BIO Placement Review

Total Flash Cards » 125
 
1. 

which of the following is false about sciencetific theories?
a.they have been thoroughly tested
b.they are developed by inductive reasoning
c. used to support observations using deductive reasoning
d.they can either be supported or modified by new observations
e.firmly established and cannot be refuted

 

E

 
2. 

which of the following would be least helped by the scientific method?
a.developing more effective high school curricula
b.evaluating the relationship between violence in video games and criminal behavior in teens
c.determining the most effective safety products for automobiles
d.formulating public policy on euthanasia
e.comparing the effectiveness of two potential antibiotics

 

D

 
3. 

what is a controlled experiment?

 

one variable is manipulated while others are held constant

 
4. 

Name 3 characteristics of living organisms

 

organized structure, growth and reproduction, maintenance and homeostasis

 
5. 

What is the maintenance of internal conditions of an organism within a certain boundary range?

 

homeostasis

 
6. 

organize organ system, tissue, organ and cell in the correct order

 

cell, tissue, organ, organ system

 
7. 

which kingdom possess uni-cellular plant-like and animal-like species?

 

Protist

 
8. 

How are the bacteria and eukarya domains distinguished?

 

in bacteria there is an absence of membranous organelles, sch as a nucleus

 
9. 

what is the basic difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic

 

prokaryotic lacks a nucleus

 
10. 

if the atomic number of carbon is 6, its nucleus must contain..

 

6 protons, 0 electrons

 
11. 

a chemical compound that releases OH- into a solution is called

 

a base

 
12. 

what happens when hydrochloric acid is added to water

 

the HCL molecules separate into H+ and CL-

 
13. 

name 3 properties of water molecules that enables water to function as a moderator of temperature for living organisms

 

high specific heat, high heat of vaporization, high heat of fusion

 
14. 

the formation of ions involve..

 

gain or loss of electrons

 
15. 

a covalent bond is formed when..

 

two atoms share electrons

 
16. 

what type of chemical reaction results in the breakdown of organic polymers into their respective subunits

 

hydrolysis

 
17. 

Name a reaction that requires the removal of water to form a covalent bond

 

peptide ----> amino acids

 
18. 

which of the following refers to the amino acid sequence of proteins
a.primary
b.secondary
c.tertiary
d.qauternary

 

A

 
19. 

What is not a feature of a prokaryotic cell

 

A nuclear membrane

 
20. 

after being formed by ribosomes on the endoplasmic reticulum what is the next organelle a protein may be transported to?

 

Golgi apparatus

 
21. 

which type of cell does not produce cell walls

 

animal cells

 
22. 

You measure the concentration of a polar molecule inside and outside the cell and find that the concentration of this molecule inside and outside the cell and find that the concentration is gradually increasing inside the cell. you also measure the concentration of ATP inside the cell and find that it is dropping. which process are you observing?

 

Active transport

 
23. 

the movement of water across a membrane from a solution of lower solute concentration to a solution of higher solute concentration is best described as..

 

osmosis

 
24. 

what is least likely to degrade a protein?

 

water

 
25. 

name the energy generating process that occurs in almost all living organisms

 

glycolysis

 
26. 

at the end of glycolysis, the original carbons of the glucose molecules form..

 

two molecules of pyruvate

 
27. 

the oxygen we breathe in is used in

 

electron transport system

 
28. 

if a DNA sample contains 13% adenine, what percentage of the same contains cytosine

 

37%

 
29. 

for the mutation to affect the evolution of an animal species, it must occur in what

 

gametes

 
30. 

mutations, crossing over and random assortment of parental chromosomes during meiosis are examples of what

 

genetic variation among offspring

 
31. 

if a sperm cell has 6 chromosomes, its comes from an animal whose somatic cells have ___ chromosomes

 

12

 
32. 

the haploid number of chromosomes for humans is

 

23

 
33. 

name the correct sequence of stages in the cell cycle

 

G1, S, G2, M

 
34. 

true or false: the genetic information in almost all of your body cells is identical

 

true

 
35. 

what is the importance of crossing over in meiosis

 

it ensures the daughter cells have different genetic material

 
36. 

at which phase of meiosis is each chromosome composed of a single chromatid

 

Anaphase 11

 
37. 

which of the classes of RNA moleculs carries the genetic information as it is needed for the construction of a protein

 

Messenger RNA

 
38. 

what occurs in the nucleus in a eukaryotic cell

 

transcription and replication of genetic material

 
39. 

what are alleles

 

alternative forms of a gene for a single trait, such as blue or brown eyes

 
40. 

an individual who is a carrier for a sex-linked trait, such hemophilia ____

 

shows the dominant phenotype

 
41. 

an individual with a dominant phenotype is crossed with a individual with a recessive phenotype and 4 of 9 offspring show the recessive phenotype. what is the genotype of the parent with the dominant phenotype?

