20th Century Music

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1. Who did the earliest scientific study of folk music? Janacek
2. Who did t he most extensive study of Eastern Music Kodaly
3. WHo achieved the most complete synthesis of folk idioms and art music? Bartok
4. What was Bartok's most important non-operatic work Cantata Profana
5. What composer made signifigant contributions to music education Kodaly
6. What popular work by Kodaly is a Singspeil and an orchestra suit Hary Janos
7. A vital part of Orff's education curriculum is what? Improvisation
8. What was Orff's most famous work? Carmina Burana
9. What was the most important influence on Vaughan William's Music English Heritage
10. What compositional technique was a trafdemark of Vaughn Williams music? downward curve of melody
11. What popular work by Kodaly is a Singspiel and an Orchestra Suite? Hary Janos
12. A vital part of Orff’s education curriculum is what? Improvisation
13. What is Orff’s most famous work? Carmina Burana
14. What was the most important influence on Vaughan Williams’ music? English heritage
15. What compositional technique was a trademark of Vaughan Williams’ music? downward curve of melody
16. For what type of English music did Vaughan Williams lay the groundwork? English opera
17. In what area were Britten’s principle contributions? solo songs, choral works, and operas
18. What is Britten’s best-known opera? Peter Grimes
19. Which Russian composer followed the Soviet regulations regarding the function of art music and was the least innovative? Khachaturian
20. Which Russian composer foreshadowed the Neoclassic movement by writing a Classic Symphony? Prokofiev
21. What are the significant characteristics of Bartok’s music? elements of Magyar folk music, driving rhythms, ostinato, and tone clusters.
22. Who were two members of the “Second Viennese School?” Schoenberg and Webern
23. Whose symphonies were his greatest contribution to the music of the mid-twentieth century? Shostakovich
24. What were the two main factors that generated the development of dodecaphony? 1. the increasingly abundant use of dissonances in Post-Romantic music. 2. greater interest in and an ever-increasing use of linear counterpoint.
25. Who was the main developer of serialism? Schoenberg
26. Who was the main developer of serialism? Schoenberg
27. What was Schoenberg’s first distinctive post-Romantic style work? Verklarte Nacht
28. Erwartung and Die gluckiche Hand are from which of Schoenberg’s style period? 2nd – Dissonant pantonal Expressionistic works
29. In which composition did Schoenberg first realize the possibilities of the 12-tone system? Suite fur Klavier
30. When did the neoclassic movement begin? near the end of World War I
31. Who were the chief exponents of Neoclassic music? Stravinsky and Hindemith
32. Who was the least prolific composer of Les Six? Auric
33. What were Auric’s most important musical contributions? stage and theater works
34. The bulk of Honegger’s music was what type? stage and dramatic work
35. Poulenc was a master of what type of music? melodie
36. What are the significant characteristics of Milhaud’s music? objective, characterized by lyrical melodies, formal clarity, skillful use of counterpoint, and bitonality or polytonality
37. What is Hindemith’s book on the philosophy of music? A Composers World
38. What was Hindemith’s basic philosophy of music? music must be understood
39. What was Hindemith’s operatic masterpiece? Mathis der Maler
40. What is the main feature of Le sacre du printemps? rhythm
41. What was a forerunner of Stravinsky’s Neoclassic period? Pulcinella
42. Who was one of the most influential composition teachers of the 20th century? Boulanger
43. Who was the most outstanding American-born composer between the world wars? Copland
44. Blues entered the American concert hall in what piece? Rhapsody in Blue
45. Who was one of the pioneers in compiling and publishing folk songs for children? Seeger
46. Who included his musical signature in many of his works? Shostakovich
47. What 12-tone composer wrote short, condensed works? Webern
48. One person unfolds the entire drama in what? monodrama
49. One person unfolds the entire drama in what? monodrama
50. In 1965, who built the first voltage-controlled synthesizers? Moog
51. What was the fist musical composition that had the score produced by a computer? Illiac Suite for String Quartet
52. What non-serial work of Messiaen influenced many of his serialist students? Mode de valeurs
53. Who was the chief exponent of serialism in France during the 1940’s? Messiaen
54. What treatment is the most unusual characteristic of Messiaen’s music? rhythm
55. What influenced the melodies of Messiaen? Chant and Folk song
56. What are characteristics of Messian’s music? plainsong and liturgical references, birdsongs, color-chords, and rhythmic precision
57. Who used the term Musique Concrete as a term to describe taped compositions? Schaeffer
58. Who prepared musique concrete for the movie Astrologie? Henry
59. What is Boulez’s best-known and probably most expressive composition? Le marteau sans maitre
60. Who contributed the technique of chord manipulation to serialism? Boulez
61. Who decried Schoenberg’s failure to develop serialism, and affirmed Webern the leader? Boulez
62. What German composer was the early leader in the developments in electronic music? Eimert
63. Who composed Vier Stucke, a composition created from purely synthetic sounds? Eimert
64. Who wrote Studie II, the first electronic composition to be published in score? Stockhausen
65. Who combined the use of space and the human voice in the electronic composition Gesang der Junglinge? Stockhausen
66. What was Stockhausen’s first composition to be based on a specific melodic formula? Mantra
67. Who influenced Varese in during 1920-1930? Debussy
68. What was the earliest composition created on tape and who composed it? Deserts by Varese
69. Who located the idea of combinatoriality in Schoenberg’s work and developed it in his own? Babbitt
70. What piece by Babbit is the first real example of rhythmic serialization? Three Compositions for Piano
71. Who used numbed sequences to determine the structure of rhythm in his String Quartet in Four Part ans Concerto? Cage
