Chapters 1-3

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1. 
Fight or Flight
 
body's psychological arousal to survive a threat
 
2. 
Stress Reaction
 
body's reaction to acute stress
 
3. 
Stage One
 
Stimuli from one or more of the five senses are sent to the brain (scream, smell of smoke, etc.)
 
4. 
Stage Two
 
The brain deciphers the stimulus as either a threat or a nonthreat. If the stimulus is not regarded as a threat, this is the end of the response (the scream came from the tv) If however the response is decoded as a real threat the brain then activates the nervous and endocrine systems to quickly prepare for defense and or escape.
 
5. 
Stage Three
 
The body stays activated, aroused or "keyed up" until the threat is over
 
6. 
Stage Four
 
The body returns to homeostasis, a state of physiological calmness, once the the threat is gone.
 
7. 
Tend and befriend
 
a theory presented by shelly taylor that states that women who experience stress don't necessarily run or fight, but rather turn to friends to cope with unpleasant events and circumstances.
 
8. 
Eustress
 
Good stress that arises in any situation or circumstance that a person finds motivating or inspiring.
 
9. 
Neustress
 
stress that describes sensory stimuli that have no consequential effect; it is considered neither good nor bad.
 
10. 
Distress
 
considered bad, often abbreviated as stress.
 
11. 
Acute Stress
 
Type of distress; surfaces, is quite intense and disappears quickly.
 
12. 
Chronic Stress
 
Type of distress; may not appear quite so intense, yet seems to linger for prolonged periods of time.
 
13. 
Yerkes-Dodson Principle
 
The theory that some stress (eustress) is necesarry for health and performance but that beyond an optimal amount both will deteriorate as distress increases.
 
14. 
Stressor
 
That which causes or promotes stress
 
15. 
Biological Influences
 
External influences, including sunlight, gravitational pull, solar flares and electromagnetic fields that affect our biological rhythms
 
16. 
Circadian Rhythms
 
fluctuations in physiological functions over the course of a twenty four hour period (body temperature)
 
17. 
Ultradian Rhythms
 
fluctuations that occur over less than a 24 hour period (stomach contractions)
 
18. 
Infradian Rhythms
 
changes that occur in periods longer than 24 hours
 
19. 
Seasonal Affective Disorder
 
a condition affecting many people who live at or near the arctic circle. many of these people become depressed when they are derived of sunlight for prolonged periods of time.
 
20. 
Psychointrapersonal Influences
 
Thoughts, values, beliefs and attitudes and perceptions that we use to defend our identity or ego.
 
21. 
Psychointrapersonal Influences
 
Thoughts, values, beliefs and attitudes and perceptions that we use to defend our identity or ego.
 
22. 
Social Influences
 
Individuals who are unable to cope with their given environment.
 
23. 
Life Change Units
 
All events that are assigned a numerical value based in their degree of disruption of one's life and readjustment following the event.
 
24. 
Social Readjustment Rating Scale
 
ranked the 43 life events from most stressful to least stressful
 
25. 
Daily Life Hassles
 
Occasional hassles, like locking your keys in your car, when combined with many other annoyances in the course of a day, create a critical mass of stress.
 
26. 
General Adaptation Syndrome
 
a process in which the body tries to accomodate stress by adapting to it.
 
27. 
Stage One of GAS: Alarm Reaction
 
Fight or flight response. Several body systems are activated, all senses are put on alert until the danger is over.
 
28. 
Stage Two of GAS: Stage of Resistance
 
body tries to revert back to a state of physiological calmness by resisting the alarm. Thebody stays activated or aroused at a lower intensity than the alarm stage, but enough to cause a higher metabolic rate in some organ tissues.
 
29. 
Stage Three: Stage of Exhaustion
 
when one or more of the organs targeted by specific metabolic processes can no longer meet the demands placed upon it and fails to function properly. This can result in death to the organ, and possibly the organism.
 
30. 
Technostress
 
a term used to define the result of a fast paced life dependent on various means of technology including computers, cell phones, palm computers, faxes and email- all of which was supposed to give people more leisure time. Instead people have become slaves =, addicted to the constant use of these devices.
 
31. 
Paradigm Shift
 
moving from one perspective of reality to another
 
32. 
Rene Descartes
 
a seventeenth century scientist and philosopher credited with the reductionistic method of Western science (also known as Cartesian Principle). He is equally renowned for his influential philosophy of the seperation of mind and body as well as the statement "I think therefore I am."
 
33. 
mechanistic model
 
compares the universe and all its components to a large mechanical clock, where everything operates in a sequential and predictable form.
 
34. 
Albert Einstein
 
a world renowned theoretical physicist who revolutionized perceptions of reality with the equation E 5 MC^2, suggesting that everything is energy. His later years focused on a spiritual philosophy including pacifism.
 
35. 
Wellness Paradigm
 
The integration, balance and harmony of mental, physical, emotional and spiritual well being through taking responsability for one's own health; posits that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
 
36. 
Alternative medicine
 
nontraditional approaches, specifically biofeedback, meditation, massage therapy, and mental imagery.
 
37. 
Mental well being
 
the ability to gather, process, recall and exchange information.
 
38. 
Physical well being
 
the optimal functioning of the body's major physiological systems.
 
39. 
Emotional well being
 
the ability to feel and express the full range of human emotions and to control them rather than be controlled by them.
 
40. 
Spiritual well being
 
the maturation of higher consciousness through strong nurturing relationships with both the self and others; the developmeont of a strong personal value system; and a meaningful purpose in life.
 
41. 
psychophysiology
 
a sensory stimulus that prompts the stress response must be proceeded at the mental level before it can cascade down one or more physiological pathways
 
42. 
psychophysiology
 
a sensory stimulus that prompts the stress response must be proceeded at the mental level before it can cascade down one or more physiological pathways
 
43. 
Reticular activating system
 
the link connecting the brain to the spinal chord
 
44. 
Limbic System
 
Emotional control center
 
45. 
Automatic nervous system
 
regulates visceral activities and vital organs, including circulation, digestion, respiration and temperature regulation
 
46. 
Psychosomatic
 
a term coined from Franz Alexanders term "organ neurosis" used to describe a host of physical illnesses or diseases caused by the mind and unresolved emotional issues.
 
47. 
Psychoneuroimmunology
 
the study the intricate interaction of consciousness, brain and central nervous system and the body's defense against external aberant cell division.
 
48. 
Autonomic dysregulation
 
increased sensitivity to perceived threats resulting from heightened neural responses speeding up the metabolic rate of one or more organs.
 
49. 
Immune dysregulation
 
an immune system wherein various functions are supressed; now believed to be affected by emotional negativity