 

Aa

 
42. 

which of the following is not true according to mendels law of segregation
a.each individual contains 2 factors for each trait
b.one factor must be dominant and one recessive
c.factors separate from each other during the formation of gametes
d.each gamete contains one copy of each factor
e.fertilization restores 2 copies of each factor

 

B

 
43. 

which of the following can evolve
a.individuals
b.populations
c.genes
d.DNA


 

B

 
44. 

gene variations i natural populations develop due to

 

random mutation of the DNA

 
45. 

natural selection can act on a trait only if the trait is

 

heritable

 
46. 

a primary source of scientific result is

 

articles in peer-reviewed journals

 
47. 

name 2 universal characteristics of life

 

the ability to grow and the ability to reproduce using DNA

 
48. 

what level of organization is the most inclusive

 

Biosphere

 
49. 

the first cells are likely to refer to

 

prokaryotes

 
50. 

true or false: the atoms of a single element do not have the same number of electrons

 

false

 
51. 

the second orbital shell of an atom can hold how many electrons

 

8

 
52. 

a chemical compound that releases H+ into a solution is

 

an acid

 
53. 

a neutral solution has

 

equal amount of H+ and OH-

 
54. 

what determines the cohesiveness of water molecules

 

hydrogen bonds

 
55. 

what bond is easily disrupted in water solutions

 

ionic

 
56. 

large biological molecules are synthesized by the removal of

 

water

 
57. 

name the 4 most common elements found in living organisms

 

hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen

 
58. 

if a reaction results in one molecule losing an electron and a second molecule gaining that electron, the electron donor is said to be

 

oxidized

 
59. 

a molecule of glucose has the molecular formula
C6 H12 O6 therefore it has ___ atoms

 

24

 
60. 

a lipid is a polymer made up of what kind of monomers

 

fatty acids and glycerol

 
61. 

how are amino acids and proteins related

 

proteins are made up of chains of amino acids

 
62. 

fish sperm contains mostly the male fish's DNA. if tested chemically, there would be relatively high amounts of..

 

nitrogenous bases, sugar and phosphate groups

 
63. 

true or false: prokaryotes have circular pieces of DNA within their nuclei

 

false

 
64. 

chloroplasts do what in plant cells

 

are the site of conversion of light energy into chemical energy

 
65. 

true or false: cells walls have many small holes

 

true

 
66. 

true or false: cells walls only occur in plant cells

 

false

 
67. 

the movement of molecules across a membrane from an area of high to low concentration is best described as

 

passive transport

 
68. 

the pH of lysosomes is likely to be

 

5

 
69. 

in a phospholipid bylayer the phosphate heads are oriented towards the ___ of the cell or toward the ____

 

exterior, cytoplasm

 
70. 

if enzymes were used during a reaction, what could be added to a system to make the reaction occur faster

 

a small increase in heat energy

 
71. 

what process occurs in the cytosol

 

glycolysis

 
72. 

during what cycle are the products of glycolysis further broken down, generating addition ATP and NADH molecules

 

Krebs Cycle

 
73. 

the anaerobic break down of glucose is called

 

fermentation

 
74. 

what is the significance of the conversion of pyruvate to lactate during fermentation

 

NAD+ is regenerated for use in glycolysis

 
75. 

if a species contains 40% guanine in its DNA, what is the percentage of adenine that it would contain

 

10%

 
76. 

true or false: A+C = G+T

 

true

 
77. 

True or false: replication occurs as each base is paired with one exactly like it

 

false ................................................................................
..........................................................................................
..........................................................................................
I LOVE YOU ZACHARY :)

 
78. 

a mini-gee hase the base sequence TACCCGTGCACG if the T at the beginning of the sequence is deleted, what will be the consequence

 

all of the codons after that point will be changed

 
79. 

what point mutation would be likely to have a catastrophic effect

 

a base deletion near the start of the coding sequence

 
80. 

a cell formed through fertilization

 

zygote

 
81. 

list the correct sequence of mitosis

 

prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

 
82. 

what does not occur in telophase

 

the centromeres split apart

 
83. 

during which stage of meiosis does crossing-over occur

 

prophase 1

 
84. 

prior to protein synthesis what does DNA do

 

serves as a template for the production of mRNA

 
85. 

