ART HISTORY, test one

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number 1 TITLE: st. Francis preaching to the birds COMMENTS:-Newness to it. A humble scene. Showing that god is in everything.-Technique is fresco: painting on plaster. Quicker, but very very durable.-One scene highlighting the life and miracles of francis.- Idea of god in everything, which was very new, an idea of francis. God is even in the pigeons.
number 2 TITLE: pulpit COMMENTS:- Figure of the virtue fortitude is almost a replica of a relief of Hercules--> Using antiquity style and incorporating Christian themes- Sculpture was the first area to pick up the classical style because there were more classical sculpture remnants. Not many paintings- Includes biblical scenes. If there is a scene that tells a story, it is called a narrative--> The narratives turn away from icons. -Annunciation, nativity, annuniation to the sheperds à these are the images of the pulpit you need to know. -Mary and has a massive, heavy, and weightyàcalled gravitas. Indicates dignity. This technique also comes from antiquity.o The arrangement and poses are similar to antiquaited reliefso Contrapposto: stance of the fortitude figure looks like he can move/pivot.
number 3 TITLE: Scrovegni (arena) chapel; Christ entering jerusalem COMMENTS: -tempera is paint with egg that makes a more opaque surface -Madonna faces the congregationàshe is the intercessor of humans (?) she was a human too, basically. -o The backside shows scenes from passion week. Because the clergy is supposed to live a christ-like life. -Muted colors. A lot of red (color of passion weekàblood and jesus suffering) and gold. Meant that the work was also very expensive-Idea of icon as being a still image is being replaced by narratives.More humanistic/human take.
number 4 TITLE: Scrovegni (arena) chapel; the lamentation COMMENT:- Event does not take appear in gospels, by the end of the middle ages versions of this theme had appeared in both byzantine and in western medieval art. -o Descending slope of hill acts as a unifying element that directs attention toward the heads of Christ and the virgin, which are focal points.
number 5 TITLE: florence cathedral (duomo) complex COMMENTS:-Has a high dome. Intended to be grand structure that would not only serve as the spiritual center of the city, but as statement of its wealth and importance.-o Original design provided for large basilica with high arcade and broad proportions (different from contemporary gothic structures in france), high pointed arches resting on piers, flat moldings rising to the clerestory level above the arcade, windows in the clerestory and ails are small leaving more wall surface than in French cathedrals.
number 6 TITLE: madonna enthroned COMMENTS:-o Takes shape of plyptych (multipaneled). Virgin and child in the maesta sit on a complex throne draped in golden cloth. Virgin is largest and most impressive figure in assembly.-o Also reflects contemporary gothic sensibilities in the fluidity of the drapery, appealing naturalness of figures, and glances by which the figures communicate with each other.
number 7 TITLE: palazzo pubblico COMMENTS:-o A town hall and epression of city’s wealth and status.-o Served to house the city government and to frame a public space where city’s economic, political, religious, and social life was played out.-
number 8 TITLE: good government in the country COMMENTS:-o Provides a view of the siencese farmland, finged by distant mountains and overseen by personification of security. First true landscape since ancient rome.-Represents a sweeping view of the orderly hillside: vineyards, farms, pastures result from a fruitful nature possessed y well-governed humans
number 9 TITLE: July, Tres Riches Heures COMMENTS:-§ Gold used. Blue comes from lapis lagulie, which only comes from Afghanistanàvery expensive. -From a book of hoursàa series of prayers that you should say throughout the day. Very expensive,usually only for the rich-§ Get a sense of depth. Can tell that the castle is in the distance. The trees get smaller in the distance. Sky gets hazyàatmospheric perspective. Shows a realization/observation of the natural world. Hinting at perspective.
number 10 TITLE: Merode Altarpiece (triptych) COMMENTS:-Mary’s drapery. Reveals the body. Seems stiff/folded. -§ Table has been tipped up to let you see everything that is on the table. Artis wants you to see all the details. (in Italian painting, there are less details, more on the storyànorthern more about the details -§ Details: lilies symbolize purity, bible opens to the annunciation passage, there was a jewish prayer shoal (Christianity from jew), extinguished candle (looks naturalistic, but smoke doesn’t seem so)-§ Brought mary’s knees together, and the light that shines on her (which doesn’t match the light from the window) are manipulated to create a star image (the nickname of mary).
