Chap 14 - Immune System

Total Flash Cards » 48
 
1. 

Lymph

 

clear watery fluid that surronds body cells
flows in a system of lymph vessels that extend throughout the body

 
2. 

two types of leukocytes contained in lymph

 

lymphocytes and monocytes

 
3. 

lymph contains

 

water, salt, sugar, wastes of metabolism such as urea and creatiniine
contains less protein than plasma

 
4. 

lymph originates

 

from blood

 
5. 

interstitial fluid

 

fluid that surronds body cells

 
6. 

lymph capillaries

 

specialized thin walled vessels

 
7. 

functions of the lymphatic system

 

drainage system to transport needed proteins and fluid that have leaked out of the blood capillaries
lymphatic vessels in the intestines absorb lipids from the small intestine and transport them to the bloodstream
part of the bodies immune system

 
8. 

lymph capillaries

 

begin at the spaces around cells throughout the body
carry lymph from the tissue spaces to larger lymph vessels

 
9. 

lymph vessels

 

thicker walls than capillaries
contain valves so that lymph only flows in one direction

 
10. 

lymph nodes

 

collections of stationary lymph tissue
mass of lymph cells and vessels surronded by fiberous
connective tissue capsules
located along the path of lymph vessels

 
11. 

lymph nodes

 

produce lymphocytes
filter lymph
trap substances from inflammation and cancerous lesions

 
12. 

macrophages

 

located in lymph nodes
phagocytose foreign substances


 
13. 

B lymphocytes
B cells

 

fight disease by producing antibodies

 
14. 

T lymphocytes
T cells

 

attack bacteria and foreign cells by accurately recognizing a cell surface protein as foreign
poke holes in foreign cells and inject them with toxins

 
15. 

major sites of lymph node concentration

 

cervical
axillary
mediastinal
inguinal
tonsils
adenoids

 
16. 

lymph vessels lead

 

toward the thoracic cavity and empty into two large ducts in the upper chest
right lymphatic duct
thoracic duct

 
17. 

thoracic duct

 

drains the lower body and left side of the head

 
18. 

right lymphatic duct

 

drains the right side of the head and the chest

 
19. 

both lymphatic ducts

 

carry lymph into large veins in the neck where the lymph then enter the bloodstream

 
20. 

spleen and thymus gland

 

organs composed of lymph tissue

 
21. 

spleen

 

located in LUQ adjacent to stomach

 
22. 

spleens functions

 

destructio of old erythrocytes by macrophages
filtration of microorganisms and other foreign material in blood
activation of lymphocytes by antigens
storage of blood especially erythrocytes and platelets - splenic blood pool

 
23. 

Splenectomy

 

spleen is susceptible to injury
it removed liver, bone marrow, lymph nodes take over the functions of the spleen

 
24. 

thymus gland

 

lymphatic organ located in the upper mediastinum between the lungs
plays an important role in the body's ability to protect itself from disease especially in fetal life and early years of growth

 
25. 

tolerence

 

the bodies ability to recognize and accept its antigens as friendly

 
26. 

autoimmune disease

 

bodies anibodies attacking healthy cells

 
27. 

lymphoid organs

 

lymph nodes
spleen
thymus gland

 
28. 

antigens

 

foreign organisms which antibodies attack

 
29. 

immunity

 

body's ability to resist foreign organisms and toxins that damage tissue and organs

 
30. 

natural immunity

 

genetic predisposition - present in the body at birth

 
31. 

phagocytes

 

neutrophils that migrate to the site of the infection and ingest bacteria

 
32. 

macrophages

 

clear away dead cells and debris as the infection subsides

 
33. 

natural killer cells (NK)

 

primitive lymphocytes that destroy tumor cells and virally infected cells

 
34. 

acquired immunity

 

body develops specific powerful specific immunity

 
35. 

how acquired active immunity occurs:

 

having an infection - antibodies produced and remain in the event the infection reoccurs
vaccination - nontoxic version of the virus stimulates lymphocytes to produce antibodies
transfer of immune cells from a donor

 
36. 

acquired passive immunity

 

when immediate protection is needed
patient receives immune serum (antiserum) containing antibodies produced outside in another person or animal
ex: antitoxin for snake bite

 
37. 

immunoglobulins

 

antibodies

 
38. 

maternal antibodies

 

passed through placenta or mother's milk

 
39. 

immune response involves

 

B lymphocytes (B cells)
T lymphocytes (T cells)

 
40. 

B Cells

 

involved in humoral immunity - produce antigens in response to specific antigens
originate from bone marrow
transforms into antibody producing cell = plasma cell

 
41. 

plasma cells

 

plasma cells produce antibodies called immunoglobulins
Ex: IgA IgD IgE IgC IgM

 
42. 

IgG

 

most abundant immunoglobulin
crosses the placenta to provide immunity for newborns

 
43. 

IgE

 

important in causing allergic reactions and fighting parasitic infections

 
44. 

T cell

 

involced in cell-mediated immunity
originate in bone marrow
further processed in the thymus gland - acted on by thymic hormones
when a T cell encounters and antigen it rapidly produces cells that destroy theantigen

 
45. 

Types of T cells

 

cytotoxic T cell - killer T cells act directly on antigens
produce cytokines (interferons and interleukins) that aid other cells in antigen destruction
helper T cell - stimulates and promotes synthesis and antibodies by B cells and cytokines
suppressor T cells - control B and T cell activity and inhibit or stop

 
46. 

dendritic cell

 

macrophage derived from monocytes - recognizes and digests foreign antigens
pushes antigens to the surface (antigen presentation) where T cells recognize them

 
47. 

clones

 

groups of identical cells from the same parent cell

 
48. 

immunotherapy

 

use of immunologic techniques to treat disease
ex: innoculation, monoclonal antibody (MoAb) - for cancer treatment antibodies produced in a lab through cloning techniques