Urinary/Respiratory System

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NASAL SEPTUM partition separating the right and left nasal cavities.
NOSE lined with mucos membrane and fine hairs. It acts as a filter to moisten ad warm the entering air.
PARANASAL SINUSES air cavities within the cranial bones that open into the nasal cavities.
PHARYNX serves as a food and air passageway. Air enters from the nasal cavities and passes through the pharynx to the larynx. Food enters the pharynx from the mouth and passes into the esophagus.
ADENOIDS lymphoid tissue lovated behind the mouth
tonsils lymphoid tissue located behind the mouth.
Larynx (also called the voice box) location of the vocal cords. Air enters from the pharynx
epiglottis flap of cartilage that automatically covers the opening of and keeps food from entering the larynx during swallowing.
trachea (also called the windpipe) passage way for air to the bronchi
bronchus one of two branches from the trachea that conducts air into the lungs, where it divides and subdivides. The branchings resemble a tree, herefore they are referred to as a bronchail tree.
bronchioles smallest subdivision of the bronchial tree.
alveolus air sacs at the end of the bronchioles. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged through the alveolar walls and the capillaries
lungs two spongelike organs in the thoracic cavity. The right lung consists of three lobes, and the left has two lobes
pleura serous membrane covering each lung adn lining the thoracic cavity
diaphragm muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity. It aids in the breathing process
mediastinum space between the lungs. It contains the heart, esophagus, trachea, great blood vessels, and other structures.
adenoid/o adenoids
alveolo alveolus
bronchi broncho bronchus
diaphragmato diaphragm
epiglotto epiglottis
laryngo larynx
lobo lobe
rhino naso nose
pharyngo pharynx
pleuro pleura
pneumo pneumato pneumono lung, air
pulmono lung
septo septum (wall off, fence)
sinuso sinus
thoraco thorax (chest)
tonsillo tonsil
tracheo trachea
atelo imperfect, incomplete
capno carbon dioxide
hemo hemato blood
muco mucus
ortho straight
oxo oxi oxygen
pyo pus
somno sleep
spiro breathe, breathing
a- an- without or absence of
endo- within
eu- normal, good
pan- all, total
poly many, much
algia pain
-ar -ary -eal pertaining to
-cele hernia or protrusion
-centesis surgical puncture to aspirated fluid (with a sterile needle)
-ectasis stretching out, diation, expansion
-emia blood condition
-gram record, x-ray imaging
-graphy process of recording, x-ray imaging
-meter instument used to measure
-metry measurement
-oxia oxygen
-pexy surgical fixation, suspension
-phonia sound or voice
-pnea breathing
-rrhagia rapid flow of blood
-scope instrument used for visual examination
-scopic pertaining to visual examination
-scopy visual examination
-spasm sudden, involuntary muscle contraction
-stenosis constriction or narrowing
-stomy creation of an artificail opening
-thorax chest
-tomy cut into or incision
adenoiditis inflammation of the adenoids
atelectasis incomplete expansion (of the lung of a new born or collapsed lung)
bronchiectasis dilation of the bronchi
bronchitis inflammation of the bronchi
bronchogenin carcinoma cancerous tumore originating in the bronchus
bronchopneumonia diseased state of the bronchi and lungs
diaphragmatocele hernia of the diaphragm
diaphragmatocele hernia of the diaphragm
epiglottitis inflammation of the epigottis
hemothorax blood in the chest
laryngitis inflammation of the larynx
laryngothracheobronchitis inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi
lobar pneumonia pertaing to the lobes; diseased state of the lung (infection of one or more loves of the lung.)
nasophayngitis inflammation of the nose and pharynx
pansinusitis inflammation of all sinuses
pharyngitis inflammation of pharynx
pleuritis inflammation of the pleura (also called pleurisy)
pneumatocele hernia of the lung (lung tissue protrudes through the chest)
pneumoconiosis abnormal condition of dust in the lungs
pneumonia diseased state of the lung
pneumonitis inflammation of the lung
pneumothorax air in the chest, which causes collapse of the lung
pulmonary neoplasm pertaining to a tumor of new growth in the lung
pyothorax pus in the chest AKA-empyema
rhinitis inflammation of the nose
rhinomycosis abnormal condition of fungus in the nose
rhinorrhagia rapid flow of blood from the nose AKA-epistaxis
thoracalgia pain in the chest
tonsillitis inflammation of the tonsils
tracheitis inflammation of the trachea
tracheostenosis narrowing of the trachea
adult respiratory distress respiratory failure in an adult as a result of disease or injury. Symptoms include dyspnea, rapid breathing, adn cyanosis. AKA-acute respiratory distress syndrome
asthma respiratory disease characterized by paroxysms of coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease a group of disorders that are almost always a result of smoking that obstructs bronchial flow. One or mroe of the following is present: emphysema, chronic bronchitis, brochospasm, and bronchiolitis
coccidiodomycosis fugal disease affecting the lungs and sometimes other organs of the body AKA- valley fever, or cocci
cor pulmonale serious cardiac disease associated with chronic lung disorders, such as emphysema
croup condition resulting form acute obstruction of the larynx, characterized by a barking cough, hoarseness, and stidor. It may be caused by viral or bacterial infection, allergy, or foreign body. Occurs mainly in children.
cystinc fibrosis hereditary disorder of the endocrine glads characterized by excess mucus production in the repiratory tract, pancreatic deficiency, and other symptoms
diviated septum one part of the nasal cavity is smaller because of malformaion or injury
emphysema stretching of lung tissue caused by the alveoli becoming distended and losing elasticity
epistaxis nosebleed synonymous with rhnorrhagia
influenza highly infectious respiratory disease caused by a virus
legionaire disease a lobar pneumonia caused by the bacerium
obstructive sleep apnea reptitive pharyngeal collapse during sleep which leads to absence of breathing
pertussis respiratory disease characterized by an acute crowing inspiration, or whoop (synonymous with whooping cough)
pleural effusion escape of fluid into the pleural space as a result of inflammation
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia a pneumonia caused by P. carinii, a fungus common disease in patients with AIDS
pulmonary edema fluid accumulation in the alveoli and bronchioles
pulmonary embolism foreign matter, such as a blood clot, air, or fat clot, carried in the circulation to the pulmonary artery, where it blocks circulation
tuberculosis an infectious disease, caused by an acid-fast bacillus, most commonly spread by inhalation of small particles and usually affecting the lungs
upper respiratory infection infection of the nasal cavity, pharynx, or larynx
adenoidectomy excision of the adenoids
adenotome surgical instrument used to cut the adenoids
bronchoplasty surgical repair of a bronchus
laryngectomy excision of the larynx
laryngoplasty surgical repair of the larynx
laryngostomy creation of an artificial opening into the larynx
laryngotracheotomy incision of the larynx and trachea
lobectomy excision of a lobe
pleuropexy surgical fixation of the pleura
pneumobronchotomy incision of lung and bronchus
pneumoectomy excision of a lung
rhinoplasty surgical repair of the nose
septoplasty surgical repair of the (nasal) septum
septotomy incision into the (nasal) septum
sinusotomy incision of a sinus
thoracocentesis surgical puncture to aspirate fluid from the chest cavity
thoracotomy incision into the chest cavity
tonsillectomy excisoin of the tonsils
tracheoplasty surgical repair of the trachea
tracheostomy creation of an artificial opening into teh trachea
tracheotomy incision of the trachea
brochoscope instrument used for visual examination of the bronchi
bronchoscopy visual examination of the bronchi
endoscope instrument used for visual examination within (a hollow organ or body cavity).
endoscopic pertaining to visual examination withing a hollow organ or body cavity.
endoscopy visual examination within a hollow organ or body cavity.
laryngoscope instument used for visual examination of the larynx
laryngoscopy visual examination of the larynx
thoracoscope instument used for visual examination of the thorax
thoracoscopy visual examination of the thorax
capnometer instrument used to measure carbo dioxide
capnometer instrument used to measure carbo dioxide
oximeter instrument used to measure oxygen
spirometer instument used to measure breathing or lung volumes
spirometry a measurement of breathing or lung volumes
ploysomnography process of recording many (tests) during sleep
anoxia absense (deficiency) of oxygen
acapnia condition of absence (less than normal level) of carbon dioxide (in the blood)
aphonia absence of voice
bronchoalveolar pertaining t the brochi and alveoli
bronchospasm spasmodic contraction in teh bronchi
diaphragmatic pertaining to the diaphragm
dysphonia difficult speaking
dyspnea difficult breathing
enotracheal pertaining to within the trachea
eupenea normal breathing
hypercapnia condition of excessive carbon dioxide in the blood
hyperpnea excessive breathing
hypocapnia condition of deficient carbon dioxide in the blood
hypopnea dificient oxygen in the blood
hypoxia deficient oxygen (to the tissue)
intrapleural pertaining to within the pleura
laryngeal pertaining to the larynx
laryngospasm spasmodic contradiction of the larynx
laryngospasm spasmodic contraction of the larynx
mucoid resembling mucus
mucous pertaining to mucus
nasopharyngeal pertaining to the nose and phaynx
orthopnea able to breathe only in an upright position
pulmonary pertaining to the lungs
rhinorrhea discharge from the nose (as in a cold)
thoracic pertaining to the chest
airway passageway by which air enters and leaves the lungs as well as a mechanical device used to keep the air passageway unobstructed
asphyxia deprivation of oxygen for tissue use; suffocation
aspirate to withdraw fluid or to suction as well as to draw foreign material into the respiratory tract
bronchoconstrictor agent causing narrowing of the bronchi
bronchodilator agent causing the bronchi to widen
cough sudden, noisy expulsion of air from the lung
hiccup sudded catching of breath with a spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm AKA- hiccough
hyperventilation ventilation of the lungs beyond normal needs
hypoventilation ventilation of the lungs that does not fulfill the body's gas exchange needs
mucopurulent containing both mucus and pus
nebulizer device that creates a mist used to deliver medication for giving repiratory treatment
nosocomial infection an infection acquired during hospitalizaiton
paroxysm periodic, sudden attack
patent open (an airway must be patent)
sputum mucous secretion from the lungs, bronchi, and trachea expelled through the mouth
ventilator mechanical device used to assist with or substitute for breathing when patient cannot breathe unassisted
kidneys two bean-shaped organs located on each side of the vertebral column on the posterier wall of the abdominal cavity behind the parietal peritoneum. Their function is to remove waste products from the blood and to aid in maintaining water adn electrolyte balance.
