Alzheimers

Total Flash Cards » 101
 
1. 

progressive and fatal brain disease

 

Alzheimers

 
2. 

what does alzheimers disease do?

 

destroys brain cells-gets worse over time and is fatal

 
3. 

most common form of dementia...what %

 

50 to 80%

 
4. 

name 4 more types of dementia

 

vascular dementia

mixed dementia

demenita with Lewy bodies

frontotemporal demential

 
5. 

brain has (?#) neurons

 

OVER 100 BILLION

 
6. 

2 Abnormal structures called__ and ___ are suspected to damage nerve cells

 

plaques, tangles

 
7. 

Plaques build up__ nerve cells

 

between

 
8. 

Plaques contain deposits of a protein fragment called

 

beta-amyloid

 
9. 

Tangles are twisted fibers of another protein called

 

tau

 
10. 

Tangles form where?

 

inside dying cells

 
11. 

T and P form in a pttern starting with

 

limbic system

 
12. 

Early-stage

 

early part of Alz

 
13. 

younger-onset

 

when Alz occurs in a person under 65

 
14. 

Alz can start

 

30s 40s 50s

 
15. 

Alzheimer's disease-transfer of info at __begin to fail, # of synapses __ and eventually cells__.

 

synapses, decline, die

 
16. 

Alz brains show

 

shrinkage and widespread debris

 
17. 

Neurofibrillary tangles

 

insoluble twisted fibers found inside brain cells consisting primarly of tau protein which form microtubule

 
18. 

Microtubule

 

helps transport nutrients from one end of nerve cell to another

 
19. 

beta amyloid plaques

 

protein frag snipped from amyloid precursor protein

 
20. 

10 Signs of Alzheimers

 

memory loss

planning and solving problems

completing familiar tasks

time loss

understanding visual images/spatial relationships

new issues speaking/writing words

lossing things/steps

judgement

withdrawal

mood/personality

 
21. 

stage 1

 

normal function

 
22. 

Stage 2

 

very mild conitive decline

memory lapses

resembles normal aging braing

 
23. 

Stage 3

 

mild cognitive decline.

increasing difficulty performing social tasks

 
24. 

Stage 4

 

Moderate cognitive decline

 
25. 

Stage 5

 

Moderately severe cognitive decline

unable to recall own address

confused about whereabouts

 
26. 

Stage 6

 

Severe cognitive decline

Memory worsens

personality changes

individuals need extensive help with daily activities

 
27. 

Stage 7

 

Very severe cognitive decline

Muscles become rigid

reflexes become abnormal

 
28. 

Spinal Cord has __ segments

 

31

 
29. 

SC has __ cervical segments

 

8

 
30. 

SC has __ thoracic segments

 

12

 
31. 

SC has __lumbar segments

 

5

 
32. 

SC has __sacral segments

 

5

 
33. 

SC has _ coccygeal segment

 

1 (tailbone)

 
34. 

Cervical segments are the

 

largest

 
35. 

in each half of SC the ___ ____ is divided into the ____ ___ and ____ ____

 

dorasal funiculus

fasciculus gracilic

fasciculus cuneatus

 
36. 

alz patients have reduced levels of the neurotransmitters ___.

 

aceylcholine

 
37. 

aceylcholine is responsible for __ and __

 

learning

memory

 
38. 

Alz can be diagnosed by ____ and ___ ___

 

symptoms

PET scans

 
39. 

alz causes decline in patient's ablility to __

 

smell

 
40. 

Declarative memory

 

memory for facts and events

 
41. 

chorea

 

motor disturbance characterized by random, continuous, brief jerky movements of the body.

 
42. 

huntington's chorea

 

fatal genetic disease (autosomal dominant) influences the caudate and putamen.

 
43. 

Sydenhams chorea

 

children w/rheumatic fever-skin rash, carditis, arthritis fever

 
44. 

Anterograde amnesia

 

inability to retrieve old memory

 
45. 

tadive dyskinesia (old black lady in video)

 

dopamine receptors become super sensitive

late abnormal movement

characterized by involuntary movement of lips, jaw

 
46. 

neostriatum

 

consists of caudate and putamen

has very high concentration of dopamine(essential for movement) terminals

 
47. 

basal ganglia

 

does not have a direct projection to the spinal cord

 
48. 

projects back to the cerebral cortex via the thalamus

 

basal ganglia and cerebellum

 
49. 

substantia nigra causes

 

Parkinsons

 
50. 

akinesia

 

without movement

 
51. 

dyskinesia

 

abnormal movement

 
52. 

bradykinesia

 

difficulty in initiating or stopping movement

 
53. 

cerebral metastases are most common

 

brain tumor seen clinically.

 
54. 

OLFACTORY CRANIAL NERVE 1

 

SENSORY-SMELL

 
55. 

OPTIC CRANIAL NERVE 2

 

SENSORY- RETINA/VISION

 
56. 

OCULOMOTOR CRANIAL NERVE 3

 

MOTOR- SUPERIOR, INFERIOR AND MEDIAL RECTUS, INFERIOR OBLIQUE, LEVATOR PALPEBRAE MUSCLES/MOVEMENT OF EYEBALL

PARASYMPATHETIC-PUPILLARY CONSTRICTOR AND CILIARY MUSCLE OF EYEBALL VIA CILIARY GANGLION

 
57. 

