Urinary/Respiratory System

Total Flash Cards » 270
 
1. 

NASAL SEPTUM

 

partition separating the right and left nasal cavities.

 
2. 

NOSE

 

lined with mucos membrane and fine hairs. It acts as a filter to moisten ad warm the entering air.

 
3. 

PARANASAL SINUSES

 

air cavities within the cranial bones that open into the nasal cavities.

 
4. 

PHARYNX

 

serves as a food and air passageway. Air enters from the nasal cavities and passes through the pharynx to the larynx. Food enters the pharynx from the mouth and passes into the esophagus.

 
5. 

ADENOIDS

 

lymphoid tissue lovated behind the mouth

 
6. 

tonsils

 

lymphoid tissue located behind the mouth.

 
7. 

Larynx

 

(also called the voice box) location of the vocal cords. Air enters from the pharynx

 
8. 

epiglottis

 

flap of cartilage that automatically covers the opening of and keeps food from entering the larynx during swallowing.

 
9. 

trachea

 

(also called the windpipe) passage way for air to the bronchi

 
10. 

bronchus

 

one of two branches from the trachea that conducts air into the lungs, where it divides and subdivides. The branchings resemble a tree, herefore they are referred to as a bronchail tree.

 
11. 

bronchioles

 

smallest subdivision of the bronchial tree.

 
12. 

alveolus

 

air sacs at the end of the bronchioles. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged through the alveolar walls and the capillaries

 
13. 

lungs

 

two spongelike organs in the thoracic cavity. The right lung consists of three lobes, and the left has two lobes

 
14. 

pleura

 

serous membrane covering each lung adn lining the thoracic cavity

 
15. 

diaphragm

 

muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity. It aids in the breathing process

 
16. 

mediastinum

 

space between the lungs. It contains the heart, esophagus, trachea, great blood vessels, and other structures.

 
17. 

adenoid/o

 

adenoids

 
18. 

alveolo

 

alveolus

 
19. 

bronchi broncho

 

bronchus

 
20. 

diaphragmato

 

diaphragm

 
21. 

epiglotto

 

epiglottis

 
22. 

laryngo

 

larynx

 
23. 

lobo

 

lobe

 
24. 

rhino naso

 

nose

 
25. 

pharyngo

 

pharynx

 
26. 

pleuro

 

pleura

 
27. 

pneumo pneumato pneumono

 

lung, air

 
28. 

pulmono

 

lung

 
29. 

septo

 

septum (wall off, fence)

 
30. 

sinuso

 

sinus

 
31. 

thoraco

 

thorax (chest)

 
32. 

tonsillo

 

tonsil

 
33. 

tracheo

 

trachea

 
34. 

atelo

 

imperfect, incomplete

 
35. 

capno

 

carbon dioxide

 
36. 

hemo hemato

 

blood

 
37. 

muco

 

mucus

 
38. 

ortho

 

straight

 
39. 

oxo oxi

 

oxygen

 
40. 

pyo

 

pus

 
41. 

somno

 

sleep

 
42. 

spiro

 

breathe, breathing

 
43. 

a- an-

 

without or absence of

 
44. 

endo-

 

within

 
45. 

eu-

 

normal, good

 
46. 

pan-

 

all, total

 
47. 

poly

 

many, much

 
48. 

algia

 

pain

 
49. 

-ar -ary -eal

 

pertaining to

 
50. 

-cele

 

hernia or protrusion

 
51. 

-centesis

 

surgical puncture to aspirated fluid (with a sterile needle)

 
52. 

-ectasis

 

stretching out, diation, expansion

 
53. 

-emia

 

blood condition

 
54. 

-gram

 

record, x-ray imaging

 
55. 

-graphy

 

process of recording, x-ray imaging

 
56. 

-meter

 

instument used to measure

 
57. 

-metry

 

measurement

 
58. 

-oxia

 

oxygen

 
59. 

-pexy

 

surgical fixation, suspension

 
60. 

-phonia

 

sound or voice

 
61. 

-pnea

 

breathing

 
62. 

-rrhagia

 

rapid flow of blood

 
63. 

