Bio 102 flash cards

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1. 
The influenza viruses that infect man usually are derived from a type that could also infect:
 

Birds and pigs

 
2. 

In recent years outbreaks of deadly strains of flu virus in people in Hong Kong and Asia have led to the widespread slaughter of __________________ to prevent the spread of the virus.

 
Poultry
 
3. 

Which of the following can a virus not infect?

 

Bacteria

Amphibians

Reptiles

Plants

e. None of the above are correct

 
4. 
Which of the following diseases are caused by viruses?
 

The common cold and influenza

Smallpox and mononucleosis

Polio and rabies

Aids and warts

e. All of the above are correct

 
5. 

Most viruses:

 

Are extremely small

Do not consist of even a single cell

d. Both A and B are correct

 
6. 
A virus may contain which of the following?
 

DNA

RNA

A protein coat

An envelope

e. All of the above are correct

 
7. 

Which of the following would not be found in a virus?

 

A nucleus

Ribosomes

Both B and C are correct

 
8. 

The genetic information in viruses:

 
Is DNA or RNA
 
9. 

A capsid is:

 

A protein coat of a virus

 
10. 

A layer of host cell membrane attached to a virus is called:

 
An envelope
 
11. 

HIV is a:

 
Single-stranded RNA virus
 
12. 
The shape of a virus is determined by:
 

Its coat protein organization

 
13. 
An organism that a virus can replicate in without causing symptoms of disease:
 
Is called a reservoir
 
14. 
A reason or reasons given by scientists as to why viruses are not considered living organisms include:
 

Viruses do not reproduce on their own

 
15. 
Scientists may use which of the following to grow viral cultures in a laboratory?
 

Bacteria

Live animals

Live plants

Fertilized chicken eggs

e. All of the above are correct

 
16. 
The stage of viral replication in which the viral nucleic acid is released inside the cell is:
 

Penetration

 
17. 

The stage of viral replication in which the host cell produces viral nucleic acids and proteins is:

 
Synthesis
 
18. 

The stage of viral replication in which the virus binds a cell surface receptor is:

 
Attachment
 
19. 
The stage of viral replication in which the new viruses leave the host cell is:
 
Release
 
20. 
The stage of viral replication in which viral components are put together to form new viruses is:
 
Assembly
 
21. 
The type of viral infection in which a virus enters a host cell immediately replicates and causes the host cell to burst is:
 
A lytic infection
 
22. 
The type of viral infection in which a virus enters a host cell and then remains dormant (hidden) in a host cell's chromosome is:
 
A lysogenic infection
 
23. 
A latent viral infection:
 

Is caused by HIV

Occurs when the viral genome remains integrated in the host chromosome without causing symptoms

Is caused by herpes virus

d. All of the above are correct

 
24. 

An example of a type of treatment used to treat HIV infections is:

 

Integrase inhibitors

Protease inhibitors

d. Both A and B are correct

 
25. 
Integrase inhibitors:
 

Inhibit viral DNA from inserting into the host chromosome

 
26. 
Drugs like Aziodothymidine (AZT):
 
Inhibit reverse transcriptase
 
27. 

The enzyme that HIV uses to convert its RNA into DNA is:

 
Reverse transcriptase
 
28. 
Most antibiotics are not effective against viruses because:
 

Antibiotics target cell walls and cell membranes, which viruses do not have

Antibiotics target ribosomes and enzymes which viruses do not have

d. Both A and B are correct

 
29. 
Plasmodesmata are:
 

Bridges of cytoplasm between plant cells

 
30. 
The hepatitis virus that is transmitted primarily by contact with infected blood is:
 

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis C

e. Both B and C are correct

 
31. 

Which of the following is not characteristic of a prokaryote?

 

Prokaryotes do not have a chromosome

 
32. 
A microbiologist gram stains a bacterium and finds the bacterium to be blue to purple in color, this identifies:
 

The bacterium as gram positive

 
33. 

Staphylococcus aureus:

 

Inhabits most humans

Is gram positive

May cause toxic shock syndrome

May cause scalded skin syndrome

e. All of the above are correct

 
34. 
The structures of prokaryotes that are used to transfer DNA from one cell to another are:
 
Sex pili
 
35. 

Prokaryotes cannot live in:

 

Ice

High in the atmosphere

In thermal vents

Animal intestines

e. None of the above are correct

 
36. 

The genus Treponema causes:

 

Syphilis

 
37. 
MRSA are:
 
Are resistant to methicillin
 
38. 