TROCHLEAR CRAINIAL NERVE 4

 

MOTOR-SUPERIOR OBLIQUE MUSCLE/MOVEMENT OF EYEBALL

 
58. 

TRIGEMINAL CRAINIAL NERVE 5

 

SENSORY- FACE, SCALP, CORNEA, NASAL AND ORALCAVITIES, CRANIAL DURA MATER/GENERAL SENSATION

MOTOR-MUSCLES OF MASTICATION/OPENING CLOSING MOUTH

 
59. 

ABDUCENS CRAINIAL NERVE 6

 

MOTOR- LATERAL RECTUS MUSCLE/MOVEMENT OF EYEBALL

 
60. 

FACIAL CRAINIAL NERVE 7

 

SENSORY-ANTERIOR 2/3 OF TONGUE

MOTOR-MUSCLES OF FACIAL EXPRESSION/FACIAL MOVEMENT

PARASYMPATHETIC-SALIVARY

 
61. 

VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR CRANIAL NERVE 8

 

SENSORY-VESTIBULAR APPARATUS/POSITION AND MOVEMENT OF THE HEAD

COCHLEA/HEARING

 
62. 

GLOSSOPH ARYNGEAL CRANIAL NERVE 9

 

SENSORY-PHARYNX, POSTERIOR THIRD OF TONGUE/SENSATION TASTE

MIDDLE EAR/GENERAL SENSATION

CAROTIOD BODY AND SINUS/BARORECEPTION

MOTOR-STYLOPHARYNGEUS MUSCLE/SWALLOWING

PARASYMPATHETIC-PAROTID SALIVARY GLAND VIA OTIC GANGLION/ SALIVATION

 
63. 

VAGUS CRANIAL NERVE 10

 

SENSORY-PHARYNX, LARYNX, ESOPHAGUS, EXTERNAL EAR. GENERAL SENSATION

AORTIC BODIES,ARCH- CHEMO BARORECEPT

THORACIC AND ABDOMINAL VISCERA- VISCERAL SENSATION

MOTOR-SOFT PALATE, PHARYNX, LARYNX, UPPER ESOPHAGUS/SPEECH, SWALLOWING

PARASYMPATHETIC-CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, RESPIRATORY AND GASTOINTESTINAL TRACTS

 
64. 

ACCESSORY CRAINIAL NERVE 11

 

STERNOMASTIOD AND TRAPEZIOUS MUSCLES/MOVEMENT OF HEAD AND SHOULDER

 
65. 

HYPOGLASSAL CRAINIAL NERVE 12

 

INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC MUCLES OF TONGUE/ MOVE OF TONGUE

 
66. 

memory

 

retention of learned info

 
67. 

learning

 

acquisition of new info

 
68. 

procedural memory

 

memory for skills, haits and behaviors

 
69. 

retrograde amnesia

 

memory loss following a serious trauma that worsens with time.

 
70. 

short term memory

 

things you will retain for seconds to minutes

 
71. 

multiple sclerosis

 

autoimmune disease

 
72. 

M.S. risk factors

 

race

heredity

geographical factors

sex

 
73. 

M.S. complications

 

epilepsy

paralysis (legs)

bladder, bowel, sexual issues

mental changes

 
74. 

method of M.S. diagnosis

 

PET scan, blood tests, spinal tap, MRI

 
75. 

ALS disease

 

muscle weakness, shortness of breath, swallowing, twitching , impairment of use of extremities

 
76. 

tabes dosalis

 

syphilitic infection of nervous system (tertiary syphilis)

 
77. 

ALS (Lou Gehrig's disease)

 

lower limbs

 
78. 

Brown-Sequard syndrome

 

hemisection of spinal cord

 
79. 

syringomyelia

 

developmental/acquired expansion of central canal of spinal cord

 
80. 

Myathenia gravis

 

chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disease affecting skeletal muscles

 
81. 

myathenia gravis is caused by

 

a defect in the transmission of nerve impulses to muscles (acetylcholine, thymus related)

 
82. 

Diabetic Neuropathy

 

peripheral nerve disorder caused by diabetes or poor blood sugar control.

 
83. 

aneurysm-

 

abnormal balloonlike swelling of an artery

 
84. 

2 types of Aortic aneurysm

 

abdominal aortic aneurysm

thoracic aortic aneurysm

 
85. 

causes of aneurysms

 

blood pressure, infections, syphilis,

 
86. 

Metastatic Brain Tumors

 

cerebral metatstases are most common brain tumor seen clinically.

 
87. 

hippocampus

 

memory

 
88. 

frontal lobe

 

personality

 
89. 

pia mater is located

 

right on top gyrus

 
90. 

lateral cerebral artery

 

cannot be seen in the brain

 
91. 

sympathetic nervous system

 

homeostatis

 
92. 

little brain

 

cerebellum

 
93. 

deep groove in the brain

 

fissure

 
94. 

visual area of the cortex

 

occipital lobe

 
95. 

Midbrain and medulla oblongata connected via

 

pons

 
96. 

cranial nerve that supplies motor impulses to the tongue is

 

glossopharyngeal nerve

 
97. 

injury to cranial nerve 7 would result

 

pain on half of the face

 
98. 

fibers of a neuron

 

axons and dendrites

 
99. 

meninges contain

 

connective tissue

 
100. 

damage to wenicke area

 

difficulty understanding spoken language

 
101. 

sea horse shaped area that effects learning and long term memory

 

hippocampus