist a Dr. when he is inserting a chest tube
 
F..... nurse does this
 
81. 
Is saliva sputum? Explain
 
No....it comes from salivary glands, sputum comes from respiratory tract
 
82. 
Best time of the day for sputum collection? What should the person do first
 
Morning / Rinse mouth with water
 
83. 
in older persons postural drainage can assist in sputum cough up using gravity? Can a CNA do this?
 
No....nurses and RT
 
84. 
how much sputum is needed for a good sample?
 
1-2 teaspoons
 
85. 
life-threatening sensitivity to an antigen
 
anaphylaxis
 
86. 
SCA stands for ________
 
Sudden Cardiac Arrest
 
87. 
BLS stands for _______
 
Basic Life Support
 
88. 
RRT's include what health care professionals? What does it stand for?
 
Doctor, RT, or RN / Rapid Response Team
 
89. 
What is EMS? In a nursing home, who activates this?
 
Emergency Medical Services / A nurse
 
90. 
According the the AHA... what is the first thing in the Chain of Survival actions for adults
 
Recognizing cardiac arrest and activating EMS at once
 
91. 
Agonal breaths/breathing is a sign of what?
 
Sudden Cardiac Arrest
 
92. 
abnormal heart rhythm
 
ventricular fibrillation
 
93. 
When are rescue breaths given? I breath ever ___seconds for adults, every ____ for children. Check pulse every _____ minutes. If no pulse ___
 
When there IS a pulse but NO breathing / 5-6 seconds / 3-5 seconds / 2 minutes / begin CPR
 
94. 
During possible SCA....check pulse for ____seconds but not longer than ______ seconds
 
5 / 10
 
95. 
Chest compression rate should be ____ /minute
 
100
 
96. 
2 breaths are given after how many compressions? If two rescuers, how many compressions?
 
30 / 15
 
97. 
After 1 shock with a defibrillator, what should you do?
 
resume CPR at once for 5 cycles (30/2)
 
98. 
If a person faints, then should wait how long after they feel better before they get up? Should they stand or sit?
 
5 minutes / Sit
 
99. 
Hemiplegia is _____ Aphasia is _____
 
paralized on one side / unable to speak
 
100. 
What color is skin if heat is applied to long? Red or Pale?
 
Pale....blood vessels constrict.
 
101. 
What temperature is considered very hot? hot? warm? tepid? cool? cold?
 
Very Hot: 106+ / Hot: 98-106 / Warm: 93-98 / Tepid: 80-93 / Cool: 65-80 / Cold: 50-65
 
102. 
Who applies Very hot applications? How often should you check an application? What is the longest an application should be left on?
 
The Nurse / every 5 minutes / 15-20 minutes
 
103. 
Should a heating pad be place under a person or body part?
 
No....heat cannot escape
 
104. 
Hyperthermia is what temperature? Hypothermia is what temperature? What blanket is used for each to treat?
 
Hyper: 103+ use a Hypothermia blanket / Hypo: <95, use a hypertherma blanket
 
105. 
Incentive spirometry, Coughing and deep breathing prevent
 
Circulatory and Respiratory complications
 
106. 
TED hose should be removed every ___ hours for ___ minutes
 
8 hours for 30 minutes
 
107. 
When applying an elastic bandage start at the ____ part of the body and finish at the ____ part of the body. Check every ______
 
Distal / Proximal / hour
 
108. 
Digital removal of a fecal impaction is dangerous how?
 
Stimulation of Vagus nerve can slow heart rate
 
109. 
oil-retention enemas should be held in for how long?
 
30-60 minutes
 
110. 
The 5th Vital sign
 
Pain
 
111. 
What stage of REM and NREM occurs only once during a nights sleep? How many stages are in NREM? How many cycles occur in a 7-8 hour sleep?
 
NREM Stage 1 / 4 Stages / 4-6 cycles
 
112. 
Why are sleeping aids and alcohol bad for your sleep if they promote drowsiness and sleep?
 
They interfere with REM
 
113. 
Do TV, talking, bedtime snacks, and flexible bedtimes promote sleep?
 
Yes
 
114. 
Who protects a patients interests?
 
Ombudsman
 
115. 
During admission, who explains the person's rights to the person and family?
 
The nurse