Bio 102 Flash Cards

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The influenza viruses that infect man usually are derived from a type that could also infect: Birds and pigs
In recent years outbreaks of deadly strains of flu virus in people in Hong Kong and Asia have led to the widespread slaughter of __________________ to prevent the spread of the virus. Poultry
Which of the following can a virus not infect? Bacteria Amphibians Reptiles Plants e. None of the above are correct
Which of the following diseases are caused by viruses? The common cold and influenza Smallpox and mononucleosis Polio and rabies Aids and warts e. All of the above are correct
Most viruses: Are extremely small Do not consist of even a single cell d. Both A and B are correct
A virus may contain which of the following? DNA RNA A protein coat An envelope e. All of the above are correct
Which of the following would not be found in a virus? A nucleus Ribosomes Both B and C are correct
The genetic information in viruses: Is DNA or RNA
A capsid is: A protein coat of a virus
A layer of host cell membrane attached to a virus is called: An envelope
HIV is a: Single-stranded RNA virus
The shape of a virus is determined by: Its coat protein organization
An organism that a virus can replicate in without causing symptoms of disease: Is called a reservoir
A reason or reasons given by scientists as to why viruses are not considered living organisms include: Viruses do not reproduce on their own
Scientists may use which of the following to grow viral cultures in a laboratory? Bacteria Live animals Live plants Fertilized chicken eggs e. All of the above are correct
The stage of viral replication in which the viral nucleic acid is released inside the cell is: Penetration
The stage of viral replication in which the host cell produces viral nucleic acids and proteins is: Synthesis
The stage of viral replication in which the virus binds a cell surface receptor is: Attachment
The stage of viral replication in which the new viruses leave the host cell is: Release
The stage of viral replication in which viral components are put together to form new viruses is: Assembly
The type of viral infection in which a virus enters a host cell immediately replicates and causes the host cell to burst is: A lytic infection
The type of viral infection in which a virus enters a host cell and then remains dormant (hidden) in a host cell's chromosome is: A lysogenic infection
A latent viral infection: Is caused by HIV Occurs when the viral genome remains integrated in the host chromosome without causing symptoms Is caused by herpes virus d. All of the above are correct
An example of a type of treatment used to treat HIV infections is: Integrase inhibitors Protease inhibitors d. Both A and B are correct
Integrase inhibitors: Inhibit viral DNA from inserting into the host chromosome
Drugs like Aziodothymidine (AZT): Inhibit reverse transcriptase
The enzyme that HIV uses to convert its RNA into DNA is: Reverse transcriptase
Most antibiotics are not effective against viruses because: Antibiotics target cell walls and cell membranes, which viruses do not have Antibiotics target ribosomes and enzymes which viruses do not have d. Both A and B are correct
Plasmodesmata are: Bridges of cytoplasm between plant cells
The hepatitis virus that is transmitted primarily by contact with infected blood is: Hepatitis B Hepatitis C e. Both B and C are correct
Which of the following is not characteristic of a prokaryote? Prokaryotes do not have a chromosome
A microbiologist gram stains a bacterium and finds the bacterium to be blue to purple in color, this identifies: The bacterium as gram positive
Staphylococcus aureus: Inhabits most humans Is gram positive May cause toxic shock syndrome May cause scalded skin syndrome e. All of the above are correct
The structures of prokaryotes that are used to transfer DNA from one cell to another are: Sex pili
Prokaryotes cannot live in: Ice High in the atmosphere In thermal vents Animal intestines e. None of the above are correct
The genus Treponema causes: Syphilis
MRSA are: Are resistant to methicillin
DNA that is separate and apart from the chromosome in a prokaryote is the: Plasmid
The three most common shapes of bacteria are: Spherical, rod shaped and spiral
A microbiologist gram stains a bacterium and finds the bacterium to be pink to red in color, this identifies: The bacterium as gram negative
A type of horizontal gene transfer in prokaryotes in which a cell receives bacterial DNA from a bacteriophage is: Transduction
A type of horizontal gene transfer in prokaryotes in which a cell takes up naked DNA without cell to cell contact is: Transformation
A part of or parts of the human body that normally remain sterile is (are Blood Nervous system Stomach Urinary bladder e. All of the above are correct
Dormant thick-walled structures that aid in allowing some bacteria to survive harsh conditions are: Endospores
The structure that aids in locomotion of some bacteria is a(an Flagellum
The genus Clostridium causes: Botulism
The primary component making up the cell walls of bacteria is: Peptidoglycan
The genus Bacillus causes: Anthrax
The genus Clostridium causes: Tetanus
A prokaryote that occupies a habitat that is characterized by extreme heat (above 50 degrees Celsius) is a(an): Thermophile
The fluid filled area of a prokaryotic cell enclosed by the cell membrane is the: Cytoplasm
Different ways by which bacteria might enter the body to cause disease include: Insect bites Sexual activity Ingestion of food or water Inhalation e. All of the above are correct
The region of a prokaryotic cell where the bacterial chromosome (DNA) is located is the: Nuleoid
Prokaryotes on the average are about: 1 to 10 microns in size
Characteristic signs and symptoms of bacterial infection include: Fever Swollen lymph nodes e. Both A and C are correct