-scope

 

instrument used for visual examination

 
64. 

-scopic

 

pertaining to visual examination

 
65. 

-scopy

 

visual examination

 
66. 

-spasm

 

sudden, involuntary muscle contraction

 
67. 

-stenosis

 

constriction or narrowing

 
68. 

-stomy

 

creation of an artificail opening

 
69. 

-thorax

 

chest

 
70. 

-tomy

 

cut into or incision

 
71. 

adenoiditis

 

inflammation of the adenoids

 
72. 

atelectasis

 

incomplete expansion (of the lung of a new born or collapsed lung)

 
73. 

bronchiectasis

 

dilation of the bronchi

 
74. 

bronchitis

 

inflammation of the bronchi

 
75. 

bronchogenin carcinoma

 

cancerous tumore originating in the bronchus

 
76. 

bronchopneumonia

 

diseased state of the bronchi and lungs

 
77. 

diaphragmatocele

 

hernia of the diaphragm

 
78. 

diaphragmatocele

 

hernia of the diaphragm

 
79. 

epiglottitis

 

inflammation of the epigottis

 
80. 

hemothorax

 

blood in the chest

 
81. 

laryngitis

 

inflammation of the larynx

 
82. 

laryngothracheobronchitis

 

inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi

 
83. 

lobar pneumonia

 

pertaing to the lobes; diseased state of the lung (infection of one or more loves of the lung.)

 
84. 

nasophayngitis

 

inflammation of the nose and pharynx

 
85. 

pansinusitis

 

inflammation of all sinuses

 
86. 

pharyngitis

 

inflammation of pharynx

 
87. 

pleuritis

 

inflammation of the pleura (also called pleurisy)

 
88. 

pneumatocele

 

hernia of the lung (lung tissue protrudes through the chest)

 
89. 

pneumoconiosis

 

abnormal condition of dust in the lungs

 
90. 

pneumonia

 

diseased state of the lung

 
91. 

pneumonitis

 

inflammation of the lung

 
92. 

pneumothorax

 

air in the chest, which causes collapse of the lung

 
93. 

pulmonary neoplasm

 

pertaining to a tumor of new growth in the lung

 
94. 

pyothorax

 

pus in the chest AKA-empyema

 
95. 

rhinitis

 

inflammation of the nose

 
96. 

rhinomycosis

 

abnormal condition of fungus in the nose

 
97. 

rhinorrhagia

 

rapid flow of blood from the nose AKA-epistaxis

 
98. 

thoracalgia

 

pain in the chest

 
99. 

tonsillitis

 

inflammation of the tonsils

 
100. 

tracheitis

 

inflammation of the trachea

 
101. 

tracheostenosis

 

narrowing of the trachea

 
102. 

adult respiratory distress

 

respiratory failure in an adult as a result of disease or injury. Symptoms include dyspnea, rapid breathing, adn cyanosis. AKA-acute respiratory distress syndrome

 
103. 

asthma

 

respiratory disease characterized by paroxysms of coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath

 
104. 

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

 

a group of disorders that are almost always a result of smoking that obstructs bronchial flow. One or mroe of the following is present: emphysema, chronic bronchitis, brochospasm, and bronchiolitis

 
105. 

coccidiodomycosis

 

fugal disease affecting the lungs and sometimes other organs of the body AKA- valley fever, or cocci

 
106. 

cor pulmonale

 

serious cardiac disease associated with chronic lung disorders, such as emphysema

 
107. 

croup

 

condition resulting form acute obstruction of the larynx, characterized by a barking cough, hoarseness, and stidor. It may be caused by viral or bacterial infection, allergy, or foreign body. Occurs mainly in children.

