Urinary/Respiratory System

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1. 
NASAL SEPTUM
 
partition separating the right and left nasal cavities.
 
2. 
NOSE
 
lined with mucos membrane and fine hairs. It acts as a filter to moisten ad warm the entering air.
 
3. 
PARANASAL SINUSES
 
air cavities within the cranial bones that open into the nasal cavities.
 
4. 
PHARYNX
 
serves as a food and air passageway. Air enters from the nasal cavities and passes through the pharynx to the larynx. Food enters the pharynx from the mouth and passes into the esophagus.
 
5. 
ADENOIDS
 
lymphoid tissue lovated behind the mouth
 
6. 
tonsils
 
lymphoid tissue located behind the mouth.
 
7. 
Larynx
 
(also called the voice box) location of the vocal cords. Air enters from the pharynx
 
8. 
epiglottis
 
flap of cartilage that automatically covers the opening of and keeps food from entering the larynx during swallowing.
 
9. 
trachea
 
(also called the windpipe) passage way for air to the bronchi
 
10. 
bronchus
 
one of two branches from the trachea that conducts air into the lungs, where it divides and subdivides. The branchings resemble a tree, herefore they are referred to as a bronchail tree.
 
11. 
bronchioles
 
smallest subdivision of the bronchial tree.
 
12. 
alveolus
 
air sacs at the end of the bronchioles. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged through the alveolar walls and the capillaries
 
13. 
lungs
 
two spongelike organs in the thoracic cavity. The right lung consists of three lobes, and the left has two lobes
 
14. 
pleura
 
serous membrane covering each lung adn lining the thoracic cavity
 
15. 
diaphragm
 
muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity. It aids in the breathing process
 
16. 
mediastinum
 
space between the lungs. It contains the heart, esophagus, trachea, great blood vessels, and other structures.
 
17. 
adenoid/o
 
adenoids
 
18. 
alveolo
 
alveolus
 
19. 
bronchi broncho
 
bronchus
 
20. 
diaphragmato
 
diaphragm
 
21. 
epiglotto
 
epiglottis
 
22. 
laryngo
 
larynx
 
23. 
lobo
 
lobe
 
24. 
rhino naso
 
nose
 
25. 
pharyngo
 
pharynx
 
26. 
pleuro
 
pleura
 
27. 
pneumo pneumato pneumono
 
lung, air
 
28. 
pulmono
 
lung
 
29. 
septo
 
septum (wall off, fence)
 
30. 
sinuso
 
sinus
 
31. 
thoraco
 
thorax (chest)
 
32. 
tonsillo
 
tonsil
 
33. 
tracheo
 
trachea
 
34. 
atelo
 
imperfect, incomplete
 
35. 
capno
 
carbon dioxide
 
36. 
hemo hemato
 
blood
 
37. 
muco
 
mucus
 
38. 
ortho
 
straight
 
39. 
oxo oxi
 
oxygen
 
40. 
pyo
 
pus
 
41. 
somno
 
sleep
 
42. 
spiro
 
breathe, breathing
 
43. 
a- an-
 
without or absence of
 
44. 
endo-
 
within
 
45. 
eu-
 
normal, good
 
46. 
pan-
 
all, total
 
47. 
poly
 
many, much
 
48. 
algia
 
pain
 
49. 
-ar -ary -eal
 
pertaining to
 
50. 
-cele
 
hernia or protrusion
 
51. 
-centesis
 
surgical puncture to aspirated fluid (with a sterile needle)
 
