APUSH Chapter 30 & 31

Total Flash Cards » 55
 
1. 

George Creel

 

Journalist who was responsible for selling America on WWI and was head of the Committee on Public Information. He was also responsible for selling the world on Wilsonian war aims.

 
2. 

Eugene V Debs

 

Socialist, Eugene V. Debs, was accused of espionage and sent to a federal penitentiary for ten years. All this came about because of a speech that he made in Columbus, Ohio at an anti- war rally. Despite his imprisonment he ran for presidency in 1920. Although he didn't win, he had many votes; infact he had the most that any candidate of the Socialist party had ever had.

 
3. 

Bernard Baruch

 

a stock speculator appointed by Wilson to head the War Industries Board. The Board had only formal powers and was disbanded. He was later a United States delegate for the U.N. during the Cold War.

 
4. 

Herbert Hoover

 

best known as being the 31st (1929-1933) President of the United States. However, prior to that, he was a successful mining engineer, humanitarian, and administrator. He had the longest retirement of any U.S. President and died 31 years after leaving office, during the administration of Lyndon Johnson his fifth successor.

 
5. 

Alice Paul

 

an American suffragist leader. Along with Lucy Burns and others, she led a successful campaign for women's suffrage that resulted in granting the right to vote to women in the U.S. federal election in 1920.

 
6. 

Henry Cabot Lodge

 

Lodge was an outspoken senator from Massachusetts. He came from a distinguished lineage that dated back to the colonial times. He introduced the Literacy Test bill in 1896 to be taken by immigrants, but it was vetoed by Cleveland. The bill however was passed and enacted in 1917. Lodge also led a group of Republicans against the League of Nations. Lodge proposed amendments to the League Covenant but Wilson would not accept. We did not join the League.

 
7. 

Warren G Harding

 

He was easygoing and kind, and therefore one of the best liked men of his time. As a president, however, he had a weak. He won the 1920 election but he was unable to detect moral wrongs in his associates. He appointed "great minds" to office because he knew he lacked in intelligence, but a few of the men he appointed were morally lacking. He was called an "amiable boob,". He died in 1923 from a stroke.

 
8. 

James M Cox

 

He was the democrat nominee chosen to run for the presidency against Harding in the 1920 election. His vice-presidential running mate was Franklin Roosevlet.

 
9. 

Self Determination

 

The idea that all people can have independence and make up their own government. This was one of Wilson's fourteen points.

 
10. 

Collective Security

 

Described what the League of Nations should do. It said that the League of Nations was supposed to guarantee the political independence and territorial integrity of all countries.

 
11. 

normalcy

 

After a long reign of high morality, outrageous idealism, and "bothersome do-goodism", people longed for the "normalcy" of the old America, and were ready to accept a lower quality president who would not force them to be so involved. Harding coined the phrase a "return to normalcy".

 
12. 

conscription

 

a general term for involuntary labor demanded by some established authority, e.g, Old Testament commentaries use the term to describe the levies of labor used to build the Temple, but it is most often used in the specific sense of government policies that require citizens to serve in their armed forces. It is known by various names for example, the most recent conscription program in the United States was known colloquially as "the draft". Many nations do not maintain conscription forces, instead relying on a volunteer, or professional military, although many of these countries still reserve the possibility of conscription for wartime and "crises" of supply.

 
13. 

Zimmerman Note

 

Written by Arthur Zimmerman, a german foreign secretary. In this note he had secretly proposed a German- Mexican alliance. He tempted Mexico with the ideas of recovering Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico. The note was intercepted on March 1, 1917 by the U.S. government. This was a major factor that led us into WWI.

 
14. 

Fourteen Points

 

The Fourteen Points were introduced by Wilson in 1918. It was Wilson's peace plan. Each of the points were designed to prevent future wars. He compromised each point at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. The only point which remained was the 14th (League of Nations). Each one was appealing to a specific group in the war and each one held a specific purpose.

 
15. 

League of Nations

 

In 1919, after the war, Wilson proposed the League in the 14th point of his peace plan. He envisioned it as an Assembly with seats for all nations and a special council for the great powers. The US voted not to join the League because in doing so, it would have taken away our self-determination, and Congress could not decide whether to go to war or not.

 
16. 

Commitee on Public Information

 

It was headed by George Creel. The purpose of this committee was to mobilize people's minds for war, both in America and abroad. Tried to get the entire U.S. public to support U.S. involvement in WWI. Creel's organization, employed some 150,000 workers at home and oversees. He proved that words were indeed weapons

 
17. 

Espionage and Sedition Act

 

Espionage Act of 1917; Sedition Act of 1918; reflected current fear about Germans and antiwar Americans; Among the 1,900 prosecuted under these laws were antiwar Socialists and members of the radical union Industrial Workers of the World; were enacted during WWI to keep Americans united in favor of the war effort.

 
18. 