DNA that is separate and apart from the chromosome in a prokaryote is the:

 
Plasmid
 
39. 
The three most common shapes of bacteria are:
 

Spherical, rod shaped and spiral

 
40. 

A microbiologist gram stains a bacterium and finds the bacterium to be pink to red in color, this identifies:

 

The bacterium as gram negative

 
41. 

A type of horizontal gene transfer in prokaryotes in which a cell receives bacterial DNA from a bacteriophage is:

 
Transduction
 
42. 
A type of horizontal gene transfer in prokaryotes in which a cell takes up naked DNA without cell to cell contact is:
 
Transformation
 
43. 
A part of or parts of the human body that normally remain sterile is (are
 

Blood

Nervous system

Stomach

Urinary bladder

e. All of the above are correct

 
44. 

Dormant thick-walled structures that aid in allowing some bacteria to survive harsh conditions are:

 
Endospores
 
45. 
The structure that aids in locomotion of some bacteria is a(an
 
Flagellum
 
46. 

The genus Clostridium causes:

 
Botulism
 
47. 

The primary component making up the cell walls of bacteria is:

 

Peptidoglycan

 
48. 

The genus Bacillus causes:

 
Anthrax
 
49. 

The genus Clostridium causes:

 
Tetanus
 
50. 
A prokaryote that occupies a habitat that is characterized by extreme heat (above 50 degrees Celsius) is a(an):
 
Thermophile
 
51. 
The fluid filled area of a prokaryotic cell enclosed by the cell membrane is the:
 
Cytoplasm
 
52. 
Different ways by which bacteria might enter the body to cause disease include:
 

Insect bites

Sexual activity

Ingestion of food or water

Inhalation

e. All of the above are correct

 
53. 
The region of a prokaryotic cell where the bacterial chromosome (DNA) is located is the:
 

Nuleoid

 
54. 
Prokaryotes on the average are about:
 

1 to 10 microns in size

 
55. 
Characteristic signs and symptoms of bacterial infection include:
 

Fever

Swollen lymph nodes

e. Both A and C are correct

 
56. 
To help stop the spread of MRSA at a school which of the following would be appropriate?
 

Washing all athletic equipment that comes into contact with students

Requiring all students to shower after athletic activity at school

d. Both A and B are correct

 
57. 

A function that the glycocalyx does not have for a bacterium is:

 
Protein synthesis
 
58. 

A prokaryote that occupies a habitat that is extremely salty is a(an):

 
Halophile
 
59. 
The rigid barrier that surrounds most prokaryotes is the
 
Cell wall
 
60. 

Bacterial biofilms are important medically because:

 

They may form on catheters

They are resistant to treatment with antibiotics

They can form dental plaque

They are resistant to immune defenses

e. All of the above are correct

 
61. 
Which of the following are protists?
 

Plasmodium and Trypanosoma

Euglena and Paramecium

d. Both A and B are correct

 
62. 
Green algae and plants:
 

Have Chlorophyll a and b

Use starch as a storage carbohydrate

Have cell walls containing cellulose

Carry out photosynthesis

e. All of the above are correct

 
63. 
A pregnant woman was told by her doctor that while she is pregnant she might want to let someone else care for her cats. The doctor most likely told her this because:
 
She and her baby might develop toxoplasmosis
 
64. 
Protozoa may move by:
 

Flagella

Pseudopodia

Cilia

False feet

e. All of the above are correct

 
65. 
Pfiesteria piscicida:
 

Is a protist

Is a dinoflagellate

May produce a toxin that causes the skin of fish to disintegrate

d. All of the above are correct

 
66. 
African sleeping sickness is caused by:
 
Trypanosoma brucei
 
67. 
A proposed Protist grouping that would unite the water molds, brown algae and diatoms is:
 
The stramenopiles
 
68. 

Silica walls are characteristic of:

 
Diatoms
 
69. 
Which of the following is not a stage in the life cycle of Plasmodium falciparum?
 
Endospore
 
70. 

A substance produced by brown algae that is used as an emulsifying and thickening agent in many foods and other products is:

 
Algin
 
71. 

Toxoplasmosis is caused by:

 
Toxoplasma gondii
 
72. 
Chagas disease is caused by:
 
Trypanosoma cruzi
 
73. 
Malaria is transmitted by:
 
The bite of a mosquito
 
74. 
A protist that lives within termites and allows the termite to be able to "digest" wood is:
 

Trichonympha

 
75. 

Cytoplasmic extensions by which some protozoa move are:

 
Pseudopodia
 
76. 
"Hikers diarrhea" is caused by
 
Giardia
 
77. 

