Articulation and Phonological Disorders: Terms

Total Flash Cards » 35
 
1. 

Affricate

 

A consonant with a stop onset and fricative release. The American English affricates are "ch" and "dz 'j'"

 
2. 

Affricaiton

 

An error pattern in which stops or fricatives are pronounced as affricates; for exapmle, see is pronounced as [tsi]

 
3. 

Allophone

 

A variant of a phoneme that does not affect meaning; for example, unaspirated [p] and aspirated [p] are allophones of the phoneme /p/

 
4. 

Alveolar

 

A class of consonantes produced with constriction between articulators at the alveolar ridge. American English alveolar consonants t, d, s, z, n, l, r

 
5. 

Ambisyllabic

 

A consonant sometimes considered to belong to two syllables; for example, some investigators consider the second [m] in mama to be ambisyllabic

 
6. 

Approximant

 

Liquids and glides. The American English approximants are l, r, j, w

 
7. 

Apraxia

 

A disorder involving voluntary speech movements. Ex: can't touch lip with tongue when asked but can when eating

 
8. 

Arrestor

 

A consonant occuring after a vowel in the same syllable; for texample, "t" is the arrestor consonant in bit.

 
9. 

Articulation Error

 

A speech error resulting from problems in speech motor control.

 
10. 

Articulation Disorder

 

Reuslts from problems in speech motor control. Some refer to problems in phonology AND speech motor control

 
11. 

Aspiration

 

Burst of air arising after release of a VL stop in positions such as the beginning of a word; Ex. in American English [t] in [tube]

 
12. 

Assimilation

 

Influence of one sound on another

 
13. 

Babble

 

A prespeech vocalization in which repeptitions of syllables predominate

 
14. 

Backing

 

Error pattern in which alveolar consonants are replaced by velar consonants; for example, tee is pronounced as [ki]

 
15. 

Back vowels and diphthongs

 

Vowels in which back of tongue is major articulator; u, flying u, o flying u, backards c, a, emphasized schwa

 
16. 

Bilabial

 

Consonants made using the two lips. The American English bilabial consonants are p, b, m, w

 
17. 

Blends

 

Consonant Clusters

 
18. 

Brackets

 

Transcriptions enclosed by brackets indicate that the sounds were produced

 
19. 

Broad transcription

 

Transcription of phonemes. Broad transcriptions are enclosed within slashes

 
20. 

Buccal speech

 

Speech produced by trapping air between the cheeks; "Donald Duck speech". Kids with tracheostomies can make words/short speech

 
21. 

C

 

Consonant

 
22. 

Caret

 

The name for the sound transcribed as an upside down v

 
23. 

Central

 

Sounds made with air flowing over the tongue midling. All the American English cononants are central, except [l] (lateral)

 
24. 

Central vowel

 

Vowel in which the tongue blade is the major articulator. The American English central vowel is schwa

 
25. 

Close

 

Vowels and diphthongs produced w/ the tonge raised toward roof of mouth. Replaces "high" in revised IPA. [i] [I] [u] flying u

 
26. 

Close-mid

 

Vowels and diphthongs produced w/ tongue in a relative neutral position. Replaces "mid" in revised IPA. [eI] [oflyingu] [schwa]

 
27. 

Cluster Reduction

 

Error pattern in which a consonant or consonants in a consonant cluster are deleted; Ex. speed becomes [pid] or [sid]

 
28. 

Coalescence

 

Merger of two or more sounds

 
29. 

Coarticulation

 

The theory that sounds are blended together during speech production

 
30. 

Cognates

 

Two sounds that differ only in voicing; for example, [b] and [p] are cognates

 
31. 

Complementary Distribution

 

Sounds that never occur in the sam ephonetic environment; for example, English [h] and [ng] are in complementary distribution

 
32. 

Consonant

 

A sound made with marked constriction somewhere along the vocal tract

 
33. 

Consonant Cluster

 

Two or more consonants occurring within the same syllable in which the sequence of consonants is uninterrupted by vowels

 
34. 

Continuants

 

soudns that can be sustained for extended periods of time. American English: fricatives, nasals, liquids, glides, vowels, diphthongs

 
35. 

Cooing

 

A prespeech vocalization containing consonants and vowels produced at the back of the mouth