Schenck v. United States

 

a United States Supreme Court decision concerning whether the defendant possessed a First Amendment right to free speech against the draft during World War I. The defendant, Charles Schenck, a Socialist, had circulated a flyer to recently drafted men. The flyer, which cited the Thirteenth Amendment's provision against "involuntary servitude," exhorted the men to "assert their opposition to the draft," which it described as a moral wrong driven by the capitalist system. The circulars proposed peaceful resistance, such as petitioning to repeal the Conscription Act. Schenck was charged with conspiracy to violate the Espionage Act by attempting to cause insubordination in the military and to obstruct recruitment. The Court, in a unanimous opinion written by Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., held that Schenck's conviction was constitutional. The First Amendment did not protect speech encouraging insubordination, since, "when a nation is at war many things that might be said in time of peace are such a hindrance to its effort that their utterance will not be endured so long as men fight." In other words, the court argued, the circumstances of wartime permit greater restrictions on free speech than would be allowable during peacetime.

 
19. 

Industrial Workers of the World

 

Also known as "Wobblies," a more radical labor organization that was against war.

 
20. 

War Industries Board

 

President Wilson appointed Bernard Baruch to head the board in March of 1918 during WWI--intendend to restore economic order- to make sure we were producing enough at home and abroad--never had more than feeble formal powers--was disbanded a few days after the armistice

 
21. 

19th Amendment

 

This amendment gave women suffrage in 1920. Women were guaranteed the right to vote after a century of conflicts

 
22. 

18th Amendment

 

In 1919 this amendment did away with all Liquor, making it illegal

 
23. 

Bolsheviks

 

These communists organized a revolution in Russia to overthrow the tsar. The communist revolution caused Russia to pull out of WWI.

 
24. 

Doughboys

 

The nickname given to regular soldiers in World War I. They were part of the American Legion that was lobbying for veteran's benefits. They wanted to receive their "dough" to make up for the wages that they lost when they joined the military.

 
25. 

Mitchell Palmer

 

Attorney General who rounded up many suspects who were thought to be un-American and socialistic; he helped to increase the Red Scare; he was nicknamed the "Fighting Quaker" until a bomb destroyed his home; he then had a nervous breakdown and became known as the "Quaking Fighter."

 
26. 

Randolph Bourne

 

a progressive writer best known for his essay, unfinished and found after his death, "War is the Health of the State".

 
27. 

Al Capone

 

Gangster, born in Brooklyn, New York, USA. He became the leader in Chicago bootlegging, gambling, and prostitution during the Prohibition Era. His involvement in gang and liquor wars left hundreds of people dead in Chicago and its suburbs. Increasingly implicated in the corruption of political, law enforcement, and labour officials, he was convicted of income-tax evasion (1931) and sentenced to 11 years' imprisonment. He was released in 1939 on grounds of ill health; he was infected with syphilis and his mental condition was deteriorating.

 
28. 

John T Scopes

 

In 1925 Scopes was indicted for teaching evolution in Tennessee. His trial was watched all over the country. This trial represented the Fundamentalist vs the Modernalist. In the outcome Scopes was only fined $100.00 dollars. While it seemed the Fundamentalists had won, the trial made them look bad.

 
29. 

William Jennings Bryan

 

Joined the prosecution in the " Monkey Trials" (Scopes Trial) against the teachings of evolution in schools, he was supposed to be an expert on the Bible, but was made to look silly in the case and died soon afterward

 
30. 

Clarence Darrow

 

Joined the prosecution in the " Monkey Trials" (Scopes Trial) against the teachings of evolution in schools, he was supposed to be an expert on the Bible, but was made to look silly in the case and died soon afterward

 
31. 

Andrew Mellon

 

Mellon was the Secretary of the Treasury during the Harding Administration. He felt it was best to invest in tax-exempt securities rather than in factories that provided prosperous payrolls. He believed in trickle down economics. (Hamiltonian economics)

 
32. 

Bruce Barton

 

A founder of the "new profession" of advertising, which used the persuasion ploy, seduction, and sexual suggestion. He was a prominent New York partner in a Madison Avenue firm. He published a best seller in 1925, The Man Nobody Knows, suggesting that Jesus Christ was the greatest ad man of all time. He even praised Christ's "executive ability." He encouraged any advertising man to read the parables of Jesus.

 
33. 

Henry Ford

 

he made assembly line production more efficient in his Rouge River plant near Detroit- a finished car would come out every 10 seconds. He helped to make car inexpensive so more Americans could buy them.

 
34. 

Frederick W Taylor

 

Taylor was an engineer, an inventor, and a tennis player. He sought to eliminate wasted motion. Famous for scientific-management especially time-management studies

 
35. 

Charles Lindberg

 

a pioneering United States aviator famous for piloting the first solo non-stop flight across the Atlantic Ocean in 1927. His plane was named the Sprit of St. Louis.

 
36. 

Margaret Sanger

 

she organized a birth-control movement which openly championed the use of contraceptives in the 1920's.

