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DATA AND HOW IT IS STORED SYMBOLS, THAT REPRESENT PEOPLE, EVENTS, AND IDEAS. USUALLY STORED AS A SERIES OF 1'S AND 0'S
EXECUTABLE FILE CONTAINS PROGREAMS OR INSTRUCTIONS THAT TELL A COMPUTER HOT TO PERFORM A SPECEFIC TASK
FILE NAME EXTENSION USUALLY REFERRED TO SIMPLY AS AN EXTENSION-THAT FURTHER DESCRIBES A FILES CONTENTS.
peripheral device designates equipment that might be added to a computer system to enhance its functionality.
bit. In terms of data storage, each 1 or 0 is called a(n)
byte Eight bits are called a
Each byte represents one character -- a letter, number, or punctuation mark.
A ____ file might contain the text for a document, the numbers for a calculation, the specifications for a graph, the frames of a video, the contents of a Web page, or the notes of a musical passage. data
A ____ file contains the programs that tell a computer how to perform a specific task. executable
A filename ____ describes a file's contents. extension
The extension ____ indicates a graphic file. .tif
The extension ____ indicates a file of synthesized music. .mid
A technology called ____ makes it possible for one person's computer to directly access the contents of another person's hard disk. P2P
is an operating system for servers? UNIX & Linux
The main routes of the Internet are referred to as the Internet backbone.
To prepare data for transport, a computer divides the data into packets.
The process of sending a file from a local computer to a remote computer is called uploading.
Every Web page has a unique address called a(n) URL (Uniform Resource Locator).
www.cnn.com is the Web server name.
Communication between all of the different devices on the Internet is made possible by TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
The process of transferring a file from a remote computer to a local computer is called downloading
htm is the filename extension.
____ is the communications standard that is instrumental in transferring Web documents to all corners of the Internet. HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
____ is a standard format for creating Web documents. HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)
http is the protocol standard.
A(n) ____ device works with discrete data or digits, such as 1 or 0. digital
uses 16 bits and provides codes for 65,000 characters. Unicode
In Extended ASCII, the eighth bit provides codes for ____ additional characters. 128
____ requires only seven bits for each character. ASCII
____ uses eight bits to represent each character. Extended ASCII
____ is an alternative 8-bit code usually used by older, IBM mainframe computers. EBCDIC
The ____ performs arithmetic operations, such as addition and subtraction. ALU
The ALU uses ____ to hold data that is being processed. registers
____ means a billion cycles per second. Gigahertz
The speed specifications that you see in a computer ad indicate the speed of the microprocessor clock.
A Level ____ cache is built into the processor chip. 1
A microprocessor with a limited set of simple instructions uses ____ technology. RISC
____ is a temporary holding area for data, application program instructions, and the operating system. RAM
The similarity between RAM and hard-disk storage is both hold data. both are inside the system unit. both can be measured in gigabytes. All of the above.
Disk ____ refers to the closeness and size of the magnetic particles on the surface of a disk. density
Kilo ____ is usually a prefix that means 1,000.
giga- The prefix ____ means billion
Among chip carriers, small rectangular ____ have caterpillar-like legs protruding from a black, rectangular "body." . DIPs
If a program exceeds the allocated space in RAM, the operating system uses an area of the hard disk called ____ memory to store parts of a program or data file until they are needed. virtual
____ is fast and relatively inexpensive. SDRAM
____ is a type of memory circuitry that holds the computer's startup routine. ROM (Read-Only Memory)
A hard disk ____ is a flat, rigid disk made of aluminum or glass and coated with magnetic iron oxide particles. platter
____ drives are typically found in high-performance workstations and servers. SCSI
A(n) ____ storage device contains many disk platters, provides redundancy, and achieves faster data access than conventional hard disks. RAID
____ expansion slots offer fast transfer speeds and are typically used for modems, video capture cards, or network interface cards, for example. PCI
A(n) ____ device works with continuous data. analog
Most computer files contain a file ____ with information on the code that was used to represent the file data. header
A(n) ____ circuit is a super-thin slice of semiconducting material packed with microscopic circuit elements such as wires, transistors, capacitors, logic gates, and resistors. integrated
A ____ is an integrated circuit designed to process instructions. microprocessor
The microprocessor's ____ unit fetches each instruction. control
Using a technology called ____, a processor can begin executing an instruction before it completes the previous instruction. pipelining
With ____ processing, the processor must complete all the steps in the instruction cycle before it begins to execute the next instruction. serial
Unlike disk storage, most RAM is volatile
RAM speed is often expressed in nanoseconds.