number 11 TITLE: the “Arnolfini” portrait COMMENTS:-§ Oil allow there to be more detail, texture, shading. Continuity and smoothness to the texture.-§ Canons of beauty change. The lady has a high forehead. Very pale. Round stomach means that you are wealthy (you can eat) and that you are fertile.-
number 12 TITLE: garden of Early delights COMMENTS:-Was more of a conversation piece that went into a rich person’s house-§ Garden of eden · Bosch Uses paint very thinly and translucently. Jewel like quality of colors. · Adam and eve, god, animals. · Foreshadows the trouble to come: cat killing a rat. · There are a lot of toads (symbols of filth) and they are being killed. · Rabbits are a symbol of fertility. · Very strange shoreline with strange animals. · Snake entwined around a tree. § Garden of earthly delights · Alchemy? o See chemical things o There are ourobolos o Red fruit o Philosophers stoneàeternal life, but it could mean salvation. o Alchemical lapis elixer of life. · Mankind after the fall? · World if adam and eve had never sinned? · Underlying theme of sinning and redemption · If its meant to be a conversation piece, it is not meant to be simple. · Birds as alchemical vapors? Or of mankinds sin? § The right side is hell · Nightmarish things are going on. · Nasty water with beasts. · Creative ways to torment people. · Pig dressed up as a nunàhe didn’t like clerics who misbehaved · Lots of musical instruments, wine, womenàthe paths to sin. · Northern European painting tends to be very earthy and detailed. · Lady with a toad on her chest. · Many gross details, like bird eating and shitting people. § Closed altarpiece · Picture of the flood. · Shows the world washed. · It is grey, called grisade. · Idea of cleansing and starting over again.
number 13 TITLE: well of moses COMMENTS:-Moses has a pair of horns, which describe moses, holding the 10 commandments, after his encounter with god on Sinai-§ This attachment ot the specific distinguishes sluter’s naturalistic style from that of the earlier period and is one of the hallmarks of the international gothic.
number 14 TITLE: ghent altarpiece COMMENTS:-§ Commissioned by Jodicus Vijd and his wife Elizabeth Borluut. Their portraits appear on the lower tier with 2 other figures, each in a separate niche framed by painted gothic tracery.-§ At the outer edges of the upper tier stand adam and eve, rendered as nudes in shallow niches, beow grisaille images of cain and abel. The life sized nudes are portrayed with creful attention to their anatomy and caressed by a delicate play of light and shade.
number 15 TITLE: descent from the cross COMMENTS:-Goal was to increase the expressive content f his pictures-§ Staged scene in shallow nich, not against a landscape. This focuses viewer’s attention on the foreground and allows the artist to mold the figures into coherent group.
number 16 TITLE: temptation of st. Anthony COMMENTS:-§ Varying the type of mark he made on the plate, schongauer displays a wide range of tonal values and a rhythmic quality of line, and he approximates a wide range of textures—spiky, scaly, leathery, furry—to enhance the expressive impact of the image.-§ Print represents the climax of st. anthony’s resistance to the devil.
number 17 TITLE: dome of Florence cathedral (duomo)COMMENTS:-§ Florence was wealthy, and wanted to show the world that they were the top dog. Civic effort to do this.-§ The only dome that realy was around was the pantheon in rome-§ Brunelleschi dome is very tall. Kind of has a gothic tone with the height and decoration.-§ Section below the dome (called the drum) is octagonal.- Double shelled dome lightens load- Herringbone brickwork used throughout, lessens cracking. Didn’t know how to make concrete. This style has flexibility to it. A lot of Islamic architecture had domes, probably gave him some ideas
number 18 TITLE: st. george tabernacle COMMENTS:-§ Made for the armorer’s guild. Originally had a silver helmet and spear-§ Competition in florence. All the artists were competing with one another within Florence.-§ Standing contrappostoàsuggests possibility of motion. Adds to the sense of naturalism of the statue.-§ Below the niche is a rectangular area. Called the predella. On this he makes a relief.-· Schiacciato technique (very low relief, pictorial).
number 19 TITLE: gates of paradise COMMENTS:-Uses perspective-§ With the 3 onlookers, he is quoting figures from antiquity. Wanting to show people that he knew about antiquity.-§ Add another level of dimunution of size by making the relief lower and lower as you get near the top of the panel.
number 20 TITLE: david COMMENTS:-· David has much more exaggerated contropposto. George has little suggestion of movement. David is actually standing on something-§ David is naked. Influenced by classical sculpture. Understanding antiquity and their celebration of the human body/young male body-§ Harkens back to “Praxiteles leaning satyr”, which was nude and also had a feminine quality.-§ Idea of david was important in Florence. They thought of themselves as the david against all the bigger cities-§ David becomes a certain patron saint of the city.
number 21 TITLE: foundling hospital COMMENTS:-§ A hopital for abandoned children near a church-§ For him, the secret of good architecture lay in choosing the right proportions—proportional ratios expressed in simple whole numbers—for all the major measurements of a building.