Kelps are members of the:

 
Brown algae
 
78. 
Trichomonas vaginalis is usually transmitted by:
 
Sexual intercourse
 
79. 
Malaria is caused by:
 
Plasmodium falciparum
 
80. 
Protista
 
Are eukaryotes
 
81. 
A jellylike substance produced by red marine algae and used as a culture medium for microorganisms is:
 
Agar
 
82. 
Chagas disease is transmitted by
 
The bite of a kissing bug
 
83. 

The microscopic food that supports the ocean's vast food webs is:

 
Plankton
 
84. 
Protista:
 

Have a nucleus and membrane-bounded organelles

Are eukaryotes

d. Both A and B are correct

 
85. 
Leishmaniasis is transmitted by:
 
The bite of a sand fly
 
86. 

Ciliates use which structures to aid in locomotion and eating?

 
Cilia
 
87. 

The Irish potato famine in the mid 1840s was caused by:

 
A water mold
 
88. 
The members of the kingdom Protista display a great variety in:
 

Size

Nutrition

Locomotion

Reproduction

e. All of the above are correct

 
89. 

The largest algae are:

 
Kelp
 
90. 

Which of the following is not a member of the kingdom Protista?

 
Escherichia
 
91. 

The longest wavelength of visible sunlight is:

 

Red

 
92. 
The leaves of ferns are called
 
Fronds
 
93. 
Flowers and fruits are unique to:
 
Angiosperms
 
94. 
The adaptations that are most responsible for gymnosperms and angiosperms being able to live and reproduce in much drier habitats than bryophytes and plants such as club mosses are:
 
The production of pollen grains and seeds
 
95. 
In complex plants:
 
The gametophyte is smaller than the sporophyte
 
96. 
Cycads are:
 

Trees that live in tropical regions

Trees that live in subtropical regions

Trees that have palm-like leaves

Trees that produce large cones

e. All of the above are correct

 
97. 
Flowers attract animal pollinators with
 

Bright coloration

Alluring scents

Food rewards

d. All of the above are correct

 
98. 

The part of the plant that transports sugars produced by photosynthesis to the non-green parts of the plant is the:

 
Phloem
 
99. 

Arabidopsis thaliana, a small angiosperm related to mustard has been used extensively by scientists to study:

 

Disease resistance in plants

Circadian rhythms in plants

Time for flowering in plants

Response to hormones in plants

e. All of the above are correct

 
100. 

The lineages of seedless vascular plants include:

 

True ferns

Club mosses

Horsetails

Whisk ferns

e. All of the above are correct

 
101. 
Flowers:
 

Produce both pollen and egg cells

 
102. 

Conifers produce:

 
Both seeds and pollen in cones
 
103. 
A cotyledon is
 

Is the first leaf structure to arise in the embryo of an angiosperm

 
104. 

The term gymnosperm literally means:

 
Naked seed
 
105. 
A plant embryo (young sporophyte) packaged with a food supply in a tough outer coat is a:
 
Seed
 
106. 
The four phyla of the gymnosperms are
 
Conifers, cycads, ginkgos and gnetophytes
 
107. 
Small pieces of bryophyte tissue that detaches and grow into new plants are:
 
Gemmae
 
108. 
Which of the following is not a characteristic of the conifers?
 
Flowers
 
109. 
Today, only one species of ____________________ exists.
 
Ginkgo
 
110. 
The part of the plant that absorbs water and nutrients is the
 
Root
 
111. 

The main groups of land plants are the:

 

Bryophytes

Seedless vascular plants

Gymnosperms

Angiosperms

e. All of the above are correct

 
112. 
The two classes that make up the angiosperms are
 

Monocotyledons and dicotyledons

 
113. 
The part of the plant that allows for the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen is the:
 
Stomata
 
114. 
The part of the plant that conducts water and dissolved minerals from the roots to the leaves is the:
 
Xylem
 
115. 
"Jumping genes" were first discovered in Indian corn by:
 
Barbara McClintock
 
116. 

The fruits of plants primarily function in:

 

b. Seed protection

c. Seed dispersal

e. Both B and C are correct

 
117. 
Which of the following is not a characteristic of a bryophyte?
 
They have a conspicuous sporophyte
 
118. 
In plants:
 
The diploid zygote develops into the sporophyte
 
119. 

The bryophytes include:

 
Mosses and liverworts
 
120. 
Plants are similar to algae in that they:
 

Have chloroplasts

Contain chlorophyll a

Have cellulose rich cell walls

Use starch as a nutrient reserve

e. All of the above are correct