BIO Placement Review

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1. which of the following is false about sciencetific theories?
a.they have been thoroughly tested
b.they are developed by inductive reasoning
c. used to support observations using deductive reasoning
d.they can either be supported or modified by new observations
e.firmly established and cannot be refuted

E
2. which of the following would be least helped by the scientific method?
a.developing more effective high school curricula
b.evaluating the relationship between violence in video games and criminal behavior in teens
c.determining the most effective safety products for automobiles
d.formulating public policy on euthanasia
e.comparing the effectiveness of two potential antibiotics
D
3. what is a controlled experiment?
one variable is manipulated while others are held constant
4. Name 3 characteristics of living organisms
organized structure, growth and reproduction, maintenance and homeostasis
5. What is the maintenance of internal conditions of an organism within a certain boundary range?
homeostasis
6. organize organ system, tissue, organ and cell in the correct order
cell, tissue, organ, organ system
7. which kingdom possess uni-cellular plant-like and animal-like species?
Protist
8. How are the bacteria and eukarya domains distinguished?
in bacteria there is an absence of membranous organelles, sch as a nucleus
9. what is the basic difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic
prokaryotic lacks a nucleus
10. if the atomic number of carbon is 6, its nucleus must contain..
6 protons, 0 electrons
11. a chemical compound that releases OH- into a solution is called
a base
12. what happens when hydrochloric acid is added to water
the HCL molecules separate into H+ and CL-
13. name 3 properties of water molecules that enables water to function as a moderator of temperature for living organisms
high specific heat, high heat of vaporization, high heat of fusion
14. the formation of ions involve..
gain or loss of electrons
15. a covalent bond is formed when..
two atoms share electrons
16. what type of chemical reaction results in the breakdown of organic polymers into their respective subunits
hydrolysis
17. Name a reaction that requires the removal of water to form a covalent bond
peptide ----> amino acids
18. which of the following refers to the amino acid sequence of proteins
a.primary
b.secondary
c.tertiary
d.qauternary
A
19. What is not a feature of a prokaryotic cell
A nuclear membrane
20. after being formed by ribosomes on the endoplasmic reticulum what is the next organelle a protein may be transported to?
Golgi apparatus
21. which type of cell does not produce cell walls
animal cells
22. You measure the concentration of a polar molecule inside and outside the cell and find that the concentration of this molecule inside and outside the cell and find that the concentration is gradually increasing inside the cell. you also measure the concentration of ATP inside the cell and find that it is dropping. which process are you observing?
Active transport
23. the movement of water across a membrane from a solution of lower solute concentration to a solution of higher solute concentration is best described as..
osmosis
24. what is least likely to degrade a protein?
water
25. name the energy generating process that occurs in almost all living organisms
glycolysis
26. at the end of glycolysis, the original carbons of the glucose molecules form..
two molecules of pyruvate
27. the oxygen we breathe in is used in
electron transport system
28. if a DNA sample contains 13% adenine, what percentage of the same contains cytosine
37%
29. for the mutation to affect the evolution of an animal species, it must occur in what
gametes
30. mutations, crossing over and random assortment of parental chromosomes during meiosis are examples of what
genetic variation among offspring
31. if a sperm cell has 6 chromosomes, its comes from an animal whose somatic cells have ___ chromosomes
12
32. the haploid number of chromosomes for humans is
23
33. name the correct sequence of stages in the cell cycle
G1, S, G2, M
34. true or false: the genetic information in almost all of your body cells is identical
true
35. what is the importance of crossing over in meiosis
it ensures the daughter cells have different genetic material
36. at which phase of meiosis is each chromosome composed of a single chromatid
Anaphase 11
37. which of the classes of RNA moleculs carries the genetic information as it is needed for the construction of a protein
Messenger RNA
38. what occurs in the nucleus in a eukaryotic cell
transcription and replication of genetic material
39. what are alleles
alternative forms of a gene for a single trait, such as blue or brown eyes
40. an individual who is a carrier for a sex-linked trait, such hemophilia ____
shows the dominant phenotype
41. an individual with a dominant phenotype is crossed with a individual with a recessive phenotype and 4 of 9 offspring show the recessive phenotype. what is the genotype of the parent with the dominant phenotype?
