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1. which of the following substances acts at the NMJ to excite the muscle fibers of the motor unit? acetylcholine ATP creatine phosphate serotonin acetylcholine
2. which of the following muscle fiber types would be most benificial for a powerlifter? type IIb
3. when throwing a baseball, the athletes arm is rapidly stretched just prior to throwing the ball. what structure detects and responds to that stretch by reflexively increasing muscle activity? muscle spindle
4. a college volleyball player begins resistance training for the first time. what muscle fiber types will hypertrophy first? fast twitch slow twitch muscle spindle intrafusal muscle fast twitch
5. a 22 yr old soccer player begins resistance training for the first time. his chosen exercises include those for all major muscle groups. after 3 weeks, he notices an increase in lower extremity strength. which of the following best explains this athletes improved motor control
6. which of the following results from adding resistance training to a marathoners aerobic exercise training program? max o2 uptake increases max o2 uptake decreases short-term endurance may improve long-term endurance may improve short term endurance may improve
7. a weightlifter adds 30 min of intense (>75% VO2max) stationary bicycle riding every other day to her resistance training program. which of the following describes the effect this addition will have on her performance? strength gains are compromised stre strength gains are compromised
8. a bundle of muscle fibers is called fasiculus
9. to which of the following structures do the cross-bridges attach during muscle action? actin myosin m-bridge sarcolemma actin
10. which of the following substances regulates muscle actions? potassium calcium phosphorus selenium calcium
11. which of the following best describes what occurs during a concentric muscle action? resistance is greater than muscle force resistance is equal to muscle force resistance is less than muscle force negative energy is produced resistance is less than muscle force
12. which of the following will increase force produced during a concentric muscle action? 1. agonist prestretching 2. more calcium released in the myofibril 3. decreased activity of the antagonist muscle group 4. faster muscle action 1,2,&3 only
13. sarcopenia is defined as reduced muscle size and strength
14. the knee joint can be described as cartilaginous synovial axial multiaxial synovial
15. most human limbs operate as which class of lever? 3rd class
16. which of the following defines power? mass * acceleration force * distance force * velocity torque * time force * velocity
17. to compare performances of lifters of different body weights, the classical formula divides the lift by body weight body weight squared lean body weight body weight to the 2/3 power body weight to the 2/3 power
18. during free weight exercise, muscle force varies with which of the following? 1. perpendicular distance from the weight to the body joint 2. joint angle 3. movement velocity 4. movement velocity squared 1, 2, & 3
19. a vertical jump involves knee, hip, and shoulder movement in primarily which plane? sagital perpendicular frontal transverse sagital
20. a person is performing a concentric isokinetic elbow flexion and extension exercise. which of the following types of levers occur at the elbow during this exercise? first class second class third class 1st and 3rd
21. resistance exercise programs designed to stimulate new bone formation should emphasize all of the following EXCEPT loading specificity metabolic specificity progressive overload variation in exercise selection metabolic specificity
22. a 50 year old female triathlete is concerned about osteoporosis, which of the following exercises would be MOST beneficial for improving her bone mineral density? front squat leg (knee) extension bench press lat pulldown front squat
23. a 17 year old HS cross country runner has been training aerobically for 6 months in preparation for the upcoming season. which of the following adaptations will occur in the muscles during that time? 1.increased concentration of glycolytic enzymes 2. hy 4. hypertrophy of type I fibers
24. which of the following is NOT a primary function of cartilage? 1. aids in the attachment of muscle to bone 2. allows smooth articulation between bones in a joint 3. connects bones together 4. improves shock absorption in joints (3) connects bones together
25. which ofthe following occurs as a result of a combination of heavy resistance training and aerobic training? a. decreased cartilage thickness b. joint degeneration c. increased cartilage thickness d. decreased collagen amount c. increased cartilage thickness