72. Whose works have been highly influential in regard to indeterminancy in music? Cage
73. What are characteristics of Ligeti’s music? clusters and clouds
74. Who was the first composer to use minimalism in music? Young
75. Who are the principle exponents of minimalist music? Riley and Glass
76. Who were the leading Neoromantic composers in America? Tredici, Adams, Zwilich, Tower
77. What is white noise? All possible frequencies sounding simultaneously
78. In Spain, who was the pioneer in the return to consonant harmonic music? Roig-Francoli
79. What was the title of John Corigliano’s second opera, commissioned by the New York Met and then premiered in 1991? The Ghosts of Versailles
80. Who composed the series of operas based on Genesis, entitled Licht? Stockhausen
81. Eurhythmics the science of harmonious body movements
82. Dodecaphony term synonymous with 12-tone music
83. Expressionism the effort to convey the artist’s inner feelings rather than to represent external reality
84. Atonality the total absence of any center of key tonality
85. Pantonality the presence of all tonal centers
86. Klangfarbenmelodie a melody created not simply by successive pitches but by changing instrumental timbre
87. Sprechstimme speech-song
88. Pointillism athematic music constructed from isolated notes often highlighted by different timbres
89. Neoclassicism revival of the classical style
90. Gebrachsmusik music for use
91. Total Serialism he application of the rules of serial composition to all possible musical parameters
92. Musique Concrete sounds were from natural sources created directly on tape
93. Prepared Piano placement of foreign objects among the piano stings to create unusual sounds and new timbres
94. Minimalism music that is characterized by repetition of short figures, tonal harmony, slow harmonic rhythm, and more or less regular pulsation
95. Primitivism music, costumes, and scenery depicting primitive life
96. What are the significant characteristics of Prokofiev’s music? 1. Nationalism is present but is mingled with Classic and Modern features. 2. He used traditional forms and was adept at motivic development. 3.His music is tonal, with lyrical but angular melodies, strong motor rhythm, and sudden modulations to unexpected keys. 4. Bosso ostinato occurs frequently. 5. The instrumental writing is idiomatic. 6. Fuller sonority is achieved by having dissimilar instruments double the passage. 7. Symphonies include piano and harp.
97. How did Berg and Webern utilize tone rows? Berg did not adhere to a single row for an entire composition; often he combined tonal and non-tonal elements in a work. Webern strictly adhered to serial principles, used one row per movement, and wrote highly ordered counterpoint that was concentrated in extremely compressed forms.
98. What are the significant characteristics of Schoenberg’s music? 1. melodies contain wide leaps 2. the use of small motifs 3. the absence of vigorous propelling rhythms 4. emphasis on counterpoint 5. a penchant for constantly changing tone colors
99. What are the significant characteristics of Berg’s music? 1. use of scales that are largely whole-tone 2. prolongation of a passage by melodic expansion of an interval 3. combining atonality with traditional forms 4. suggesting tonality in what is actually atonality
100. How did Stravinsky use rhythm? He based rhythms on the constancy of a minimum value and used multiples of that, making whatever adjustments were necessary in meter signatures and bar line placements.
101. What are the techniques of unity that underline the diversity of Stravinsky’s style? 1. he never completely abandoned key tonality 2. he worked with opposing tonal poles 3. he used modality, bitonality, polytonality, and dodecaphonic techniques 4. rhythm is his most important feature
102. Who played a decisive roll in the development of music in Mexico during the second quarter of the 20th century? Chavez
103. What is the philosophy of expressionistic composition? A composer sought to express inner feelings and created atonal/pantonal works in which the music is abstract and intense and traditional harmony and formal patterns are distorted or ignored.
104. What are the characteristics of Neoromantic music? More emphasis on melody and on tonality (tonality unlike that of the 19th century). 1. the 1st and 5th scale degree no longer possess the tonal pull 2. chordlike appreciations of pitches form harmonies that succeed one another without the feeling that functional relationships exist between them. 3. pieces are written without designation of a “key tonality,” but tonal centers appear within the work and movement from one tonal center to another is achieved without the traditional processes of modulation.
105. What are the four main points of Hindemith’s compositional philosophy? 1. music must be understood as a communication between the composer and consumer of the music 2. a composer must be a performing musician and must have acquired familiarity with instruments through participation in ensembles 3. key tonality is unavoidable 4. endorsed the theory expressed in the writings of Plato, Ptolemy, Boethius, and other ancient and medieval philosophers that the principles of order governing the acoustical ratios of musical intervals and the order within a musical composition symbolize and reflect the principles that govern the universe
106. How did Berg’s treatment of 12-tone differed from Schoenberg and Webern? 1. used dodecaphonic and nondodecaphonic episodes in the same work 2. frequently supported a tone row with harmony in or suggesting a key 3. sometimes used different rows in the same work and even in the same movement 4. used retrograde and retrograde inversions of a row only in palindromes 5. usually wrote lyrical music
107. What are the two principle factors that generated the move toward the 12-tone system? 1. the increasingly abundant use of dissonances in post-Romantic music 2. greater interest in and an ever-increasing use of linear counterpoint.
108. What are four versions of the tone row used in the formation of the 12-tone matrix? 1. original row 2. retrograde 3. inversion 4. retrograde inversion