number 22 TITLE: adoration of the magi COMMENTS:-§ The lavish triple arched gilt frame of the altarpiece, with a predella and gable figures, encloses a single scene in thecentral panel: the visit of the magi to Bethlehem to acknowledge jesus as king.-§ Forms are softly modeled to suggest volume for the figures and to couneract the strong flattening effect of the gold.
number 23 TITLE: annunciation COMMENTS:-§ Inscription at bbottom calls on the friats who pass by to say an ave maria. The fresco enhanced their life of prayer and contemplation, as was the goal of such imagery in religious communities.-§ Colors are pale, composition has been pared to the minimum, and the light bathes all the froms in a soft glow.
number 24 TITLE: medici palace COMMENTS:-§ Recalls the fortresslike Florentine palaces of old; it may have been this conversatism that appealed to cosimo-§ Effect is to provide a splendid setting for medici affairs: familial, social, commercial, and governmental. Thus the large courtyard is ceremonial and practical.
number TITLE: Brancacci chapel ; the tribute moneyCOMMENTS:-· Moral of the story. There is gods law, but you still have to pay your taxes.-· Atmospheric perspectiv: Fading out of color -Colors very vivid when right in front of you. Go from saturated colors to like a hazy grey color
number 26 TITLE: expulsion from paradise COMMENTS:-· foreshortened angel. Like seeing them directly head on. Foreshortening works best if you know how to do scientific perspective. Viewers are looking perpindularly at the picture.- giornata: one day’s worth of fresco painting.
number 27 TITLE: the battle of san romano COMMENTS:-§ perspective, not gid floor, but creates a grid with dead bodies and lances-§ The space is not very believable. Vanishing point is in the landscape, swhich rises up on the painting.-§ Painters are messing with perspective. Why would he do this? Like the unicorn things, which did not have medieval space.
number 28 TITLE: the birth of venus COMMENTS:-§ Boticelli is using his knowledge of antiquity in terms of a theme. He also uses the venus pudica as inspiration.-§ Florence by this time is very literate, and there is knowledge about the classics. So there was interest in incorporating knowledge of antiquity
number 29 TITLE: battista Sforza and Federico da montefeltro COMMENTS:-§ Shows people in exact profiles.-§ No hint of life in these profile portraits
number 30 TITLE: sant’ Andrea COMMENTS:-§ Wanted to merge classical temple forms with traditional basilican church-§ big pilasters and arches of large chapels support a coffered barel vault of impressive sizeàalberti has drawn upon his study of the massive vaulted halls in ancient roman baths and basilicas, but he intprets these models freely to create a structure that can truly be called a “Christian temple”
number 31 TITLE: camera picta COMMENTS:-§ Framing this window is a foreshortened balustrade on which little putti (boys) climb and over which court ladies peer.-§ Uses many devices to create illusions in this room, including drapery that appears to be fluttering in the outside breeze and trompe l’oeil reliefs of roman emporers on the vaults.
number 32 TITLE: st. francis in ecstasy COMMENTS:-§ St. francis believed that god created nature for the benefit of humanity. Bellini uses the tools of the renaissance artist to recreate a vision of natural beauty.-§ In this deep space, derived using the rules of perspective, he depicts detailed textures and forms to populate the landscape. Some of the forms may express Franciscan valuesàdonkey=st.
number 33 TITLE: the delivery of the keys COMMENTS:-§ Gravely symmetrical design conveys the special importance of the subject in this particular setting: the authority of st. peter as the first pope, as well as of all those who followed him, rests on his having received thekeys to the kingdom of heaven from Christ-§ Symmetry and clear space of the image express the character of the rule of sixtus IV, not only in spiritual but also in temporal terms.
number 34 TITLE: david COMMENTS:-§ Bronze tends to be very light, and thus the stance is more open. Opposite with stone, which is more constricted and usually has supporting parts.-§ Hair is more like an architectural cornice for him. Also give chiaroscuro.-§ Very detailedàfurrowed brow.
number 35 TITLE: ceiling fresco COMMENTS:-
number 36 TITLE: fete champetre COMMENTS:
number 37 TITLE: the last supper COMMENTS:-§ Creates a spatial setting that seems like an annex to the real interior of the room, though deeper and more atmospheric than the earlier frescoes-Central vanishing point of the perspective system is located behind the head of jesus in the exact middle of the fresco; it thus becomes charged with symbolic significance
number 38 TITLE: tempietto COMMENTS:-§ This conception was as bold and novel as the design of the chapel itself, for not only does the chapel’s colonnade dictate the courtyard’s colonnade, the walls of the courtyard open into concave niches that echo the façade of the chapel.-§ Façade, with 3 step platform and use of plain tuscan Doric order, recalls roman temple architecture more directly than does any 15th century building.