26. in general, which of the following types of tissue has the poorest blood supply? a. bone b. muscle c. tendon d. cartilage d. cartilage
27. which of the following is the ultimate source of energy for contraction? a. GTP b. O2 c. NADH d. ATP d. ATP
28. which of the following can be metabolized anaerobically? a. protein b. carbohydrate c. fat d. glycerol b. carbohydrate
29. the energy system used depends primarily on the athlete's a. exercise intensity b. exercise duration c. state of training d. body composition a. exercise intensity
30. the production of lactic acid results from the activation of a. the phosphagen system b. slow glycolysis c. fast glycolysis d. fat oxidation c. fast glycolysis
31. which of the following pathways/systems has the highest rate of energy production? a. phosphagen system b. fast glycolysis c. fat oxidation d. carbohydrate oxidation c. phosphagen system
32. in the oxidative system approximately how many ATPs are produced from the degradation of 1 glucose molecule? a. 27 b. 36 c. 38 d. 41 c. 38
33. which of the following pathways/systems supports the initiation of all exercise? a. oxidative system b. phosphagen system c. slow glycolysis d. fast glycolysis b. phosphagen system
34. which of the following enzymes catalyzes the rate limiting step of glycolysis? a. PFK b. isocitrate dehydrogenase c. phosphorylase d. lactate dehydrogenase a. PFK
35. following a bout of resistance exercise training, acute hormonal secretions provide all the following information to the body EXCEPT the a. amount of physiological stress b. metabolic demands of exercise c. type of physiological stress d. energy expe a. amount of physiological stress
36. which of the following hormones enhance muscle tissue growth I. growth hormone II. cortisol III. IGF IV. progesterone I and III only
37. growth hormone provides all of the following physiological roles EXCEPT a. increased lipolysis b. decreased collagen synthesis c. increased amino acid transport d. decreased glucose utilization b. decreased collagen synthesis
38. which of the following hormones has the greatest influence on neural changes? a. growth hormone b. testosterone c. cortisol d. IGF b. testosterone
39. which of the following hormone levels is higher in women than in men at rest? a. cortisol b. insulin c. testosterone d. growth hormone d. growth hormone
40. through which of the following valves does blood flow after contraction of the left ventricle? a. aortic b. mitral (bicuspid) c. pulmonary d. tricuspid a. aortic
41. from which of the following is the hearts electrical impulse normally initiated? a. av node b. sa node c. the brain d. sympathetic nervous system b. sa node
42. which of the following occurs during the QRS complex of a typical ECG? I. depolarization of the atrium II. repolarization of the atrium III. repolarization of the ventricle IV. depolarization of the ventricle II and IV only
43. in what portion of the lungs does gas exchange occur? a. bronchus b. trachea c. alveoli d. pleura c. alveoli
44. the amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle during each beat is the a. cardiac output b. a-vo2 difference c. heart rate d. stroke volume d. stroke volume
45. all of the following normally increase during aerobic exercise EXCEPT: a. end diastolic volume b. cardiac contractility c. cardiac output d. diastolic blood pressure d. diastolic blood pressure
46. which of the following best describes the change in stroke volume during heavy resistance exercise? a. increases b. decreases by 50% c. stays the same d. increases, then plateuas c. stays the same
47. the mean arterial pressure is defines as: a. average blood pressure throughout the cardiac cycle b. average of systolic and diastolic blood pressures c. average systolic blood pressure during exercise d. average of blood pressure and heart rate a. average blood pressure throughout the cardiac cycle
48. high intensity, low repetition resistance training results in which of the following adaptations? a. increased capillary density b. decreased tidal volume c. improved o2 extraction d. no change in maximal o2 uptake a. increased capillary density
49. which of the following is an early adjustment to acclimatizing to high altitude? a. decreased tidal volume b. decreased respiration rate c. increased resting cardiac output d. increased stroke volume c. increased resting cardiac output
50. after which of the following maximal exercise scenarios would the lactic acid concentrations be the highest in the muscles? a. duration 15s b. duration 30s c. duration 2 min d. intermittent of 20s each c. duration of 2 min
51. chronic training involving the fast glycolysis energy system results in improved buffering of which of the following substances? a. blood protein b. hydrogen ions c. blood lactate d. glycogen b. hydrogen ions