To help stop the spread of MRSA at a school which of the following would be appropriate? Washing all athletic equipment that comes into contact with students Requiring all students to shower after athletic activity at school d. Both A and B are correct
A function that the glycocalyx does not have for a bacterium is: Protein synthesis
A prokaryote that occupies a habitat that is extremely salty is a(an): Halophile
The rigid barrier that surrounds most prokaryotes is the Cell wall
Bacterial biofilms are important medically because: They may form on catheters They are resistant to treatment with antibiotics They can form dental plaque They are resistant to immune defenses e. All of the above are correct
Which of the following are protists? Plasmodium and Trypanosoma Euglena and Paramecium d. Both A and B are correct
Green algae and plants: Have Chlorophyll a and b Use starch as a storage carbohydrate Have cell walls containing cellulose Carry out photosynthesis e. All of the above are correct
A pregnant woman was told by her doctor that while she is pregnant she might want to let someone else care for her cats. The doctor most likely told her this because: She and her baby might develop toxoplasmosis
Protozoa may move by: Flagella Pseudopodia Cilia False feet e. All of the above are correct
Pfiesteria piscicida: Is a protist Is a dinoflagellate May produce a toxin that causes the skin of fish to disintegrate d. All of the above are correct
African sleeping sickness is caused by: Trypanosoma brucei
A proposed Protist grouping that would unite the water molds, brown algae and diatoms is: The stramenopiles
Silica walls are characteristic of: Diatoms
Which of the following is not a stage in the life cycle of Plasmodium falciparum? Endospore
A substance produced by brown algae that is used as an emulsifying and thickening agent in many foods and other products is: Algin
Toxoplasmosis is caused by: Toxoplasma gondii
Chagas disease is caused by: Trypanosoma cruzi
Malaria is transmitted by: The bite of a mosquito
A protist that lives within termites and allows the termite to be able to "digest" wood is: Trichonympha
Cytoplasmic extensions by which some protozoa move are: Pseudopodia
"Hikers diarrhea" is caused by Giardia
Kelps are members of the: Brown algae
Trichomonas vaginalis is usually transmitted by: Sexual intercourse
Malaria is caused by: Plasmodium falciparum
Protista Are eukaryotes
A jellylike substance produced by red marine algae and used as a culture medium for microorganisms is: Agar
Chagas disease is transmitted by The bite of a kissing bug
The microscopic food that supports the ocean's vast food webs is: Plankton
Protista: Have a nucleus and membrane-bounded organelles Are eukaryotes d. Both A and B are correct
Leishmaniasis is transmitted by: The bite of a sand fly
Ciliates use which structures to aid in locomotion and eating? Cilia
The Irish potato famine in the mid 1840s was caused by: A water mold
The members of the kingdom Protista display a great variety in: Size Nutrition Locomotion Reproduction e. All of the above are correct
The largest algae are: Kelp
Which of the following is not a member of the kingdom Protista? Escherichia
The longest wavelength of visible sunlight is: Red
The leaves of ferns are called Fronds
Flowers and fruits are unique to: Angiosperms
The adaptations that are most responsible for gymnosperms and angiosperms being able to live and reproduce in much drier habitats than bryophytes and plants such as club mosses are: The production of pollen grains and seeds
In complex plants: The gametophyte is smaller than the sporophyte
Cycads are: Trees that live in tropical regions Trees that live in subtropical regions Trees that have palm-like leaves Trees that produce large cones e. All of the above are correct
Flowers attract animal pollinators with Bright coloration Alluring scents Food rewards d. All of the above are correct
The part of the plant that transports sugars produced by photosynthesis to the non-green parts of the plant is the: Phloem
Arabidopsis thaliana, a small angiosperm related to mustard has been used extensively by scientists to study: Disease resistance in plants Circadian rhythms in plants Time for flowering in plants Response to hormones in plants e. All of the above are correct
The lineages of seedless vascular plants include: True ferns Club mosses Horsetails Whisk ferns e. All of the above are correct
Flowers: Produce both pollen and egg cells
Conifers produce: Both seeds and pollen in cones
A cotyledon is Is the first leaf structure to arise in the embryo of an angiosperm
The term gymnosperm literally means: Naked seed
A plant embryo (young sporophyte) packaged with a food supply in a tough outer coat is a: Seed
The four phyla of the gymnosperms are Conifers, cycads, ginkgos and gnetophytes
Small pieces of bryophyte tissue that detaches and grow into new plants are: Gemmae
Which of the following is not a characteristic of the conifers? Flowers
Today, only one species of ____________________ exists. Ginkgo
The part of the plant that absorbs water and nutrients is the Root
The main groups of land plants are the: Bryophytes Seedless vascular plants Gymnosperms Angiosperms e. All of the above are correct
The two classes that make up the angiosperms are Monocotyledons and dicotyledons
The part of the plant that allows for the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen is the: Stomata
The part of the plant that conducts water and dissolved minerals from the roots to the leaves is the: Xylem
"Jumping genes" were first discovered in Indian corn by: Barbara McClintock
The fruits of plants primarily function in: b. Seed protection c. Seed dispersal e. Both B and C are correct
Which of the following is not a characteristic of a bryophyte? They have a conspicuous sporophyte
In plants: The diploid zygote develops into the sporophyte
The bryophytes include: Mosses and liverworts
Plants are similar to algae in that they: Have chloroplasts Contain chlorophyll a Have cellulose rich cell walls Use starch as a nutrient reserve e. All of the above are correct