Aa
42. which of the following is not true according to mendels law of segregation
a.each individual contains 2 factors for each trait
b.one factor must be dominant and one recessive
c.factors separate from each other during the formation of gametes
d.each gamete contains one copy of each factor
e.fertilization restores 2 copies of each factor
B
43. which of the following can evolve
a.individuals
b.populations
c.genes
d.DNA


B
44. gene variations i natural populations develop due to
random mutation of the DNA
45. natural selection can act on a trait only if the trait is
heritable
46. a primary source of scientific result is
articles in peer-reviewed journals
47. name 2 universal characteristics of life
the ability to grow and the ability to reproduce using DNA
48. what level of organization is the most inclusive
Biosphere
49. the first cells are likely to refer to
prokaryotes
50. true or false: the atoms of a single element do not have the same number of electrons
false
51. the second orbital shell of an atom can hold how many electrons
8
52. a chemical compound that releases H+ into a solution is
an acid
53. a neutral solution has
equal amount of H+ and OH-
54. what determines the cohesiveness of water molecules
hydrogen bonds
55. what bond is easily disrupted in water solutions
ionic
56. large biological molecules are synthesized by the removal of
water
57. name the 4 most common elements found in living organisms
hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen
58. if a reaction results in one molecule losing an electron and a second molecule gaining that electron, the electron donor is said to be
oxidized
59. a molecule of glucose has the molecular formula
C6 H12 O6 therefore it has ___ atoms
24
60. a lipid is a polymer made up of what kind of monomers
fatty acids and glycerol
61. how are amino acids and proteins related
proteins are made up of chains of amino acids
62. fish sperm contains mostly the male fish's DNA. if tested chemically, there would be relatively high amounts of..
nitrogenous bases, sugar and phosphate groups
63. true or false: prokaryotes have circular pieces of DNA within their nuclei
false
64. chloroplasts do what in plant cells
are the site of conversion of light energy into chemical energy
65. true or false: cells walls have many small holes
true
66. true or false: cells walls only occur in plant cells
false
67. the movement of molecules across a membrane from an area of high to low concentration is best described as
passive transport
68. the pH of lysosomes is likely to be
5
69. in a phospholipid bylayer the phosphate heads are oriented towards the ___ of the cell or toward the ____
exterior, cytoplasm
70. if enzymes were used during a reaction, what could be added to a system to make the reaction occur faster
a small increase in heat energy
71. what process occurs in the cytosol
glycolysis
72. during what cycle are the products of glycolysis further broken down, generating addition ATP and NADH molecules
Krebs Cycle
73. the anaerobic break down of glucose is called
fermentation
74. what is the significance of the conversion of pyruvate to lactate during fermentation
NAD+ is regenerated for use in glycolysis
75. if a species contains 40% guanine in its DNA, what is the percentage of adenine that it would contain
10%
76. true or false: A+C = G+T
true
77. True or false: replication occurs as each base is paired with one exactly like it
false ................................................................................