52. 
-ectasis
 
stretching out, diation, expansion
 
53. 
-emia
 
blood condition
 
54. 
-gram
 
record, x-ray imaging
 
55. 
-graphy
 
process of recording, x-ray imaging
 
56. 
-meter
 
instument used to measure
 
57. 
-metry
 
measurement
 
58. 
-oxia
 
oxygen
 
59. 
-pexy
 
surgical fixation, suspension
 
60. 
-phonia
 
sound or voice
 
61. 
-pnea
 
breathing
 
62. 
-rrhagia
 
rapid flow of blood
 
63. 
-scope
 
instrument used for visual examination
 
64. 
-scopic
 
pertaining to visual examination
 
65. 
-scopy
 
visual examination
 
66. 
-spasm
 
sudden, involuntary muscle contraction
 
67. 
-stenosis
 
constriction or narrowing
 
68. 
-stomy
 
creation of an artificail opening
 
69. 
-thorax
 
chest
 
70. 
-tomy
 
cut into or incision
 
71. 
adenoiditis
 
inflammation of the adenoids
 
72. 
atelectasis
 
incomplete expansion (of the lung of a new born or collapsed lung)
 
73. 
bronchiectasis
 
dilation of the bronchi
 
74. 
bronchitis
 
inflammation of the bronchi
 
75. 
bronchogenin carcinoma
 
cancerous tumore originating in the bronchus
 
76. 
bronchopneumonia
 
diseased state of the bronchi and lungs
 
77. 
diaphragmatocele
 
hernia of the diaphragm
 
78. 
diaphragmatocele
 
hernia of the diaphragm
 
79. 
epiglottitis
 
inflammation of the epigottis
 
80. 
hemothorax
 
blood in the chest
 
81. 
laryngitis
 
inflammation of the larynx
 
82. 
laryngothracheobronchitis
 
inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi
 
83. 
lobar pneumonia
 
pertaing to the lobes; diseased state of the lung (infection of one or more loves of the lung.)
 
84. 
nasophayngitis
 
inflammation of the nose and pharynx
 
85. 
pansinusitis
 
inflammation of all sinuses
 
86. 
pharyngitis
 
inflammation of pharynx
 
87. 
pleuritis
 
inflammation of the pleura (also called pleurisy)
 
88. 
pneumatocele
 
hernia of the lung (lung tissue protrudes through the chest)
 
89. 
pneumoconiosis
 
abnormal condition of dust in the lungs
 
90. 
pneumonia
 
diseased state of the lung
 
91. 
pneumonitis
 
inflammation of the lung
 
92. 
pneumothorax
 
air in the chest, which causes collapse of the lung
 
93. 
pulmonary neoplasm
 
pertaining to a tumor of new growth in the lung
 
94. 
pyothorax
 
pus in the chest AKA-empyema
 
95. 
rhinitis
 
inflammation of the nose
 
96. 
rhinomycosis
 
abnormal condition of fungus in the nose
 
97. 
rhinorrhagia
 
rapid flow of blood from the nose AKA-epistaxis
 
98. 
thoracalgia
 
pain in the chest
 
99. 
tonsillitis
 
inflammation of the tonsils
 
100. 
tracheitis
 
inflammation of the trachea
 
101. 
tracheostenosis
 
narrowing of the trachea
 
102. 
adult respiratory distress
 
respiratory failure in an adult as a result of disease or injury. Symptoms include dyspnea, rapid breathing, adn cyanosis. AKA-acute respiratory distress syndrome
 
103. 
asthma
 
respiratory disease characterized by paroxysms of coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath
 
104. 
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
 
a group of disorders that are almost always a result of smoking that obstructs bronchial flow. One or mroe of the following is present: emphysema, chronic bronchitis, brochospasm, and bronchiolitis
 
105. 
coccidiodomycosis
 
fugal disease affecting the lungs and sometimes other organs of the body AKA- valley fever, or cocci
 
106. 
cor pulmonale
 
serious cardiac disease associated with chronic lung disorders, such as emphysema
 
107. 
croup
 
condition resulting form acute obstruction of the larynx, characterized by a barking cough, hoarseness, and stidor. It may be caused by viral or bacterial infection, allergy, or foreign body. Occurs mainly in children.
 
