Alzheimers

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1. 
progressive and fatal brain disease
 
Alzheimers
 
2. 
what does alzheimers disease do?
 
destroys brain cells-gets worse over time and is fatal
 
3. 
most common form of dementia...what %
 
50 to 80%
 
4. 
name 4 more types of dementia
 

vascular dementia

mixed dementia

demenita with Lewy bodies

frontotemporal demential

 
5. 
brain has (?#) neurons
 
OVER 100 BILLION
 
6. 
2 Abnormal structures called__ and ___ are suspected to damage nerve cells
 
plaques, tangles
 
7. 
Plaques build up__ nerve cells
 
between
 
8. 
Plaques contain deposits of a protein fragment called
 
beta-amyloid
 
9. 
Tangles are twisted fibers of another protein called
 
tau
 
10. 
Tangles form where?
 
inside dying cells
 
11. 
T and P form in a pttern starting with
 
limbic system
 
12. 
Early-stage
 
early part of Alz
 
13. 
younger-onset
 
when Alz occurs in a person under 65
 
14. 
Alz can start
 
30s 40s 50s
 
15. 
Alzheimer's disease-transfer of info at __begin to fail, # of synapses __ and eventually cells__.
 
synapses, decline, die
 
16. 
Alz brains show
 
shrinkage and widespread debris
 
17. 
Neurofibrillary tangles
 
insoluble twisted fibers found inside brain cells consisting primarly of tau protein which form microtubule
 
18. 
Microtubule
 
helps transport nutrients from one end of nerve cell to another
 
19. 
beta amyloid plaques
 
protein frag snipped from amyloid precursor protein
 
20. 
10 Signs of Alzheimers
 

memory loss

planning and solving problems

completing familiar tasks

time loss

understanding visual images/spatial relationships

new issues speaking/writing words

lossing things/steps

judgement

withdrawal

mood/personality

 
21. 
stage 1
 
normal function
 
22. 
Stage 2
 

very mild conitive decline

memory lapses

resembles normal aging braing

 
23. 
Stage 3
 

mild cognitive decline.

increasing difficulty performing social tasks

 
24. 
Stage 4
 

Moderate cognitive decline

 
25. 
Stage 5
 

Moderately severe cognitive decline

unable to recall own address

confused about whereabouts

 
26. 
Stage 6
 

Severe cognitive decline

Memory worsens

personality changes

individuals need extensive help with daily activities

 
27. 
Stage 7
 

Very severe cognitive decline

Muscles become rigid

reflexes become abnormal

 
28. 
Spinal Cord has __ segments
 
31
 
29. 
SC has __ cervical segments
 
8
 
30. 
SC has __ thoracic segments
 
12
 
31. 
SC has __lumbar segments
 
5
 
32. 
SC has __sacral segments
 
5
 
33. 
SC has _ coccygeal segment
 
1 (tailbone)
 
34. 
Cervical segments are the
 
largest
 
35. 
in each half of SC the ___ ____ is divided into the ____ ___ and ____ ____
 

dorasal funiculus

fasciculus gracilic

fasciculus cuneatus

 
36. 
alz patients have reduced levels of the neurotransmitters ___.
 
aceylcholine
 
37. 
aceylcholine is responsible for __ and __
 

learning

memory

 
38. 
Alz can be diagnosed by ____ and ___ ___
 

symptoms

PET scans

 
39. 
alz causes decline in patient's ablility to __
 
smell
 
40. 
Declarative memory
 
memory for facts and events
 
41. 
chorea
 
motor disturbance characterized by random, continuous, brief jerky movements of the body.
 
42. 
huntington's chorea
 
fatal genetic disease (autosomal dominant) influences the caudate and putamen.
 
43. 
Sydenhams chorea
 
children w/rheumatic fever-skin rash, carditis, arthritis fever
 
44. 
Anterograde amnesia
 
inability to retrieve old memory
 
45. 
tadive dyskinesia (old black lady in video)
 

dopamine receptors become super sensitive

late abnormal movement

characterized by involuntary movement of lips, jaw

 
46. 
neostriatum
 

consists of caudate and putamen

has very high concentration of dopamine(essential for movement) terminals

 
47. 
basal ganglia
 
does not have a direct projection to the spinal cord
 
48. 
projects back to the cerebral cortex via the thalamus
 
basal ganglia and cerebellum
 
49. 
substantia nigra causes
 
Parkinsons
 
50. 
akinesia
 
without movement
 
51. 
dyskinesia
 
abnormal movement
 
52. 
bradykinesia
 
difficulty in initiating or stopping movement
 
53. 
cerebral metastases are most common
 
brain tumor seen clinically.
 