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I LOVE YOU ZACHARY :)
78. a mini-gee hase the base sequence TACCCGTGCACG if the T at the beginning of the sequence is deleted, what will be the consequence
all of the codons after that point will be changed
79. what point mutation would be likely to have a catastrophic effect
a base deletion near the start of the coding sequence
80. a cell formed through fertilization
zygote
81. list the correct sequence of mitosis
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
82. what does not occur in telophase
the centromeres split apart
83. during which stage of meiosis does crossing-over occur
prophase 1
84. prior to protein synthesis what does DNA do
serves as a template for the production of mRNA
85. which class of RNA molecules carries the amino acids that are added to the growing polypeptide chain
transfer RNA
86. the process of converting the "message" of mRNA into a sequence of amino acids is called
translation
87. traits controlled by sex-inked recessive genes are expressed more often in males because
the male has only one copy of these genes
88. a human male has ___ chromosomes with ___ sex chromosomes
46, XY
89. true or false: males have two copies of the allele for x-linked characteristics, but females only have one
false
90. true or false: evolutions is responsible for the increased occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria
true
91. define science
both a body of knowledge and an intellectual activity encompassing observation, description, experimentation and explanation of natural phenomena
92. what is the control group in an experiment
a sample taken through all experimental steps except the one being tested
93. what group is most abundant in terms of numbers of individuals
prokaryotes
94. which of the following is a multicellular organism
a.heart
b.cardiovascular system
c.bacterium
d.forest ecosystem
e.cockroach
E
95. define metabolism
an organisms ability to use energy
96. a cell that lacks membranous organelles is
a prokaryotic cell
97. true or false: electrons are negatively charged
true
98. why can water absorb and store a large amount of heat while increasing only a few degrees in temperate
the heat must first be used to break the hydrogen bonds rather than raise the temperature
99. what provides some energy storage for animals
glycogen
100. true or false: triglycerides are polar and hydrophyllic
false, nonpolar and hydrophobic
101. which of the following is not an organic molecule
a.protein
b.nucleic acid
c.monosaccharide
d.carbon dioxide
e.lipid
D
102. true or false: bacteria cell walls are composed of the same material as plant cell walls
false
103. the _____ allows selected molecules to pass into and out of the cell
plasma membrane
104. if a living plant were moved from fresh water to salt water what would occur
the plants cells would lose water
105. which phrase does not describe one of the functions of proteins of the plasma/cell membrane
a.forming a channel through the membrane
b.initiating the replication of genetic material
c.binding to a substance to carry it through the membrane
d.acting as a receptor for substances outside the cell
e.maintaining Na+/K+ balance in cell
B
106. name 2 things ribosomes do
they contain RNA and proteins, they synthesize proteins
107. what are the hair-like projections that line our respiratory tract and cover one-celled paramecia
cilia
108. what does lactose intolerance result from
lack of hydrolysis of lactose
109. which molecule attaches to pyruvate after glycolysis and before krebs cycle
acetyl-CoA
110. what is the significance of the conversion of pyruvate to lactate during fermentation
NAD+ is regenerated for use in glycolysis
111. the first process in breaking down glucose is
glycolysis
112. what molecules can be modified to enter the citric acid/krebs cycle
pyruvate, amino acids, fatty acids
113. because one strand of the double-stranded helix is found in each daughter cell, the replication process is called
semiconservative
114. in a DNA molecule, base pairing occurs between
adenine and thymine
115. during which phase of the eukaryotic cell does DNA and chromosome replication occur
the S phase of interphase
116. when a cell divides via mitosis what happens
each daughter cell receives nearly a perfect copy of the parents cells genetic information
117. meiotic cell division occurs in the ___ and results in the production of ___
Germ-line, gametes
118. in the comparison of a DNA molecule to a twisted ladder, the upright sides of the ladder are ___
deoxyribose linked to phosphate
119. true or false: matings between individuals with dominant phenotypes cannot produce offspring with recessive phenotypes
false
120. true or false: all mutations are harmful for the organism
false
121. what is the pathway of information flow in a cell
DNA ---> RNA--->protein
122. which class of RNA molecules is a part of the process of transcription
Messenger RNA
123. which of the classes of RNA molecules is/are a part of the process of translation
ribosomal RNA, transfer RNA, messenger RNA
124. all of the following are directly involved in translation except
a.ribosomes
b.tRNA
c.amino acids
d.DNA
e.mRNA
DNA
125. the human appendix is an example of a
vestigial structure