Articulation and Phonological Disorders: Terms

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1. 
Affricate
 
A consonant with a stop onset and fricative release. The American English affricates are "ch" and "dz 'j'"
 
2. 
Affricaiton
 
An error pattern in which stops or fricatives are pronounced as affricates; for exapmle, see is pronounced as [tsi]
 
3. 
Allophone
 
A variant of a phoneme that does not affect meaning; for example, unaspirated [p] and aspirated [p] are allophones of the phoneme /p/
 
4. 
Alveolar
 
A class of consonantes produced with constriction between articulators at the alveolar ridge. American English alveolar consonants t, d, s, z, n, l, r
 
5. 
Ambisyllabic
 
A consonant sometimes considered to belong to two syllables; for example, some investigators consider the second [m] in mama to be ambisyllabic
 
6. 
Approximant
 
Liquids and glides. The American English approximants are l, r, j, w
 
7. 
Apraxia
 
A disorder involving voluntary speech movements. Ex: can't touch lip with tongue when asked but can when eating
 
8. 
Arrestor
 
A consonant occuring after a vowel in the same syllable; for texample, "t" is the arrestor consonant in bit.
 
9. 
Articulation Error
 
A speech error resulting from problems in speech motor control.
 
10. 
Articulation Disorder
 
Reuslts from problems in speech motor control. Some refer to problems in phonology AND speech motor control
 
11. 
Aspiration
 
Burst of air arising after release of a VL stop in positions such as the beginning of a word; Ex. in American English [t] in [tube]
 
12. 
Assimilation
 
Influence of one sound on another
 
13. 
Babble
 
A prespeech vocalization in which repeptitions of syllables predominate
 
14. 
Backing
 
Error pattern in which alveolar consonants are replaced by velar consonants; for example, tee is pronounced as [ki]
 
15. 
Back vowels and diphthongs
 
Vowels in which back of tongue is major articulator; u, flying u, o flying u, backards c, a, emphasized schwa
 
16. 
Bilabial
 
Consonants made using the two lips. The American English bilabial consonants are p, b, m, w
 
17. 
Blends
 
Consonant Clusters
 
18. 
Brackets
 
Transcriptions enclosed by brackets indicate that the sounds were produced
 
19. 
Broad transcription
 
Transcription of phonemes. Broad transcriptions are enclosed within slashes
 
20. 
Buccal speech
 
Speech produced by trapping air between the cheeks; "Donald Duck speech". Kids with tracheostomies can make words/short speech
 
21. 
C
 
Consonant
 
22. 
Caret
 
The name for the sound transcribed as an upside down v
 
23. 
Central
 
Sounds made with air flowing over the tongue midling. All the American English cononants are central, except [l] (lateral)
 
24. 
Central vowel
 
Vowel in which the tongue blade is the major articulator. The American English central vowel is schwa
 
25. 
Close
 
Vowels and diphthongs produced w/ the tonge raised toward roof of mouth. Replaces "high" in revised IPA. [i] [I] [u] flying u
 
26. 
Close-mid
 
Vowels and diphthongs produced w/ tongue in a relative neutral position. Replaces "mid" in revised IPA. [eI] [oflyingu] [schwa]
 
27. 
Cluster Reduction
 
Error pattern in which a consonant or consonants in a consonant cluster are deleted; Ex. speed becomes [pid] or [sid]
 
28. 
Coalescence
 
Merger of two or more sounds
 
29. 
Coarticulation
 
The theory that sounds are blended together during speech production
 
30. 
Cognates
 
Two sounds that differ only in voicing; for example, [b] and [p] are cognates
 
31. 
Complementary Distribution
 
Sounds that never occur in the sam ephonetic environment; for example, English [h] and [ng] are in complementary distribution
 
32. 
Consonant
 
A sound made with marked constriction somewhere along the vocal tract
 
33. 
Consonant Cluster
 
Two or more consonants occurring within the same syllable in which the sequence of consonants is uninterrupted by vowels
 
34. 
Continuants
 
soudns that can be sustained for extended periods of time. American English: fricatives, nasals, liquids, glides, vowels, diphthongs
 
35. 
Cooing
 
A prespeech vocalization containing consonants and vowels produced at the back of the mouth