Alzheimers

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progressive and fatal brain disease Alzheimers
what does alzheimers disease do? destroys brain cells-gets worse over time and is fatal
most common form of dementia...what % 50 to 80%
name 4 more types of dementia
vascular dementia
mixed dementia
demenita with Lewy bodies
frontotemporal demential
brain has (?#) neurons OVER 100 BILLION
2 Abnormal structures called__ and ___ are suspected to damage nerve cells plaques, tangles
Plaques build up__ nerve cells between
Plaques contain deposits of a protein fragment called beta-amyloid
Tangles are twisted fibers of another protein called tau
Tangles form where? inside dying cells
T and P form in a pttern starting with limbic system
Early-stage early part of Alz
younger-onset when Alz occurs in a person under 65
Alz can start 30s 40s 50s
Alzheimer's disease-transfer of info at __begin to fail, # of synapses __ and eventually cells__. synapses, decline, die
Alz brains show shrinkage and widespread debris
Neurofibrillary tangles insoluble twisted fibers found inside brain cells consisting primarly of tau protein which form microtubule
Microtubule helps transport nutrients from one end of nerve cell to another
beta amyloid plaques protein frag snipped from amyloid precursor protein
10 Signs of Alzheimers
memory loss
planning and solving problems
completing familiar tasks
time loss
understanding visual images/spatial relationships
new issues speaking/writing words
lossing things/steps
judgement
withdrawal
mood/personality
stage 1 normal function
Stage 2
very mild conitive decline
memory lapses
resembles normal aging braing
Stage 3
mild cognitive decline.
increasing difficulty performing social tasks
Stage 4
Moderate cognitive decline
Stage 5
Moderately severe cognitive decline
unable to recall own address
confused about whereabouts
Stage 6
Severe cognitive decline
Memory worsens
personality changes
individuals need extensive help with daily activities
Stage 7
Very severe cognitive decline
Muscles become rigid
reflexes become abnormal
Spinal Cord has __ segments 31
SC has __ cervical segments 8
SC has __ thoracic segments 12
SC has __lumbar segments 5
SC has __sacral segments 5
SC has _ coccygeal segment 1 (tailbone)
Cervical segments are the largest
in each half of SC the ___ ____ is divided into the ____ ___ and ____ ____
dorasal funiculus
fasciculus gracilic
fasciculus cuneatus
alz patients have reduced levels of the neurotransmitters ___. aceylcholine
aceylcholine is responsible for __ and __
learning
memory
Alz can be diagnosed by ____ and ___ ___
symptoms
PET scans
alz causes decline in patient's ablility to __ smell
Declarative memory memory for facts and events
chorea motor disturbance characterized by random, continuous, brief jerky movements of the body.
huntington's chorea fatal genetic disease (autosomal dominant) influences the caudate and putamen.
Sydenhams chorea children w/rheumatic fever-skin rash, carditis, arthritis fever
Anterograde amnesia inability to retrieve old memory
tadive dyskinesia (old black lady in video)
dopamine receptors become super sensitive
late abnormal movement
characterized by involuntary movement of lips, jaw
neostriatum
consists of caudate and putamen
has very high concentration of dopamine(essential for movement) terminals
basal ganglia does not have a direct projection to the spinal cord
projects back to the cerebral cortex via the thalamus basal ganglia and cerebellum
substantia nigra causes Parkinsons
akinesia without movement
dyskinesia abnormal movement
bradykinesia difficulty in initiating or stopping movement
cerebral metastases are most common brain tumor seen clinically.