number 39 TITLE: school of Athens COMMENTS:-§ Depicts Aristotle and platoàfigures represent the 2 most important greek philosophers, whose approaches, seemingly opposite, deemed complimentary by many renaissance humanistsàin this composition, 2 schools of philosophy come together-§ Inclusion of so may artists among, and in the guise of, famous philosophers is testimony to their recently acquired status as member of the learned community.
number 40 TITLE: the tempest COMMENTS:-§ Scholars have offered many possible explanations of this image, which depicts a stormy landscape inhabited by a male figure on the left and a nursing mother on the right-§ Scholars have argued that the tempest initiates what was to become an important new tradition in art, the making of pictorial equivalents to poetry: atmospheric images that set a mood rather than convey a story.
number 41 TITLE: entombment COMMENTS:-o Architecture of chapel is brunelleschian in its simplicity, consisting of a dome over a square.-o Figures display an ideal beauty and sculptural solidity inspired by Michelangelo, yet Michelangelo, yet pontormo has squeezed them into an implausibly confined space.
number 42 TITLE: the rape of the sabine woman COMMENTS:-o Sculpture sanitizes what is an act of raw power and violence as the figures spiral upward in carefully rehearsed movements-Bologna wished to display his virtuosity and saw his task only in formal terms: to carve in marble, on a massive scale, a sculptural composition that was to be seen from all sides
number 43 TITLE: last judgement COMMENTS:-o That the fresco expresses michelangelo’s personal vision of the endo of days is suggested by one detail: straddling a cloud just below the lord is the apostle Bartholomew, holding a human skin to represent his martyrdom by flaying. The face on that skin is michelangelo’s.-o Replaces physical torments with spiritual agony expressed through violent contortions of the human body within a turbulen atmosphere.
number 44 TITLE: design, campidoglio (Capitoline hill) COMMENTS:-Shoes the symmetry of the scheme and the sense of progression along the main axis toward the senator’s palace-o The new palace and its twing the conservators palace combine voids and solids horizontals and verticals with a plasticity not found in any piece of architecture since roman antiquity.
number 45 TITLE: burial of count orgaz COMMENTS:-Emphasizes roman catholic position that good works as required to achieve salvation and that saints serve as intercessors with heaven-o Celestial assembly in upper half of picture is painted very differently from the group in the lower half: every for—clouds, limbs, draperies—takes part in the seeping, flamelike movement towards the figure of Christ
number 46 TITLE: the four apostles COMMENTS:-o Durer was an early and enthusiastic follower of martin luther, although, like Grunewald, he continued to work for catholic patrons.-o Quotations from their writings warn the city not to mistake human error and pretense for the will of god.
number 47 TITLE: henry VIII COMMENTS:-o Uses rigid fraontality to convey the almost divine authority of this absolute ruler-o King’s physical buld creates an overpowering sense of his ruthless, commanding personality
number 48 TITLE: peasant wedding COMMENTS:-o Artist often disguised himself as peasant and joined in their revelries so bruegel could observe and sketch them-o Treats the least of the least, like child licking a bowl in foreground, as worthy of observation and remembrance.
number 49 TITLE: mona lisaCOMMENTS:-§ The oil technique builds the forms from layers of glazes so thin that the panel appears to glow with a gentle light from within, despite the dirty varnish that now obscures the painting.-§ Beautifully observed details of mona lisa’s high brow and crossed hands give her as much character has her smile.
number 50 TITLE: design, dome, st. peter'sCOMMENTS:-
number 51 TITLE: madonna with the long neckCOMMENTS:
number 52 TITLE: villa rotundaCOMMENTS:
number 53 TITLE: venus of urbinoCOMMENTS:
number 54 TITLE: four horsemen of the apocalypseCOMMENTS:
number 55 TITLE: adam and eveCOMMENTS:
number 56 TITLE: isenheim altarpieceCOMMENTS:
number 57 TITLE: return of the huntersCOMMENTS:
number 58 TITLE: isenheim altarpiece; the resurrectionCOMMENTS:
number 59 TITLE: brancacci chapel; the tribute moneyCOMMENTS:
number 60 TITLE: libyan sibyl portion of the sistine chapelCOMMENTS:
number 61 TITLE: sistine chapel; the creation of adamCOMMENTS:
number 62 TITLE: maesta; madonna enthronedCOMMENTS:
number 63 TITLE: maesta; christ entering jerusalemCOMMENTS:
number TITLE: gates of paradise; story of jacob and esauCOMMENTS: