Physical Dev.in Preschool Year

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1. 
The Growing Body
 
the average child in the US weights 25-30 lbs and is close to 36 inches tall-around half the height of the average adult
 
2. 
The Growing Brain: Age 2
 
3/4s the size and weight of an adult brain
 
3. 
The Growing Brain: Age 5
 
weighs 90 percent of the average adult brain
 
4. 
Why does the brain grow so rapidly?
 
1. an increase in the number of interconnections among celss 2. these interconnections allow for more complex communication between neurons and also permit growth of cognitive skills
 
5. 
the corpus callosum
 
a bundle of nerve fibers that connect the two hemispheres of the brain -undergo significant growth by end of preschool period
 
6. 
Lateralization
 
the process in which certain functions become localized more in one hemisphere than the other
 
7. 
Left hemisphere
 
-concentrates on tasks that necessitate verbval competence, such as speaking, reading, thinking, and reasoning
 
8. 
Right hemisphere
 
-nonverbal areas such as comprehension of spatial relationships, recognition of patterns, and drawings, music and emotional expresion -processes infor in more global manner, reflecting on it as a whole
 
9. 
The links between Brain Growth and Cognitive Development
 
=increases in myelin, may be related to preschoolers growing cognitive capabilities, ***increases in myelin of the reticular formation, an area of the brain associated with attention and concentration, is completed at age 5 3. improvement in memory that occurs during preschool years may be associated with increased myelin in the hippocampus, an area associated with memory
 
10. 
SENSORY DEVELOPMENT
 
- preschoolers are unable to easily and precisely scan groupings of small letters= often focus on just the initial letter of a word and guess at the rest -6 years of age- can effectively focus and scan -VISION AND AUDITORY
 
11. 
SENSORY DEVLEOPMENT; age 7 or 8
 
they begin to look at the figure in terms of both its overall o rganization and its parts "a bird made of fruit"
 
12. 
4 and 5 year olds
 
-begin to look at the more surrounding boundaries of the figure
 
13. 
6 and 7 years old
 
-they look at the outside systematically-- the result is a greater awareness of the verall organization of the figure
 
14. 
VISION IMPROVEMENT
 
auditory acuity, or the sharpness of hearing, improves as well - one area that shows defecits is their ability to isolate specific sounds when many sounds are heard simultaneously
 
15. 
SLEEP
 
-20-30% of preschoolers experience difficulties lasting more than an hour in getting to sleep
 
16. 
Nightmares
 
-vivid bad dreams, usually occuring toward morning between 10 and 50 % of children aged 3-5 experience nightmares, with the frequency higher in boys than girls