nephron urine-producing microscopic structure.
glomerulus cluster of capillaries at the entrance of the nephron. The process of fliltering the blood thereby forming urine, begins here.
renal pelvis funnel-shaped reservior that collects the urine and passes it to the ureter
hilum indentaiton on the medial side of the kidney where the ureter leaces the kidney
ureters two slender tubes, approximately 10 to 13 inches long, that recieve the urine from the kidneys and carry it to the posterior portion of the baldder
urinary bladder muscular, hollow organ that temporarily holds the urine. As it fills, the thick, musculare wall becomes thinner, and the organ increases in size
urethra lowest part of the urinary tract, through which the urine passes from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. This narrow tube varries in length by sex. It is 1.5 inches in females and 8 in males. Serves as a urogenital pore for males also.
urinary meatus opening through which the urine passes to the outside
cysto vesico bladder, sac
glomerulo glomerulus
meato meatus opening
nephro reno kidney
pyelo renal pelvis
uretero ureter
urethro urethra
albumino albumin
azoto urea, nitrogen
blasto developing cell, germ cell
glyco glycos sugar
hydro water
litho stone, calculus
nocti night
oligo scanty, few
sono sound
tomo cut, section
urino uro urine, urinary tract
-iasis -esis condition
-lysis loosening, dissolution, separating
-megaly enlargement
-ptosis drooping, sagging, prolapse
-rrhaphy suturing, repairing
-tripsy surgical crushing
-trophy nourishment, development
-uria urine, urination
cysocele protrusion of the bladder
cystolith stone in the bladder
nephroptosis drooping kidney AKA- floating kidney
pyelonephritis inflammation of the renal pelvis and the kidney
uremia condition of urine (urea) in the blood
ureterostenosis narrowing of the ureter
polycystic kidney disease condition in which the kidney contains many cysts and is enlarged
renal calculi stones in the kidney
sepsis a condition in which pathogenic microorganisms, usually bacteria, enter the blood stream causing a systemic inflammatory response to the infection AKA- septicema
urinary tract infection infection of one or more organs of the urinary tract
cystolithotomy incision of the bladder to remove a stone
lithotripsy surgical crushing of a stone
nephroplexy surgical fixation of the kidney
nephrostomy creation of an artificial opening into the kidney
nyelolithotomy incision of the renal pelvis to remove a stone
ureterostomy creation of an artificial opening into the uterer
extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy a noninvasive treatment for removal of a kidney or ureteral stone(s). By using ultrasound and fluoroscopic imaging, the stone is positioned at a focal point.
intavenous urogram x-ray image fo the urinary tract AKA- pyelogram
nephrography x-ray imaging of the kidney
retrograde urogram x-ray image fo the urinary tract with a contrast medium instilled through urethral catheters by a cystoscope
voiding cystourethrography x-ray imaging of the bladder and the urethra
urethroscope instrument used for visual examination of the urethra
urinalysis multiple routine tests performed on a urine specimen
anuria absence of urine (failure of the kidneys to produce urine)
diuresis condition of urine passing through (increased excretion of urine.)
glycosuria sugar (glucose) in the urine
hematuria blood in the urine
oliguria scanty urine
polyuria much (excessive) urine
urology study of urinary tract
catheter flexible, tubelike device, such as a urinary catheter, for withdrawing or instilling fluids
diuretic agent that increases the formation and excretion of urine
enuresis invlountary urination (bed wetting)
incontinence inability to control bladder or bowels
micturate to urinate or void
urodynamics pertaining to thte force and flow of urine within the urinary tract