 
108. 

cystinc fibrosis

 

hereditary disorder of the endocrine glads characterized by excess mucus production in the repiratory tract, pancreatic deficiency, and other symptoms

 
109. 

diviated septum

 

one part of the nasal cavity is smaller because of malformaion or injury

 
110. 

emphysema

 

stretching of lung tissue caused by the alveoli becoming distended and losing elasticity

 
111. 

epistaxis

 

nosebleed synonymous with rhnorrhagia

 
112. 

influenza

 

highly infectious respiratory disease caused by a virus

 
113. 

legionaire disease

 

a lobar pneumonia caused by the bacerium

 
114. 

obstructive sleep apnea

 

reptitive pharyngeal collapse during sleep which leads to absence of breathing

 
115. 

pertussis

 

respiratory disease characterized by an acute crowing inspiration, or whoop (synonymous with whooping cough)

 
116. 

pleural effusion

 

escape of fluid into the pleural space as a result of inflammation

 
117. 

Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

 

a pneumonia caused by P. carinii, a fungus common disease in patients with AIDS

 
118. 

pulmonary edema

 

fluid accumulation in the alveoli and bronchioles

 
119. 

pulmonary embolism

 

foreign matter, such as a blood clot, air, or fat clot, carried in the circulation to the pulmonary artery, where it blocks circulation

 
120. 

tuberculosis

 

an infectious disease, caused by an acid-fast bacillus, most commonly spread by inhalation of small particles and usually affecting the lungs

 
121. 

upper respiratory infection

 

infection of the nasal cavity, pharynx, or larynx

 
122. 

adenoidectomy

 

excision of the adenoids

 
123. 

adenotome

 

surgical instrument used to cut the adenoids

 
124. 

bronchoplasty

 

surgical repair of a bronchus

 
125. 

laryngectomy

 

excision of the larynx

 
126. 

laryngoplasty

 

surgical repair of the larynx

 
127. 

laryngostomy

 

creation of an artificial opening into the larynx

 
128. 

laryngotracheotomy

 

incision of the larynx and trachea

 
129. 

lobectomy

 

excision of a lobe

 
130. 

pleuropexy

 

surgical fixation of the pleura

 
131. 

pneumobronchotomy

 

incision of lung and bronchus

 
132. 

pneumoectomy

 

excision of a lung

 
133. 

rhinoplasty

 

surgical repair of the nose

 
134. 

septoplasty

 

surgical repair of the (nasal) septum

 
135. 

septotomy

 

incision into the (nasal) septum

 
136. 

sinusotomy

 

incision of a sinus

 
137. 

thoracocentesis

 

surgical puncture to aspirate fluid from the chest cavity

 
138. 

thoracotomy

 

incision into the chest cavity

 
139. 

tonsillectomy

 

excisoin of the tonsils

 
140. 

tracheoplasty

 

surgical repair of the trachea

 
141. 

tracheostomy

 

creation of an artificial opening into teh trachea

 
142. 

tracheotomy

 

incision of the trachea

 
143. 

brochoscope

 

instrument used for visual examination of the bronchi

 
144. 

bronchoscopy

 

visual examination of the bronchi

 
145. 

endoscope

 

instrument used for visual examination within (a hollow organ or body cavity).

 
146. 

endoscopic

 

pertaining to visual examination withing a hollow organ or body cavity.

 
147. 

endoscopy

 

visual examination within a hollow organ or body cavity.

 
148. 

laryngoscope

 

instument used for visual examination of the larynx

 
149. 

laryngoscopy

 

visual examination of the larynx

 
150. 

thoracoscope

 

instument used for visual examination of the thorax

 
151. 

thoracoscopy

 

visual examination of the thorax

 
152. 

capnometer

 

instrument used to measure carbo dioxide

 
153. 

capnometer

 

instrument used to measure carbo dioxide

 
154. 

oximeter

 

instrument used to measure oxygen

 
155. 

spirometer

 

instument used to measure breathing or lung volumes

 
156. 

spirometry

 

a measurement of breathing or lung volumes

 
157. 

ploysomnography

 

process of recording many (tests) during sleep

 
158. 

anoxia

 

absense (deficiency) of oxygen

 
159. 

acapnia

 

condition of absence (less than normal level) of carbon dioxide (in the blood)

 
160. 

aphonia

 

absence of voice

 
161. 

bronchoalveolar

 

pertaining t the brochi and alveoli

 
162. 

bronchospasm

 

spasmodic contraction in teh bronchi

 
163. 