108. 
cystinc fibrosis
 
hereditary disorder of the endocrine glads characterized by excess mucus production in the repiratory tract, pancreatic deficiency, and other symptoms
 
109. 
diviated septum
 
one part of the nasal cavity is smaller because of malformaion or injury
 
110. 
emphysema
 
stretching of lung tissue caused by the alveoli becoming distended and losing elasticity
 
111. 
epistaxis
 
nosebleed synonymous with rhnorrhagia
 
112. 
influenza
 
highly infectious respiratory disease caused by a virus
 
113. 
legionaire disease
 
a lobar pneumonia caused by the bacerium
 
114. 
obstructive sleep apnea
 
reptitive pharyngeal collapse during sleep which leads to absence of breathing
 
115. 
pertussis
 
respiratory disease characterized by an acute crowing inspiration, or whoop (synonymous with whooping cough)
 
116. 
pleural effusion
 
escape of fluid into the pleural space as a result of inflammation
 
117. 
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
 
a pneumonia caused by P. carinii, a fungus common disease in patients with AIDS
 
118. 
pulmonary edema
 
fluid accumulation in the alveoli and bronchioles
 
119. 
pulmonary embolism
 
foreign matter, such as a blood clot, air, or fat clot, carried in the circulation to the pulmonary artery, where it blocks circulation
 
120. 
tuberculosis
 
an infectious disease, caused by an acid-fast bacillus, most commonly spread by inhalation of small particles and usually affecting the lungs
 
121. 
upper respiratory infection
 
infection of the nasal cavity, pharynx, or larynx
 
122. 
adenoidectomy
 
excision of the adenoids
 
123. 
adenotome
 
surgical instrument used to cut the adenoids
 
124. 
bronchoplasty
 
surgical repair of a bronchus
 
125. 
laryngectomy
 
excision of the larynx
 
126. 
laryngoplasty
 
surgical repair of the larynx
 
127. 
laryngostomy
 
creation of an artificial opening into the larynx
 
128. 
laryngotracheotomy
 
incision of the larynx and trachea
 
129. 
lobectomy
 
excision of a lobe
 
130. 
pleuropexy
 
surgical fixation of the pleura
 
131. 
pneumobronchotomy
 
incision of lung and bronchus
 
132. 
pneumoectomy
 
excision of a lung
 
133. 
rhinoplasty
 
surgical repair of the nose
 
134. 
septoplasty
 
surgical repair of the (nasal) septum
 
135. 
septotomy
 
incision into the (nasal) septum
 
136. 
sinusotomy
 
incision of a sinus
 
137. 
thoracocentesis
 
surgical puncture to aspirate fluid from the chest cavity
 
138. 
thoracotomy
 
incision into the chest cavity
 
139. 
tonsillectomy
 
excisoin of the tonsils
 
140. 
tracheoplasty
 
surgical repair of the trachea
 
141. 
tracheostomy
 
creation of an artificial opening into teh trachea
 
142. 
tracheotomy
 
incision of the trachea
 
143. 
brochoscope
 
instrument used for visual examination of the bronchi
 
144. 
bronchoscopy
 
visual examination of the bronchi
 
145. 
endoscope
 
instrument used for visual examination within (a hollow organ or body cavity).
 
146. 
endoscopic
 
pertaining to visual examination withing a hollow organ or body cavity.
 
147. 
endoscopy
 
visual examination within a hollow organ or body cavity.
 
148. 
laryngoscope
 
instument used for visual examination of the larynx
 
149. 
laryngoscopy
 
visual examination of the larynx
 
150. 
thoracoscope
 
instument used for visual examination of the thorax
 
151. 
thoracoscopy
 
visual examination of the thorax
 
152. 
capnometer
 
instrument used to measure carbo dioxide
 
153. 
capnometer
 
instrument used to measure carbo dioxide
 
154. 
oximeter
 
instrument used to measure oxygen
 
155. 
spirometer
 
instument used to measure breathing or lung volumes
 
156. 
spirometry
 
a measurement of breathing or lung volumes
 
157. 
ploysomnography
 
process of recording many (tests) during sleep
 
158. 
anoxia
 
absense (deficiency) of oxygen
 
159. 
acapnia
 
condition of absence (less than normal level) of carbon dioxide (in the blood)
 
