Chap 14 - Immune System

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Lymph clear watery fluid that surronds body cells
flows in a system of lymph vessels that extend throughout the body
two types of leukocytes contained in lymph lymphocytes and monocytes
lymph contains water, salt, sugar, wastes of metabolism such as urea and creatiniine
contains less protein than plasma
lymph originates from blood
interstitial fluid fluid that surronds body cells
lymph capillaries specialized thin walled vessels
functions of the lymphatic system drainage system to transport needed proteins and fluid that have leaked out of the blood capillaries
lymphatic vessels in the intestines absorb lipids from the small intestine and transport them to the bloodstream
part of the bodies immune system

lymph capillaries begin at the spaces around cells throughout the body
carry lymph from the tissue spaces to larger lymph vessels
lymph vessels thicker walls than capillaries
contain valves so that lymph only flows in one direction

lymph nodes collections of stationary lymph tissue
mass of lymph cells and vessels surronded by fiberous
connective tissue capsules
located along the path of lymph vessels
lymph nodes produce lymphocytes
filter lymph
trap substances from inflammation and cancerous lesions
macrophages located in lymph nodes
phagocytose foreign substances

B lymphocytes
B cells
fight disease by producing antibodies
T lymphocytes
T cells
attack bacteria and foreign cells by accurately recognizing a cell surface protein as foreign
poke holes in foreign cells and inject them with toxins
major sites of lymph node concentration cervical
lymph vessels lead toward the thoracic cavity and empty into two large ducts in the upper chest
right lymphatic duct
thoracic duct
thoracic duct drains the lower body and left side of the head
right lymphatic duct drains the right side of the head and the chest
both lymphatic ducts carry lymph into large veins in the neck where the lymph then enter the bloodstream
spleen and thymus gland organs composed of lymph tissue
spleen located in LUQ adjacent to stomach
spleens functions destructio of old erythrocytes by macrophages
filtration of microorganisms and other foreign material in blood
activation of lymphocytes by antigens
storage of blood especially erythrocytes and platelets - splenic blood pool
Splenectomy spleen is susceptible to injury
it removed liver, bone marrow, lymph nodes take over the functions of the spleen
thymus gland lymphatic organ located in the upper mediastinum between the lungs
plays an important role in the body's ability to protect itself from disease especially in fetal life and early years of growth
tolerence the bodies ability to recognize and accept its antigens as friendly
autoimmune disease bodies anibodies attacking healthy cells
lymphoid organs lymph nodes
thymus gland
antigens foreign organisms which antibodies attack
immunity body's ability to resist foreign organisms and toxins that damage tissue and organs
natural immunity genetic predisposition - present in the body at birth
phagocytes neutrophils that migrate to the site of the infection and ingest bacteria
macrophages clear away dead cells and debris as the infection subsides
natural killer cells (NK) primitive lymphocytes that destroy tumor cells and virally infected cells
acquired immunity body develops specific powerful specific immunity
how acquired active immunity occurs: having an infection - antibodies produced and remain in the event the infection reoccurs
vaccination - nontoxic version of the virus stimulates lymphocytes to produce antibodies
transfer of immune cells from a donor
acquired passive immunity when immediate protection is needed
patient receives immune serum (antiserum) containing antibodies produced outside in another person or animal
ex: antitoxin for snake bite
immunoglobulins antibodies
maternal antibodies passed through placenta or mother's milk
immune response involves B lymphocytes (B cells)
T lymphocytes (T cells)
B Cells involved in humoral immunity - produce antigens in response to specific antigens
originate from bone marrow
transforms into antibody producing cell = plasma cell
plasma cells plasma cells produce antibodies called immunoglobulins
Ex: IgA IgD IgE IgC IgM
IgG most abundant immunoglobulin
crosses the placenta to provide immunity for newborns
IgE important in causing allergic reactions and fighting parasitic infections
T cell involced in cell-mediated immunity
originate in bone marrow
further processed in the thymus gland - acted on by thymic hormones
when a T cell encounters and antigen it rapidly produces cells that destroy theantigen
Types of T cells cytotoxic T cell - killer T cells act directly on antigens
produce cytokines (interferons and interleukins) that aid other cells in antigen destruction
helper T cell - stimulates and promotes synthesis and antibodies by B cells and cytokines
suppressor T cells - control B and T cell activity and inhibit or stop
dendritic cell macrophage derived from monocytes - recognizes and digests foreign antigens
pushes antigens to the surface (antigen presentation) where T cells recognize them
clones groups of identical cells from the same parent cell
immunotherapy use of immunologic techniques to treat disease
ex: innoculation, monoclonal antibody (MoAb) - for cancer treatment antibodies produced in a lab through cloning techniques