which class of RNA molecules carries the amino acids that are added to the growing polypeptide chain

 

transfer RNA

 
86. 

the process of converting the "message" of mRNA into a sequence of amino acids is called

 

translation

 
87. 

traits controlled by sex-inked recessive genes are expressed more often in males because

 

the male has only one copy of these genes

 
88. 

a human male has ___ chromosomes with ___ sex chromosomes

 

46, XY

 
89. 

true or false: males have two copies of the allele for x-linked characteristics, but females only have one

 

false

 
90. 

true or false: evolutions is responsible for the increased occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria

 

true

 
91. 

define science

 

both a body of knowledge and an intellectual activity encompassing observation, description, experimentation and explanation of natural phenomena

 
92. 

what is the control group in an experiment

 

a sample taken through all experimental steps except the one being tested

 
93. 

what group is most abundant in terms of numbers of individuals

 

prokaryotes

 
94. 

which of the following is a multicellular organism
a.heart
b.cardiovascular system
c.bacterium
d.forest ecosystem
e.cockroach

 

E

 
95. 

define metabolism

 

an organisms ability to use energy

 
96. 

a cell that lacks membranous organelles is

 

a prokaryotic cell

 
97. 

true or false: electrons are negatively charged

 

true

 
98. 

why can water absorb and store a large amount of heat while increasing only a few degrees in temperate

 

the heat must first be used to break the hydrogen bonds rather than raise the temperature

 
99. 

what provides some energy storage for animals

 

glycogen

 
100. 

true or false: triglycerides are polar and hydrophyllic

 

false, nonpolar and hydrophobic

 
101. 

which of the following is not an organic molecule
a.protein
b.nucleic acid
c.monosaccharide
d.carbon dioxide
e.lipid

 

D

 
102. 

true or false: bacteria cell walls are composed of the same material as plant cell walls

 

false

 
103. 

the _____ allows selected molecules to pass into and out of the cell

 

plasma membrane

 
104. 

if a living plant were moved from fresh water to salt water what would occur

 

the plants cells would lose water

 
105. 

which phrase does not describe one of the functions of proteins of the plasma/cell membrane
a.forming a channel through the membrane
b.initiating the replication of genetic material
c.binding to a substance to carry it through the membrane
d.acting as a receptor for substances outside the cell
e.maintaining Na+/K+ balance in cell

 

B

 
106. 

name 2 things ribosomes do

 

they contain RNA and proteins, they synthesize proteins

 
107. 

what are the hair-like projections that line our respiratory tract and cover one-celled paramecia

 

cilia

 
108. 

what does lactose intolerance result from

 

lack of hydrolysis of lactose

 
109. 

which molecule attaches to pyruvate after glycolysis and before krebs cycle

 

acetyl-CoA

 
110. 

what is the significance of the conversion of pyruvate to lactate during fermentation

 

NAD+ is regenerated for use in glycolysis

 
111. 

the first process in breaking down glucose is

 

glycolysis

 
112. 

what molecules can be modified to enter the citric acid/krebs cycle

 

pyruvate, amino acids, fatty acids

 
113. 

because one strand of the double-stranded helix is found in each daughter cell, the replication process is called

 

semiconservative

 
114. 

in a DNA molecule, base pairing occurs between

 

adenine and thymine

 
115. 

during which phase of the eukaryotic cell does DNA and chromosome replication occur

 

the S phase of interphase

 
116. 

when a cell divides via mitosis what happens

 

each daughter cell receives nearly a perfect copy of the parents cells genetic information

 
117. 

meiotic cell division occurs in the ___ and results in the production of ___

 

Germ-line, gametes

 
118. 

in the comparison of a DNA molecule to a twisted ladder, the upright sides of the ladder are ___

 

deoxyribose linked to phosphate

 
119. 

true or false: matings between individuals with dominant phenotypes cannot produce offspring with recessive phenotypes

 

false

 
120. 

true or false: all mutations are harmful for the organism

 

false

 
121. 

what is the pathway of information flow in a cell

 

DNA ---> RNA--->protein

 
122. 

which class of RNA molecules is a part of the process of transcription

 

Messenger RNA

 
123. 

which of the classes of RNA molecules is/are a part of the process of translation

 

ribosomal RNA, transfer RNA, messenger RNA

 
124. 

all of the following are directly involved in translation except
a.ribosomes
b.tRNA
c.amino acids
d.DNA
e.mRNA

 

DNA

 
125. 

the human appendix is an example of a

 

vestigial structure