52. primary training adaptations of elite aerobically trained athletes include which of the following? I. increased maximal oxygen uptake II. decreased blood lactate concentration III. increased running economy IV. decreased capillary density c. I, II, III
53. which of the following is least likely to change with overtraining in a college wrestler? a. maximal anaerobic sprint performance b. increased muscle strength at various movement velocities c. resting heart rate d. mood state c. resting heart rate
54. a sprinter just completed a semi-final 800m sprint. which of the following should he do to facilitate removal of lactic acid from the blood in preparation for the finals? a. perform stretching exercises b. sit in a shady area c. perform moderate intens c. perform moderate intensity jogging
55. long term recovery from exercise is best achieved with: a. proper nutritional intake b. cold water immersion c. a proper cool down d. massage of the agonist muscles a. proper nutritional intake
56. following detraining, endurance athletes first notice a decline in maximal a. strength b. power c. oxygen consumption d. heart size c. oxygen consumption
57. when males and females are compared relative to muscle cross-sectional area, it appears that the potential for force production is: a. greater in males b. greater in females c. equal in males and females d. dependent upon body weight c. equal in males and females
58. which of the following is the most significant adaptation to chronic resistance training in older adults? a. increased cardiovascular fitness b. improved blood lipid profile c. increased muscle mass d. improved flexibility c. increased muscle mass
59. an 8 yr old boy has observed dramatic increases in his upper-body strength following 6 months of resistance training. which of the following is most likely to be responsible for this gain? a. increased number of muscle fibers b. increased size of muscle d. improved neuromuscular functioning
60. growth cartilage in children is located in all of the following locations EXCEPT: a. the diaphysis b. the epiphyseal plate c. the joint surface d. apophyseal insertion a. the diaphysis
61. all of the following are likely benifits of preadolescent resistance training EXCEPT increased: a. resistance to injury b. 1RM strength c. muscle hypertrophy d. bone density c. muscle hypertrophy
62. the condition characterized by a bone mineral density more than 2.5 SD below the young adult mean is called: a. sarcopenia b. osteopenia c. osteoporosis d. scoliosis c. osteoporosis
63. which of the following should be evaluated first when designing a training program for a 68 yr old competitive female tennis player? a. cardiovascular fitness b. lower body strength c. balance and agility d. medical history d. medical history
64. deconditioned college female athletes who participate in sports such as basketball and soccer appear to be at increased risk for developing injuries to the: a. back b. knee c. growth plate d. head b. knee
65. during the closing seconds of a basketball game, an athletes team is down by one point and he has been awarded two free throw shots. the player is apprehensive about the outcome ofthe game. which of the following best describes the athletes situation? a. b. he is experiencing state anxiety
66. an olympic weightlifter attempting a personal record is able to ignore the audience to concentrate solely on her performance. which of the following abilities is this athlete most likely using to perform the lift? a. selective attention b. somatic anxie a. selective attention
67. prior to performing the long jump, an athlete reviews and concentrates on the technique required to jump as far as possible. which of the following strategies is the athlete using to prepare for the jump? a. focusing on task relevant cues b. reliance on a. focusing on task relevant cues
68. which of the following is most important to achieving the ideal performance state? a. fear of failure b. analyzing performance c. broad focus on the activity and the environment d. personal control d. personal control
69. an athletes desire to perform to his/her potential is an example of: a. motive to avoid failure b. dissociation c. intrinsic motivation d. achievement motivation c. intrinsic motivation
70. for the high school football team, if any player squats two times his bodyweight, his name is placed on the wall. this is an example of: a. negative reinforcement b. positive reinforcement c. negative punishment d. positive punishment b. positive reinforcement
71. how does an athlete's amount, or latitude, of optimal arousal change with limited skill and ability of the activity? a. it increases b. it decreases c. it has no effect d. performance improves with greater arousal a. it decreases