Alzheimers

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1. progressive and fatal brain disease Alzheimers
2. what does alzheimers disease do? destroys brain cells-gets worse over time and is fatal
3. most common form of dementia...what % 50 to 80%
4. name 4 more types of dementia
vascular dementia
mixed dementia
demenita with Lewy bodies
frontotemporal demential
5. brain has (?#) neurons OVER 100 BILLION
6. 2 Abnormal structures called__ and ___ are suspected to damage nerve cells plaques, tangles
7. Plaques build up__ nerve cells between
8. Plaques contain deposits of a protein fragment called beta-amyloid
9. Tangles are twisted fibers of another protein called tau
10. Tangles form where? inside dying cells
11. T and P form in a pttern starting with limbic system
12. Early-stage early part of Alz
13. younger-onset when Alz occurs in a person under 65
14. Alz can start 30s 40s 50s
15. Alzheimer's disease-transfer of info at __begin to fail, # of synapses __ and eventually cells__. synapses, decline, die
16. Alz brains show shrinkage and widespread debris
17. Neurofibrillary tangles insoluble twisted fibers found inside brain cells consisting primarly of tau protein which form microtubule
18. Microtubule helps transport nutrients from one end of nerve cell to another
19. beta amyloid plaques protein frag snipped from amyloid precursor protein
20. 10 Signs of Alzheimers
memory loss
planning and solving problems
completing familiar tasks
time loss
understanding visual images/spatial relationships
new issues speaking/writing words
lossing things/steps
judgement
withdrawal
mood/personality
21. stage 1 normal function
22. Stage 2
very mild conitive decline
memory lapses
resembles normal aging braing
23. Stage 3
mild cognitive decline.
increasing difficulty performing social tasks
24. Stage 4
Moderate cognitive decline
25. Stage 5
Moderately severe cognitive decline
unable to recall own address
confused about whereabouts
26. Stage 6
Severe cognitive decline
Memory worsens
personality changes
individuals need extensive help with daily activities
27. Stage 7
Very severe cognitive decline
Muscles become rigid
reflexes become abnormal
28. Spinal Cord has __ segments 31
29. SC has __ cervical segments 8
30. SC has __ thoracic segments 12
31. SC has __lumbar segments 5
32. SC has __sacral segments 5
33. SC has _ coccygeal segment 1 (tailbone)
34. Cervical segments are the largest
35. in each half of SC the ___ ____ is divided into the ____ ___ and ____ ____
dorasal funiculus
fasciculus gracilic
fasciculus cuneatus
36. alz patients have reduced levels of the neurotransmitters ___. aceylcholine
37. aceylcholine is responsible for __ and __
learning
memory
38. Alz can be diagnosed by ____ and ___ ___
symptoms
PET scans
39. alz causes decline in patient's ablility to __ smell
40. Declarative memory memory for facts and events
41. chorea motor disturbance characterized by random, continuous, brief jerky movements of the body.
42. huntington's chorea fatal genetic disease (autosomal dominant) influences the caudate and putamen.
43. Sydenhams chorea children w/rheumatic fever-skin rash, carditis, arthritis fever
44. Anterograde amnesia inability to retrieve old memory
45. tadive dyskinesia (old black lady in video)
dopamine receptors become super sensitive
late abnormal movement
characterized by involuntary movement of lips, jaw
46. neostriatum
consists of caudate and putamen
has very high concentration of dopamine(essential for movement) terminals
47. basal ganglia does not have a direct projection to the spinal cord
48. projects back to the cerebral cortex via the thalamus basal ganglia and cerebellum
49. substantia nigra causes Parkinsons
50. akinesia without movement
51. dyskinesia abnormal movement
52. bradykinesia difficulty in initiating or stopping movement
53. cerebral metastases are most common brain tumor seen clinically.