 
37. 

Sigmund Freud

 

The Viennese physician that believed sexual repression was responsible for a variety of nervous and emotional diseases. He argued that health demanded sexual gratification and liberation. His writings seemed to justify the new sexual frankness of the 1920s

 
38. 

H.L. Mencken

 

Mencken was a patron to many young writers in the 1920's. He criticized many subjects like the middle class, democracy, marrige and patriotism in his monthly AMERICAN MERCURY.

 
39. 

F Scott Fitzgerald

 

He belonged to the Lost Generation of Writers. He wrote the famous novel "The Great Gatsby" which explored the glamour and cruelty of an achievement-oriented society.

 
40. 

Ernest Hemmingway

 

fought in Italy in 1917. He later became a famous author who wrote "The Sun Also Rises" (about American expatriates in Europe) and "A Farewell to Arms." In the 1920's he became upset with the idealism of America versus the realism he saw in World War I. He was very distraught, and in 1961 he shot himself in the head

 
41. 

Sinclair Lewis

 

Lewis was the chief chronicler of midwestern life. He was a master of satire and wrote Main Street" in 1920. Then he wrote "Babbit" which describe a materialistic middle-class American businessman.

 
42. 

William Faulkner

 

He was a writer. In 1926 he wrote a bitter war novel called "Soldier's Pay". He also wrote many other powerful books about the lives of Southerners during the Civil War.

 
43. 

Nativist

 

The term Nativism is used in both politics and psychology in two fundamentally different ways. In politics "Nativist" refers to the socio-political positions taken up by those who identify themselves as "native-born." In psychology, "Nativist" is comparable to "innate," the "hard-wired" components of human psychology.

 
44. 

Cultural Pluralism

 

a term describing the coexistence of many cultures in a locality, without any one culture dominating the region. By making the broadest range of human differences acceptable to the largest number of people, multiculturalism seeks to overcome racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination.

 
45. 

Progressive Education

 

the belief that education must be based on the fact that humans are social animals who learn best in real-life activities with other people. Progressivists claimed to rely on the best available scientific theories of learning. Most believed that children learned as if they were scientists, following a process similar to John Dewey's model of learning

 
46. 

Red Scare

 

The Red Scare erupted in the early 1920's. The American public was scared that communism would come into the US. Left-winged supporters were suspected. This fear of communism helped businessman who used it to stop labor strikes.

 
47. 

Volstead Act

 

The Volstead Act implemented the 18th Admendment. It established illegal alcohol at above .5%

 
48. 

Sanco and Vanzetti Case

 

Nicola Sacco was a shoe-factory worker and Bartholomew Vanzetti was a fish peddler. They were both convicted of murdering a Massachusetts paymaster and his guard in 1921. They were supported by Liberals and Radicals. The case lasted 6 years and resulted in execution based on weak evidence. Mainly because Americans were zenophobic (afraid of foreigners).

 
49. 

Fundementalist

 

A movement that pushed that the teachings of Darwin were destroying faith in God and the Bible. It consisted of the old-time religionists who didnt want to conform to modern science

 
50. 

Ku Klux Klan (KKK)

 

In the 1920s this group was very anti-foreign. It was against all groups which did not have a protestant background. They were most prevelant in the midwest and the south. They eventually became less popular when Klan officials were caught embezzling money.

 
51. 

Birth of a Nation

 

a controversial, if highly influential and popular silent film directed by D.W. Griffith, based on the play The Clansman and the book The Leopard's Spots both by Thomas Dixon. It was released in 1915 and has been credited with securing the future of feature length films (any film over an hour in length) as well as solidifying the codes of film language. The film premiered on February 8, 1915 in Los Angeles, California under the title The Clansman, but three months later was retitled with the present title at its world premiere in New York.

 
52. 

modernists

 

believed that God was a "good guy" and the universe a pretty chummy place; these were the people who believed in God but were also able to except evolution and modern science

 
53. 

flappers

 

The dynamic 1920's revealed women notorious for their risky attire and dance styles. Referred to as "wild abandons," these girls exemplified the new sexually frank generation.

 
54. 

Immigration Quota Act

 

passed in 1924--cut quotas for foreigners from 3 % to 2% of the total number of immigrants in 1890--purpose was to freeze America's existing racial composition (which was largely Northern European) --prevented Japanese from immigrating, causing outrage in Japan

 
55. 

Florida Land Boom

 

Investors of all kinds, mostly from outside Florida, raced to buy and sell rapidly appreciating land in newly platted communities such as Miami and Palm Beach. A majority of the people who bought land in Florida were able to do so without stepping foot in the state by hiring people to speculate and buy the land for them. By 1925 the market ran out of buyers to pay the high prices and soon the boom became a bust. A hurricane in 1926 hit Palm Beach and further depressed the real estate market. The Great Depression arrived in 1929, however by that time economic decay already consumed much of Florida from the land boom that collapsed four years earlier.