OLFACTORY CRANIAL NERVE 1 SENSORY-SMELL
OPTIC CRANIAL NERVE 2 SENSORY- RETINA/VISION
OCULOMOTOR CRANIAL NERVE 3
MOTOR- SUPERIOR, INFERIOR AND MEDIAL RECTUS, INFERIOR OBLIQUE, LEVATOR PALPEBRAE MUSCLES/MOVEMENT OF EYEBALL
PARASYMPATHETIC-PUPILLARY CONSTRICTOR AND CILIARY MUSCLE OF EYEBALL VIA CILIARY GANGLION
TROCHLEAR CRAINIAL NERVE 4 MOTOR-SUPERIOR OBLIQUE MUSCLE/MOVEMENT OF EYEBALL
TRIGEMINAL CRAINIAL NERVE 5
SENSORY- FACE, SCALP, CORNEA, NASAL AND ORALCAVITIES, CRANIAL DURA MATER/GENERAL SENSATION
MOTOR-MUSCLES OF MASTICATION/OPENING CLOSING MOUTH
ABDUCENS CRAINIAL NERVE 6 MOTOR- LATERAL RECTUS MUSCLE/MOVEMENT OF EYEBALL
FACIAL CRAINIAL NERVE 7
SENSORY-ANTERIOR 2/3 OF TONGUE
MOTOR-MUSCLES OF FACIAL EXPRESSION/FACIAL MOVEMENT
PARASYMPATHETIC-SALIVARY
VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR CRANIAL NERVE 8
SENSORY-VESTIBULAR APPARATUS/POSITION AND MOVEMENT OF THE HEAD
COCHLEA/HEARING
GLOSSOPH ARYNGEAL CRANIAL NERVE 9
SENSORY-PHARYNX, POSTERIOR THIRD OF TONGUE/SENSATION TASTE
MIDDLE EAR/GENERAL SENSATION
CAROTIOD BODY AND SINUS/BARORECEPTION
MOTOR-STYLOPHARYNGEUS MUSCLE/SWALLOWING
PARASYMPATHETIC-PAROTID SALIVARY GLAND VIA OTIC GANGLION/ SALIVATION
VAGUS CRANIAL NERVE 10
SENSORY-PHARYNX, LARYNX, ESOPHAGUS, EXTERNAL EAR. GENERAL SENSATION
AORTIC BODIES,ARCH- CHEMO BARORECEPT
THORACIC AND ABDOMINAL VISCERA- VISCERAL SENSATION
MOTOR-SOFT PALATE, PHARYNX, LARYNX, UPPER ESOPHAGUS/SPEECH, SWALLOWING
PARASYMPATHETIC-CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, RESPIRATORY AND GASTOINTESTINAL TRACTS
ACCESSORY CRAINIAL NERVE 11 STERNOMASTIOD AND TRAPEZIOUS MUSCLES/MOVEMENT OF HEAD AND SHOULDER
HYPOGLASSAL CRAINIAL NERVE 12 INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC MUCLES OF TONGUE/ MOVE OF TONGUE
memory retention of learned info
learning acquisition of new info
procedural memory memory for skills, haits and behaviors
retrograde amnesia memory loss following a serious trauma that worsens with time.
short term memory things you will retain for seconds to minutes
multiple sclerosis autoimmune disease
M.S. risk factors
race
heredity
geographical factors
sex
M.S. complications
epilepsy
paralysis (legs)
bladder, bowel, sexual issues
mental changes
method of M.S. diagnosis PET scan, blood tests, spinal tap, MRI
ALS disease muscle weakness, shortness of breath, swallowing, twitching , impairment of use of extremities
tabes dosalis
syphilitic infection of nervous system (tertiary syphilis)
ALS (Lou Gehrig's disease) lower limbs
Brown-Sequard syndrome hemisection of spinal cord
syringomyelia developmental/acquired expansion of central canal of spinal cord
Myathenia gravis chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease affecting skeletal muscles
myathenia gravis is caused by a defect in the transmission of nerve impulses to muscles (acetylcholine, thymus related)
Diabetic Neuropathy peripheral nerve disorder caused by diabetes or poor blood sugar control.
aneurysm- abnormal balloonlike swelling of an artery
2 types of Aortic aneurysm
abdominal aortic aneurysm
thoracic aortic aneurysm
causes of aneurysms blood pressure, infections, syphilis,
Metastatic Brain Tumors cerebral metatstases are most common brain tumor seen clinically.
hippocampus memory
frontal lobe personality
pia mater is located right on top gyrus
lateral cerebral artery cannot be seen in the brain
sympathetic nervous system homeostatis
little brain cerebellum
deep groove in the brain fissure
visual area of the cortex occipital lobe
Midbrain and medulla oblongata connected via pons
cranial nerve that supplies motor impulses to the tongue is glossopharyngeal nerve
injury to cranial nerve 7 would result pain on half of the face
fibers of a neuron axons and dendrites
meninges contain connective tissue
damage to wenicke area difficulty understanding spoken language
sea horse shaped area that effects learning and long term memory hippocampus