Chap 14 - Immune System

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1. 
Lymph
 
clear watery fluid that surronds body cells
flows in a system of lymph vessels that extend throughout the body
 
2. 
two types of leukocytes contained in lymph
 
lymphocytes and monocytes
 
3. 
lymph contains
 
water, salt, sugar, wastes of metabolism such as urea and creatiniine
contains less protein than plasma
 
4. 
lymph originates
 
from blood
 
5. 
interstitial fluid
 
fluid that surronds body cells
 
6. 
lymph capillaries
 
specialized thin walled vessels
 
7. 
functions of the lymphatic system
 
drainage system to transport needed proteins and fluid that have leaked out of the blood capillaries
lymphatic vessels in the intestines absorb lipids from the small intestine and transport them to the bloodstream
part of the bodies immune system

 
8. 
lymph capillaries
 
begin at the spaces around cells throughout the body
carry lymph from the tissue spaces to larger lymph vessels
 
9. 
lymph vessels
 
thicker walls than capillaries
contain valves so that lymph only flows in one direction

 
10. 
lymph nodes
 
collections of stationary lymph tissue
mass of lymph cells and vessels surronded by fiberous
connective tissue capsules
located along the path of lymph vessels
 
11. 
lymph nodes
 
produce lymphocytes
filter lymph
trap substances from inflammation and cancerous lesions
 
12. 
macrophages
 
located in lymph nodes
phagocytose foreign substances


 
13. 
B lymphocytes
B cells
 
fight disease by producing antibodies
 
14. 
T lymphocytes
T cells
 
attack bacteria and foreign cells by accurately recognizing a cell surface protein as foreign
poke holes in foreign cells and inject them with toxins
 
15. 
major sites of lymph node concentration
 
cervical
axillary
mediastinal
inguinal
tonsils
adenoids
 
16. 
lymph vessels lead
 
toward the thoracic cavity and empty into two large ducts in the upper chest
right lymphatic duct
thoracic duct
 
17. 
thoracic duct
 
drains the lower body and left side of the head
 
18. 
right lymphatic duct
 
drains the right side of the head and the chest
 
19. 
both lymphatic ducts
 
carry lymph into large veins in the neck where the lymph then enter the bloodstream
 
20. 
spleen and thymus gland
 
organs composed of lymph tissue
 
21. 
spleen
 
located in LUQ adjacent to stomach
 
22. 
spleens functions
 
destructio of old erythrocytes by macrophages
filtration of microorganisms and other foreign material in blood
activation of lymphocytes by antigens
storage of blood especially erythrocytes and platelets - splenic blood pool
 
23. 
Splenectomy
 
spleen is susceptible to injury
it removed liver, bone marrow, lymph nodes take over the functions of the spleen
 
24. 
thymus gland
 
lymphatic organ located in the upper mediastinum between the lungs
plays an important role in the body's ability to protect itself from disease especially in fetal life and early years of growth
 
25. 
tolerence
 
the bodies ability to recognize and accept its antigens as friendly
 
26. 
autoimmune disease
 
bodies anibodies attacking healthy cells
 
27. 
lymphoid organs
 
lymph nodes
spleen
thymus gland
 
28. 
antigens
 
foreign organisms which antibodies attack
 
29. 
immunity
 
body's ability to resist foreign organisms and toxins that damage tissue and organs
 
30. 
natural immunity
 
genetic predisposition - present in the body at birth
 
31. 
phagocytes
 
neutrophils that migrate to the site of the infection and ingest bacteria
 
32. 
macrophages
 
clear away dead cells and debris as the infection subsides
 
33. 
natural killer cells (NK)
 
primitive lymphocytes that destroy tumor cells and virally infected cells
 
34. 
acquired immunity
 
body develops specific powerful specific immunity
 
35. 
how acquired active immunity occurs:
 
having an infection - antibodies produced and remain in the event the infection reoccurs
vaccination - nontoxic version of the virus stimulates lymphocytes to produce antibodies
transfer of immune cells from a donor
 
36. 
acquired passive immunity
 
when immediate protection is needed
patient receives immune serum (antiserum) containing antibodies produced outside in another person or animal
ex: antitoxin for snake bite
 
37. 
immunoglobulins
 
antibodies
 
38. 
maternal antibodies
 
passed through placenta or mother's milk
 
39. 
immune response involves
 
B lymphocytes (B cells)
T lymphocytes (T cells)
 
40. 
B Cells
 
involved in humoral immunity - produce antigens in response to specific antigens
originate from bone marrow
transforms into antibody producing cell = plasma cell
 
41. 
plasma cells
 
plasma cells produce antibodies called immunoglobulins
Ex: IgA IgD IgE IgC IgM
 
42. 
IgG
 
most abundant immunoglobulin
crosses the placenta to provide immunity for newborns
 
43. 
IgE
 
important in causing allergic reactions and fighting parasitic infections
 
44. 
T cell
 
involced in cell-mediated immunity
originate in bone marrow
further processed in the thymus gland - acted on by thymic hormones
when a T cell encounters and antigen it rapidly produces cells that destroy theantigen
 
45. 
Types of T cells
 
cytotoxic T cell - killer T cells act directly on antigens
produce cytokines (interferons and interleukins) that aid other cells in antigen destruction
helper T cell - stimulates and promotes synthesis and antibodies by B cells and cytokines
suppressor T cells - control B and T cell activity and inhibit or stop
 
46. 
dendritic cell
 
macrophage derived from monocytes - recognizes and digests foreign antigens
pushes antigens to the surface (antigen presentation) where T cells recognize them
 
47. 
clones
 
groups of identical cells from the same parent cell
 
48. 
immunotherapy
 
use of immunologic techniques to treat disease
ex: innoculation, monoclonal antibody (MoAb) - for cancer treatment antibodies produced in a lab through cloning techniques