____ was first developed for the Nintendo 64 game system, and was adapted for use in personal computers in 1999. RDRAM
The ROM ____ tells the computer how to access the hard disk, find the operating system, and load it into RAM. BIOS
Hard disk and tape storage technologies can be classified as ____ storage. magnetic
____ time is the average time it takes a computer to locate data on the storage medium and read it. Access
Data ____ rate is the amount of data that a storage device can move from the storage medium to the computer per second. transfer
A hard drive mechanism includes a circuit board called a(n) ____ that positions the disk and read-write heads to locate data. controller
____ expansion slots provide a high-speed data pathway that is primarily used for graphics cards. AGP
Machine language instructions that result from compiled instructions are called ____ code object
A(n) ____ translates program instructions one at a time while the program runs. interpreter
The primary purpose of ____ software is to help the computer carry out its basic operating functions system
A user ____ can be defined as the combination of hardware and software that helps people and computers communicate with each other. interface
A(n) ____ interface features menus and icons that you can manipulate with the click of a mouse. graphical user
The core part of the operating system is called the kernel.
The ____ utility allows you to view a list of files, move them to different storage devices, copy them, rename them, and delete them. Windows Explorer
Novell Netware is almost always referred to as a ____ operating system. network
The ____ operating system was developed in 1969 at AT&T's Bell Labs. UNIX
Font size is measured as ____ size. point
One point is about 1/____ of an inch. 72
Your document production software typically allows you to define a(n) ____ that lets you apply several font and paragraph elements with a single click. style
A ____ is a number that you want to use in a calculation. value
____ is the cell reference for the upper-left cell in a worksheet. A1
A ____ file can be a useful repository for simple lists of information. flat
A ____ holds one item of data relevant to a record. field
A ____ data type might be used for fields that can be true or false. logical
A ____ data type might be used for fields that contain long sections of text. memo
To create a software environment, a programmer must define the ____ for each element in the environment. properties
____ languages have some similarities to human languages, and produce programs that are fairly easy to test and modify. High-level
The ____ provides the most essential operating system services, such as memory management and file access. kernel
Unless you specify otherwise, a cell reference is a(n) ____ reference. relative
Scripts are written in JavaScript.
In the context of a computer system, the term ____ refers to any component that is required to perform work. resource
A(n) ____ interface requires you to memorize and type commands. command-line
A(n) ____ reference never changes when you insert rows or copy or move formulas absolute
A computerís microprocessor only understands ____ language. machine
By using a keyboard ____, your computer never misses one of your keystrokes, no matter how fast you type buffer
The operating system's small ____ program is stored in ROM and provides the instructions needed to load the core parts into memory when the system starts. bootstrap
A(n) ____ file is a collection of records, each with the same set of fields that can hold data structured
A(n) ____ language provides a set of commands for locating and manipulating data. query
The operating system uses a ____ system to keep track of the names and locations of files that reside on a storage medium, such as a hard disk. file
A file that does not fit into a single cluster spills over into the next ____ cluster unless that cluster already contains data. concatenated
In addition to replicating itself, a virus might perform a ____ event, sometimes referred to as a payload. trigger
A ____ is a computer program that seems to perform one function while actually doing something else. Trojan horse
____ viruses mutate to escape detection by changing their signatures. Polymorphic
Some full-system backups miss the Windows ____ because its files are always open while the computer is on. Registry
Which of the following is an acceptable filename in Windows NT? Lpt4
Windows ME uses a file system called FAT32.
A virus that attaches to an application program is known as a file virus.
A ____ is designed to spread from computer to computer, and not from file to file. worm
____ viruses are designed to attack antivirus software by, for example, deleting the files that contain virus descriptions. Retro
A(n) ____ backup makes a fresh copy of every file that exists in the folders you've specified for the backup. full
As a backup medium, ____ offer(s) great capacity at a reasonable cost, with tremendous convenience. tape
According to Windows 2000 file-naming conventions, filenames can be at most ____ characters long. 255
A filename extension is an optional file identifier that is separated from the main filename by a period.
A root directory can be subdivided into smaller lists, called subdirectories
The main directory of a disk is referred to as the ____ directory. root
When you save a file, your PC's operating system looks at the ____ to see which clusters are empty. FAT
A computer ____ is a set of program instructions that attaches itself to a file, reproduces itself, and spreads to other files. virus
A(n) ____ virus infects the system files that your computer uses every time you turn it on. boot sector
Some worms, designed to generate a lot of activity on a network by flooding it with useless traffic, result in Overriding Worm attacks
____ viruses are able to infect multiple types of targets. Multi-partite
A(n) ____ backup makes a backup only of those files that were added or changed since your last full backup session. differential
According to Windows file-naming conventions, filenames can have an extension of up to ____ characters. 3
In the file specification, C:\Music\Reggae\Marley One Love.mp3, mp3 is the extension.
The metaphors that file management utilities use to organize files are referred to as ____ storage models. logical
The native file system for Linux is Ext2fs.
When contiguous clusters are not available, the operating system stores parts of a file in ____ clusters. noncontiguous
An example of a ____ is Ardiri: disguised as a program that pretends to provide free access to a Game Boy emulator, it actually deletes all programs from handheld Palm Pilots. Trojan horse
The ____ is an important file used by the Windows operating system to store configuration information about all of the devices and software installed on a computer system. Registry