160. 
aphonia
 
absence of voice
 
161. 
bronchoalveolar
 
pertaining t the brochi and alveoli
 
162. 
bronchospasm
 
spasmodic contraction in teh bronchi
 
163. 
diaphragmatic
 
pertaining to the diaphragm
 
164. 
dysphonia
 
difficult speaking
 
165. 
dyspnea
 
difficult breathing
 
166. 
enotracheal
 
pertaining to within the trachea
 
167. 
eupenea
 
normal breathing
 
168. 
hypercapnia
 
condition of excessive carbon dioxide in the blood
 
169. 
hyperpnea
 
excessive breathing
 
170. 
hypocapnia
 
condition of deficient carbon dioxide in the blood
 
171. 
hypopnea
 
dificient oxygen in the blood
 
172. 
hypoxia
 
deficient oxygen (to the tissue)
 
173. 
intrapleural
 
pertaining to within the pleura
 
174. 
laryngeal
 
pertaining to the larynx
 
175. 
laryngospasm
 
spasmodic contradiction of the larynx
 
176. 
laryngospasm
 
spasmodic contraction of the larynx
 
177. 
mucoid
 
resembling mucus
 
178. 
mucous
 
pertaining to mucus
 
179. 
nasopharyngeal
 
pertaining to the nose and phaynx
 
180. 
orthopnea
 
able to breathe only in an upright position
 
181. 
pulmonary
 
pertaining to the lungs
 
182. 
rhinorrhea
 
discharge from the nose (as in a cold)
 
183. 
thoracic
 
pertaining to the chest
 
184. 
airway
 
passageway by which air enters and leaves the lungs as well as a mechanical device used to keep the air passageway unobstructed
 
185. 
asphyxia
 
deprivation of oxygen for tissue use; suffocation
 
186. 
aspirate
 
to withdraw fluid or to suction as well as to draw foreign material into the respiratory tract
 
187. 
bronchoconstrictor
 
agent causing narrowing of the bronchi
 
188. 
bronchodilator
 
agent causing the bronchi to widen
 
189. 
cough
 
sudden, noisy expulsion of air from the lung
 
190. 
hiccup
 
sudded catching of breath with a spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm AKA- hiccough
 
191. 
hyperventilation
 
ventilation of the lungs beyond normal needs
 
192. 
hypoventilation
 
ventilation of the lungs that does not fulfill the body's gas exchange needs
 
193. 
mucopurulent
 
containing both mucus and pus
 
194. 
nebulizer
 
device that creates a mist used to deliver medication for giving repiratory treatment
 
195. 
nosocomial infection
 
an infection acquired during hospitalizaiton
 
196. 
paroxysm
 
periodic, sudden attack
 
197. 
patent
 
open (an airway must be patent)
 
198. 
sputum
 
mucous secretion from the lungs, bronchi, and trachea expelled through the mouth
 
199. 
ventilator
 
mechanical device used to assist with or substitute for breathing when patient cannot breathe unassisted
 
200. 
kidneys
 
two bean-shaped organs located on each side of the vertebral column on the posterier wall of the abdominal cavity behind the parietal peritoneum. Their function is to remove waste products from the blood and to aid in maintaining water adn electrolyte balance.
 
201. 
nephron
 
urine-producing microscopic structure.
 
202. 
glomerulus
 
cluster of capillaries at the entrance of the nephron. The process of fliltering the blood thereby forming urine, begins here.
 
203. 
renal pelvis
 
funnel-shaped reservior that collects the urine and passes it to the ureter
 
204. 
hilum
 
indentaiton on the medial side of the kidney where the ureter leaces the kidney
 
205. 
ureters
 
two slender tubes, approximately 10 to 13 inches long, that recieve the urine from the kidneys and carry it to the posterior portion of the baldder
 
206. 
urinary bladder
 
muscular, hollow organ that temporarily holds the urine. As it fills, the thick, musculare wall becomes thinner, and the organ increases in size
 
207. 
urethra
 
lowest part of the urinary tract, through which the urine passes from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. This narrow tube varries in length by sex. It is 1.5 inches in females and 8 in males. Serves as a urogenital pore for males also.
 