54. OLFACTORY CRANIAL NERVE 1 SENSORY-SMELL
55. OPTIC CRANIAL NERVE 2 SENSORY- RETINA/VISION
56. OCULOMOTOR CRANIAL NERVE 3
MOTOR- SUPERIOR, INFERIOR AND MEDIAL RECTUS, INFERIOR OBLIQUE, LEVATOR PALPEBRAE MUSCLES/MOVEMENT OF EYEBALL
PARASYMPATHETIC-PUPILLARY CONSTRICTOR AND CILIARY MUSCLE OF EYEBALL VIA CILIARY GANGLION
57. TROCHLEAR CRAINIAL NERVE 4 MOTOR-SUPERIOR OBLIQUE MUSCLE/MOVEMENT OF EYEBALL
58. TRIGEMINAL CRAINIAL NERVE 5
SENSORY- FACE, SCALP, CORNEA, NASAL AND ORALCAVITIES, CRANIAL DURA MATER/GENERAL SENSATION
MOTOR-MUSCLES OF MASTICATION/OPENING CLOSING MOUTH
59. ABDUCENS CRAINIAL NERVE 6 MOTOR- LATERAL RECTUS MUSCLE/MOVEMENT OF EYEBALL
60. FACIAL CRAINIAL NERVE 7
SENSORY-ANTERIOR 2/3 OF TONGUE
MOTOR-MUSCLES OF FACIAL EXPRESSION/FACIAL MOVEMENT
PARASYMPATHETIC-SALIVARY
61. VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR CRANIAL NERVE 8
SENSORY-VESTIBULAR APPARATUS/POSITION AND MOVEMENT OF THE HEAD
COCHLEA/HEARING
62. GLOSSOPH ARYNGEAL CRANIAL NERVE 9
SENSORY-PHARYNX, POSTERIOR THIRD OF TONGUE/SENSATION TASTE
MIDDLE EAR/GENERAL SENSATION
CAROTIOD BODY AND SINUS/BARORECEPTION
MOTOR-STYLOPHARYNGEUS MUSCLE/SWALLOWING
PARASYMPATHETIC-PAROTID SALIVARY GLAND VIA OTIC GANGLION/ SALIVATION
63. VAGUS CRANIAL NERVE 10
SENSORY-PHARYNX, LARYNX, ESOPHAGUS, EXTERNAL EAR. GENERAL SENSATION
AORTIC BODIES,ARCH- CHEMO BARORECEPT
THORACIC AND ABDOMINAL VISCERA- VISCERAL SENSATION
MOTOR-SOFT PALATE, PHARYNX, LARYNX, UPPER ESOPHAGUS/SPEECH, SWALLOWING
PARASYMPATHETIC-CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, RESPIRATORY AND GASTOINTESTINAL TRACTS
64. ACCESSORY CRAINIAL NERVE 11 STERNOMASTIOD AND TRAPEZIOUS MUSCLES/MOVEMENT OF HEAD AND SHOULDER
65. HYPOGLASSAL CRAINIAL NERVE 12 INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC MUCLES OF TONGUE/ MOVE OF TONGUE
66. memory retention of learned info
67. learning acquisition of new info
68. procedural memory memory for skills, haits and behaviors
69. retrograde amnesia memory loss following a serious trauma that worsens with time.
70. short term memory things you will retain for seconds to minutes
71. multiple sclerosis autoimmune disease
72. M.S. risk factors
race
heredity
geographical factors
sex
73. M.S. complications
epilepsy
paralysis (legs)
bladder, bowel, sexual issues
mental changes
74. method of M.S. diagnosis PET scan, blood tests, spinal tap, MRI
75. ALS disease muscle weakness, shortness of breath, swallowing, twitching , impairment of use of extremities
76. tabes dosalis
syphilitic infection of nervous system (tertiary syphilis)
77. ALS (Lou Gehrig's disease) lower limbs
78. Brown-Sequard syndrome hemisection of spinal cord
79. syringomyelia developmental/acquired expansion of central canal of spinal cord
80. Myathenia gravis chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease affecting skeletal muscles
81. myathenia gravis is caused by a defect in the transmission of nerve impulses to muscles (acetylcholine, thymus related)
82. Diabetic Neuropathy peripheral nerve disorder caused by diabetes or poor blood sugar control.
83. aneurysm- abnormal balloonlike swelling of an artery
84. 2 types of Aortic aneurysm
abdominal aortic aneurysm
thoracic aortic aneurysm
85. causes of aneurysms blood pressure, infections, syphilis,
86. Metastatic Brain Tumors cerebral metatstases are most common brain tumor seen clinically.
87. hippocampus memory
88. frontal lobe personality
89. pia mater is located right on top gyrus
90. lateral cerebral artery cannot be seen in the brain
91. sympathetic nervous system homeostatis
92. little brain cerebellum
93. deep groove in the brain fissure
94. visual area of the cortex occipital lobe
95. Midbrain and medulla oblongata connected via pons
96. cranial nerve that supplies motor impulses to the tongue is glossopharyngeal nerve
97. injury to cranial nerve 7 would result pain on half of the face
98. fibers of a neuron axons and dendrites
99. meninges contain connective tissue
100. damage to wenicke area difficulty understanding spoken language
101. sea horse shaped area that effects learning and long term memory hippocampus