54. 
OLFACTORY CRANIAL NERVE 1
 
SENSORY-SMELL
 
55. 
OPTIC CRANIAL NERVE 2
 
SENSORY- RETINA/VISION
 
56. 
OCULOMOTOR CRANIAL NERVE 3
 

MOTOR- SUPERIOR, INFERIOR AND MEDIAL RECTUS, INFERIOR OBLIQUE, LEVATOR PALPEBRAE MUSCLES/MOVEMENT OF EYEBALL

PARASYMPATHETIC-PUPILLARY CONSTRICTOR AND CILIARY MUSCLE OF EYEBALL VIA CILIARY GANGLION

 
57. 
TROCHLEAR CRAINIAL NERVE 4
 
MOTOR-SUPERIOR OBLIQUE MUSCLE/MOVEMENT OF EYEBALL
 
58. 
TRIGEMINAL CRAINIAL NERVE 5
 

SENSORY- FACE, SCALP, CORNEA, NASAL AND ORALCAVITIES, CRANIAL DURA MATER/GENERAL SENSATION

MOTOR-MUSCLES OF MASTICATION/OPENING CLOSING MOUTH

 
59. 
ABDUCENS CRAINIAL NERVE 6
 
MOTOR- LATERAL RECTUS MUSCLE/MOVEMENT OF EYEBALL
 
60. 
FACIAL CRAINIAL NERVE 7
 

SENSORY-ANTERIOR 2/3 OF TONGUE

MOTOR-MUSCLES OF FACIAL EXPRESSION/FACIAL MOVEMENT

PARASYMPATHETIC-SALIVARY

 
61. 
VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR CRANIAL NERVE 8
 

SENSORY-VESTIBULAR APPARATUS/POSITION AND MOVEMENT OF THE HEAD

COCHLEA/HEARING

 
62. 
GLOSSOPH ARYNGEAL CRANIAL NERVE 9
 

SENSORY-PHARYNX, POSTERIOR THIRD OF TONGUE/SENSATION TASTE

MIDDLE EAR/GENERAL SENSATION

CAROTIOD BODY AND SINUS/BARORECEPTION

MOTOR-STYLOPHARYNGEUS MUSCLE/SWALLOWING

PARASYMPATHETIC-PAROTID SALIVARY GLAND VIA OTIC GANGLION/ SALIVATION

 
63. 
VAGUS CRANIAL NERVE 10
 

SENSORY-PHARYNX, LARYNX, ESOPHAGUS, EXTERNAL EAR. GENERAL SENSATION

AORTIC BODIES,ARCH- CHEMO BARORECEPT

THORACIC AND ABDOMINAL VISCERA- VISCERAL SENSATION

MOTOR-SOFT PALATE, PHARYNX, LARYNX, UPPER ESOPHAGUS/SPEECH, SWALLOWING

PARASYMPATHETIC-CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, RESPIRATORY AND GASTOINTESTINAL TRACTS

 
64. 
ACCESSORY CRAINIAL NERVE 11
 
STERNOMASTIOD AND TRAPEZIOUS MUSCLES/MOVEMENT OF HEAD AND SHOULDER
 
65. 
HYPOGLASSAL CRAINIAL NERVE 12
 
INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC MUCLES OF TONGUE/ MOVE OF TONGUE
 
66. 
memory
 
retention of learned info
 
67. 
learning
 
acquisition of new info
 
68. 
procedural memory
 
memory for skills, haits and behaviors
 
69. 
retrograde amnesia
 
memory loss following a serious trauma that worsens with time.
 
70. 
short term memory
 
things you will retain for seconds to minutes
 
71. 
multiple sclerosis
 
autoimmune disease
 
72. 
M.S. risk factors
 

race

heredity

geographical factors

sex

 
73. 
M.S. complications
 

epilepsy

paralysis (legs)

bladder, bowel, sexual issues

mental changes

 
74. 
method of M.S. diagnosis
 
PET scan, blood tests, spinal tap, MRI
 
75. 
ALS disease
 
muscle weakness, shortness of breath, swallowing, twitching , impairment of use of extremities
 
76. 
tabes dosalis
 

syphilitic infection of nervous system (tertiary syphilis)

 
77. 
ALS (Lou Gehrig's disease)
 
lower limbs
 
78. 
Brown-Sequard syndrome
 
hemisection of spinal cord
 
79. 
syringomyelia
 
developmental/acquired expansion of central canal of spinal cord
 
80. 
Myathenia gravis
 
chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease affecting skeletal muscles
 
81. 
myathenia gravis is caused by
 
a defect in the transmission of nerve impulses to muscles (acetylcholine, thymus related)
 
82. 
Diabetic Neuropathy
 
peripheral nerve disorder caused by diabetes or poor blood sugar control.
 
83. 
aneurysm-
 
abnormal balloonlike swelling of an artery
 
84. 
2 types of Aortic aneurysm
 

abdominal aortic aneurysm

thoracic aortic aneurysm

 
85. 
causes of aneurysms
 
blood pressure, infections, syphilis,
 
86. 
Metastatic Brain Tumors
 
cerebral metatstases are most common brain tumor seen clinically.
 
87. 
hippocampus
 
memory
 
88. 
frontal lobe
 
personality
 
89. 
pia mater is located
 
right on top gyrus
 
90. 
lateral cerebral artery
 
cannot be seen in the brain
 
91. 
sympathetic nervous system
 
homeostatis
 
92. 
little brain
 
cerebellum
 
93. 
deep groove in the brain
 
fissure
 
94. 
visual area of the cortex
 
occipital lobe
 
95. 
Midbrain and medulla oblongata connected via
 
pons
 
96. 
cranial nerve that supplies motor impulses to the tongue is
 
glossopharyngeal nerve
 
97. 
injury to cranial nerve 7 would result
 
pain on half of the face
 
98. 
fibers of a neuron
 
axons and dendrites
 
99. 
meninges contain
 
connective tissue
 
100. 
damage to wenicke area
 
difficulty understanding spoken language
 
101. 
sea horse shaped area that effects learning and long term memory
 
hippocampus