Articulation and Phonological Disorders: Terms

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Affricate A consonant with a stop onset and fricative release. The American English affricates are "ch" and "dz 'j'"
Affricaiton An error pattern in which stops or fricatives are pronounced as affricates; for exapmle, see is pronounced as [tsi]
Allophone A variant of a phoneme that does not affect meaning; for example, unaspirated [p] and aspirated [p] are allophones of the phoneme /p/
Alveolar A class of consonantes produced with constriction between articulators at the alveolar ridge. American English alveolar consonants t, d, s, z, n, l, r
Ambisyllabic A consonant sometimes considered to belong to two syllables; for example, some investigators consider the second [m] in mama to be ambisyllabic
Approximant Liquids and glides. The American English approximants are l, r, j, w
Apraxia A disorder involving voluntary speech movements. Ex: can't touch lip with tongue when asked but can when eating
Arrestor A consonant occuring after a vowel in the same syllable; for texample, "t" is the arrestor consonant in bit.
Articulation Error A speech error resulting from problems in speech motor control.
Articulation Disorder Reuslts from problems in speech motor control. Some refer to problems in phonology AND speech motor control
Aspiration Burst of air arising after release of a VL stop in positions such as the beginning of a word; Ex. in American English [t] in [tube]
Assimilation Influence of one sound on another
Babble A prespeech vocalization in which repeptitions of syllables predominate
Backing Error pattern in which alveolar consonants are replaced by velar consonants; for example, tee is pronounced as [ki]
Back vowels and diphthongs Vowels in which back of tongue is major articulator; u, flying u, o flying u, backards c, a, emphasized schwa
Bilabial Consonants made using the two lips. The American English bilabial consonants are p, b, m, w
Blends Consonant Clusters
Brackets Transcriptions enclosed by brackets indicate that the sounds were produced
Broad transcription Transcription of phonemes. Broad transcriptions are enclosed within slashes
Buccal speech Speech produced by trapping air between the cheeks; "Donald Duck speech". Kids with tracheostomies can make words/short speech
C Consonant
Caret The name for the sound transcribed as an upside down v
Central Sounds made with air flowing over the tongue midling. All the American English cononants are central, except [l] (lateral)
Central vowel Vowel in which the tongue blade is the major articulator. The American English central vowel is schwa
Close Vowels and diphthongs produced w/ the tonge raised toward roof of mouth. Replaces "high" in revised IPA. [i] [I] [u] flying u
Close-mid Vowels and diphthongs produced w/ tongue in a relative neutral position. Replaces "mid" in revised IPA. [eI] [oflyingu] [schwa]
Cluster Reduction Error pattern in which a consonant or consonants in a consonant cluster are deleted; Ex. speed becomes [pid] or [sid]
Coalescence Merger of two or more sounds
Coarticulation The theory that sounds are blended together during speech production
Cognates Two sounds that differ only in voicing; for example, [b] and [p] are cognates
Complementary Distribution Sounds that never occur in the sam ephonetic environment; for example, English [h] and [ng] are in complementary distribution
Consonant A sound made with marked constriction somewhere along the vocal tract
Consonant Cluster Two or more consonants occurring within the same syllable in which the sequence of consonants is uninterrupted by vowels
Continuants soudns that can be sustained for extended periods of time. American English: fricatives, nasals, liquids, glides, vowels, diphthongs
Cooing A prespeech vocalization containing consonants and vowels produced at the back of the mouth