208. 
urinary meatus
 
opening through which the urine passes to the outside
 
209. 
cysto vesico
 
bladder, sac
 
210. 
glomerulo
 
glomerulus
 
211. 
meato
 
meatus opening
 
212. 
nephro reno
 
kidney
 
213. 
pyelo
 
renal pelvis
 
214. 
uretero
 
ureter
 
215. 
urethro
 
urethra
 
216. 
albumino
 
albumin
 
217. 
azoto
 
urea, nitrogen
 
218. 
blasto
 
developing cell, germ cell
 
219. 
glyco glycos
 
sugar
 
220. 
hydro
 
water
 
221. 
litho
 
stone, calculus
 
222. 
nocti
 
night
 
223. 
oligo
 
scanty, few
 
224. 
sono
 
sound
 
225. 
tomo
 
cut, section
 
226. 
urino uro
 
urine, urinary tract
 
227. 
-iasis -esis
 
condition
 
228. 
-lysis
 
loosening, dissolution, separating
 
229. 
-megaly
 
enlargement
 
230. 
-ptosis
 
drooping, sagging, prolapse
 
231. 
-rrhaphy
 
suturing, repairing
 
232. 
-tripsy
 
surgical crushing
 
233. 
-trophy
 
nourishment, development
 
234. 
-uria
 
urine, urination
 
235. 
cysocele
 
protrusion of the bladder
 
236. 
cystolith
 
stone in the bladder
 
237. 
nephroptosis
 
drooping kidney AKA- floating kidney
 
238. 
pyelonephritis
 
inflammation of the renal pelvis and the kidney
 
239. 
uremia
 
condition of urine (urea) in the blood
 
240. 
ureterostenosis
 
narrowing of the ureter
 
241. 
polycystic kidney disease
 
condition in which the kidney contains many cysts and is enlarged
 
242. 
renal calculi
 
stones in the kidney
 
243. 
sepsis
 
a condition in which pathogenic microorganisms, usually bacteria, enter the blood stream causing a systemic inflammatory response to the infection AKA- septicema
 
244. 
urinary tract infection
 
infection of one or more organs of the urinary tract
 
245. 
cystolithotomy
 
incision of the bladder to remove a stone
 
246. 
lithotripsy
 
surgical crushing of a stone
 
247. 
nephroplexy
 
surgical fixation of the kidney
 
248. 
nephrostomy
 
creation of an artificial opening into the kidney
 
249. 
nyelolithotomy
 
incision of the renal pelvis to remove a stone
 
250. 
ureterostomy
 
creation of an artificial opening into the uterer
 
251. 
extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
 
a noninvasive treatment for removal of a kidney or ureteral stone(s). By using ultrasound and fluoroscopic imaging, the stone is positioned at a focal point.
 
252. 
intavenous urogram
 
x-ray image fo the urinary tract AKA- pyelogram
 
253. 
nephrography
 
x-ray imaging of the kidney
 
254. 
retrograde urogram
 
x-ray image fo the urinary tract with a contrast medium instilled through urethral catheters by a cystoscope
 
255. 
voiding cystourethrography
 
x-ray imaging of the bladder and the urethra
 
256. 
urethroscope
 
instrument used for visual examination of the urethra
 
257. 
urinalysis
 
multiple routine tests performed on a urine specimen
 
258. 
anuria
 
absence of urine (failure of the kidneys to produce urine)
 
259. 
diuresis
 
condition of urine passing through (increased excretion of urine.)
 
260. 
glycosuria
 
sugar (glucose) in the urine
 
261. 
hematuria
 
blood in the urine
 
262. 
oliguria
 
scanty urine
 
263. 
polyuria
 
much (excessive) urine
 
264. 
urology
 
study of urinary tract
 
265. 
catheter
 
flexible, tubelike device, such as a urinary catheter, for withdrawing or instilling fluids
 
266. 
diuretic
 
agent that increases the formation and excretion of urine
 
267. 
enuresis
 
invlountary urination (bed wetting)
 
268. 
incontinence
 
inability to control bladder or bowels
 
269. 
micturate
 
to urinate or void
 
270. 
urodynamics
 
pertaining to thte force and flow of urine within the urinary tract