diaphragmatic

 

pertaining to the diaphragm

 
164. 

dysphonia

 

difficult speaking

 
165. 

dyspnea

 

difficult breathing

 
166. 

enotracheal

 

pertaining to within the trachea

 
167. 

eupenea

 

normal breathing

 
168. 

hypercapnia

 

condition of excessive carbon dioxide in the blood

 
169. 

hyperpnea

 

excessive breathing

 
170. 

hypocapnia

 

condition of deficient carbon dioxide in the blood

 
171. 

hypopnea

 

dificient oxygen in the blood

 
172. 

hypoxia

 

deficient oxygen (to the tissue)

 
173. 

intrapleural

 

pertaining to within the pleura

 
174. 

laryngeal

 

pertaining to the larynx

 
175. 

laryngospasm

 

spasmodic contradiction of the larynx

 
176. 

laryngospasm

 

spasmodic contraction of the larynx

 
177. 

mucoid

 

resembling mucus

 
178. 

mucous

 

pertaining to mucus

 
179. 

nasopharyngeal

 

pertaining to the nose and phaynx

 
180. 

orthopnea

 

able to breathe only in an upright position

 
181. 

pulmonary

 

pertaining to the lungs

 
182. 

rhinorrhea

 

discharge from the nose (as in a cold)

 
183. 

thoracic

 

pertaining to the chest

 
184. 

airway

 

passageway by which air enters and leaves the lungs as well as a mechanical device used to keep the air passageway unobstructed

 
185. 

asphyxia

 

deprivation of oxygen for tissue use; suffocation

 
186. 

aspirate

 

to withdraw fluid or to suction as well as to draw foreign material into the respiratory tract

 
187. 

bronchoconstrictor

 

agent causing narrowing of the bronchi

 
188. 

bronchodilator

 

agent causing the bronchi to widen

 
189. 

cough

 

sudden, noisy expulsion of air from the lung

 
190. 

hiccup

 

sudded catching of breath with a spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm AKA- hiccough

 
191. 

hyperventilation

 

ventilation of the lungs beyond normal needs

 
192. 

hypoventilation

 

ventilation of the lungs that does not fulfill the body's gas exchange needs

 
193. 

mucopurulent

 

containing both mucus and pus

 
194. 

nebulizer

 

device that creates a mist used to deliver medication for giving repiratory treatment

 
195. 

nosocomial infection

 

an infection acquired during hospitalizaiton

 
196. 

paroxysm

 

periodic, sudden attack

 
197. 

patent

 

open (an airway must be patent)

 
198. 

sputum

 

mucous secretion from the lungs, bronchi, and trachea expelled through the mouth

 
199. 

ventilator

 

mechanical device used to assist with or substitute for breathing when patient cannot breathe unassisted

 
200. 

kidneys

 

two bean-shaped organs located on each side of the vertebral column on the posterier wall of the abdominal cavity behind the parietal peritoneum. Their function is to remove waste products from the blood and to aid in maintaining water adn electrolyte balance.

 
201. 

nephron

 

urine-producing microscopic structure.

 
202. 

glomerulus

 

cluster of capillaries at the entrance of the nephron. The process of fliltering the blood thereby forming urine, begins here.

 
203. 

renal pelvis

 

funnel-shaped reservior that collects the urine and passes it to the ureter

 
204. 

hilum

 

indentaiton on the medial side of the kidney where the ureter leaces the kidney

 
205. 

ureters

 

two slender tubes, approximately 10 to 13 inches long, that recieve the urine from the kidneys and carry it to the posterior portion of the baldder

 
206. 

urinary bladder

 

muscular, hollow organ that temporarily holds the urine. As it fills, the thick, musculare wall becomes thinner, and the organ increases in size

 
207. 

urethra

 

lowest part of the urinary tract, through which the urine passes from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. This narrow tube varries in length by sex. It is 1.5 inches in females and 8 in males. Serves as a urogenital pore for males also.

