Exercise Physiology Exam 1

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1. 
What happens to the respiratory parameters w/ aerobic activity?
 
Increased tidal volume and increased RR --> Increased minute volume.
 
2. 
Why does expiration take longer than inspiration when at rest?
 
Because it's a passive process, so flow is slower and it takes longer.
 
3. 
Which decreases more with increasing RR: inspiratory time or expiratory time? Why?
 
Expiratory time decreases more than insp. does, because expiration often becomes active to clear the lungs of CO2.
 
4. 
What happens to the inspiratory reserve and expiratory reserve volumes as tidal volume increases?
 
They decrease.
 
5. 
As exercise becomes more intense, and you're trying to squeeze a little bit more out of the lungs, do you decrease IRV or ERV?
 
IRV
 
6. 
What happens to the normal V/Q mismatch in the lungs with exercise? How?
 
It decreases because you're opening more air spaces at the bottom of the lung and increasing the number of open capillaries, improving blood flow and gas exchange in the lung.
 
7. 
There are only two parameters that decrease in the lung during exercise. What are they?
 
Alveolar ventilation and dead space.
 
8. 
Why is it important to clear CO2?
 
Otherwise pH will change, and enzymes need a stable pH to function properly and efficiently.
 
9. 
How do the O2-Hb dissociation curve and the CO2-Hb dissociation curve compare?
 
O2Hb = sigmoidal; CO2Hb = linear
 
10. 
What happens to the O2 Hb dissociation curve during exercise? What is it called? Why does it happen?
 
It shifts to the right. IT's called the Bohr Effect. It happens because of an increase in pH and temperature, which facilitates offloading of O2 into muscle tissues.
 
11. 
What is the Haldane Effect?
 
The higher the pO2, the less Co2 is in the blood.
 
12. 
What happens to Hb's affinity for CO2 when pO2 increases?
 
It decreases.
 
13. 
What is the role of humoral factors in ventilation during exercise?
 
It provides fine-tuning, probably from potassium and changes in pH.
 
14. 
What 2 things are responsible for the large increase in ventilation caused by neural factors at the beginning of exercise?
 
Anticipation, and joint and muscle receptors.
 
15. 
What happens to ventilatory threshold with training?
 
It increases
 
16. 
Lactate threshold and vetilatory threshold correspond in such a way that ventilatory threshold is often used as an indication of OBLA. But even people who don't produce lactate still have a ventilatory threshold. We don't know why.
 
That's all.
 
17. 
What is the ventilatory equivalent?
 
Ratio of minute ventilation to O2 uptake (Ve/VO2)
 
18. 
What is the relationship between Ve and VO2 during rest --> moderate exercise?
 
It increases linearly, about 25:1.
 
19. 
What is the relationship between Ve and VO2 during intense exercise?
 
Ve increases exponentially, to 35-40:1.
 
20. 
At what percentage of VO2 Max does the ventilatory equivalent increase exponentially?
 
from 50-75% VO2Max
 
21. 
VOCAB: Ventilatory Threshold
 
Point at which Ve/VO2 is no longer linear.
 
22. 
Which will have a higher minute ventilation at a given workload? UE or LE?
 
UE.