 
208. 

urinary meatus

 

opening through which the urine passes to the outside

 
209. 

cysto vesico

 

bladder, sac

 
210. 

glomerulo

 

glomerulus

 
211. 

meato

 

meatus opening

 
212. 

nephro reno

 

kidney

 
213. 

pyelo

 

renal pelvis

 
214. 

uretero

 

ureter

 
215. 

urethro

 

urethra

 
216. 

albumino

 

albumin

 
217. 

azoto

 

urea, nitrogen

 
218. 

blasto

 

developing cell, germ cell

 
219. 

glyco glycos

 

sugar

 
220. 

hydro

 

water

 
221. 

litho

 

stone, calculus

 
222. 

nocti

 

night

 
223. 

oligo

 

scanty, few

 
224. 

sono

 

sound

 
225. 

tomo

 

cut, section

 
226. 

urino uro

 

urine, urinary tract

 
227. 

-iasis -esis

 

condition

 
228. 

-lysis

 

loosening, dissolution, separating

 
229. 

-megaly

 

enlargement

 
230. 

-ptosis

 

drooping, sagging, prolapse

 
231. 

-rrhaphy

 

suturing, repairing

 
232. 

-tripsy

 

surgical crushing

 
233. 

-trophy

 

nourishment, development

 
234. 

-uria

 

urine, urination

 
235. 

cysocele

 

protrusion of the bladder

 
236. 

cystolith

 

stone in the bladder

 
237. 

nephroptosis

 

drooping kidney AKA- floating kidney

 
238. 

pyelonephritis

 

inflammation of the renal pelvis and the kidney

 
239. 

uremia

 

condition of urine (urea) in the blood

 
240. 

ureterostenosis

 

narrowing of the ureter

 
241. 

polycystic kidney disease

 

condition in which the kidney contains many cysts and is enlarged

 
242. 

renal calculi

 

stones in the kidney

 
243. 

sepsis

 

a condition in which pathogenic microorganisms, usually bacteria, enter the blood stream causing a systemic inflammatory response to the infection AKA- septicema

 
244. 

urinary tract infection

 

infection of one or more organs of the urinary tract

 
245. 

cystolithotomy

 

incision of the bladder to remove a stone

 
246. 

lithotripsy

 

surgical crushing of a stone

 
247. 

nephroplexy

 

surgical fixation of the kidney

 
248. 

nephrostomy

 

creation of an artificial opening into the kidney

 
249. 

nyelolithotomy

 

incision of the renal pelvis to remove a stone

 
250. 

ureterostomy

 

creation of an artificial opening into the uterer

 
251. 

extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

 

a noninvasive treatment for removal of a kidney or ureteral stone(s). By using ultrasound and fluoroscopic imaging, the stone is positioned at a focal point.

 
252. 

intavenous urogram

 

x-ray image fo the urinary tract AKA- pyelogram

 
253. 

nephrography

 

x-ray imaging of the kidney

 
254. 

retrograde urogram

 

x-ray image fo the urinary tract with a contrast medium instilled through urethral catheters by a cystoscope

 
255. 

voiding cystourethrography

 

x-ray imaging of the bladder and the urethra

 
256. 

urethroscope

 

instrument used for visual examination of the urethra

 
257. 

urinalysis

 

multiple routine tests performed on a urine specimen

 
258. 

anuria

 

absence of urine (failure of the kidneys to produce urine)

 
259. 

diuresis

 

condition of urine passing through (increased excretion of urine.)

 
260. 

glycosuria

 

sugar (glucose) in the urine

 
261. 

hematuria

 

blood in the urine

 
262. 

oliguria

 

scanty urine

 
263. 

polyuria

 

much (excessive) urine

 
264. 

urology

 

study of urinary tract

 
265. 

catheter

 

flexible, tubelike device, such as a urinary catheter, for withdrawing or instilling fluids

 
266. 

diuretic

 

agent that increases the formation and excretion of urine

 
267. 

enuresis

 

invlountary urination (bed wetting)

 
268. 

incontinence

 

inability to control bladder or bowels

 
269. 

micturate

 

to urinate or void

 
270. 

urodynamics

 

pertaining to thte force and flow of urine within the urinary tract