1100-UGA

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1. 
DATA AND HOW IT IS STORED
 
SYMBOLS, THAT REPRESENT PEOPLE, EVENTS, AND IDEAS. USUALLY STORED AS A SERIES OF 1'S AND 0'S
 
2. 
EXECUTABLE FILE
 
CONTAINS PROGREAMS OR INSTRUCTIONS THAT TELL A COMPUTER HOT TO PERFORM A SPECEFIC TASK
 
3. 
FILE NAME EXTENSION
 
USUALLY REFERRED TO SIMPLY AS AN EXTENSION-THAT FURTHER DESCRIBES A FILES CONTENTS.
 
4. 
peripheral device
 
designates equipment that might be added to a computer system to enhance its functionality.
 
5. 
bit.
 
In terms of data storage, each 1 or 0 is called a(n)
 
6. 
byte
 
Eight bits are called a
 
7. 
Each byte
 
represents one character -- a letter, number, or punctuation mark.
 
8. 
A ____ file might contain the text for a document, the numbers for a calculation, the specifications for a graph, the frames of a video, the contents of a Web page, or the notes of a musical passage.
 
data
 
9. 
A ____ file contains the programs that tell a computer how to perform a specific task.
 
executable
 
10. 
A filename ____ describes a file's contents.
 
extension
 
11. 
The extension ____ indicates a graphic file.
 
.tif
 
12. 
The extension ____ indicates a file of synthesized music.
 
.mid
 
13. 
A technology called ____ makes it possible for one person's computer to directly access the contents of another person's hard disk.
 
P2P
 
14. 
is an operating system for servers?
 
UNIX & Linux
 
15. 
The main routes of the Internet are referred to as the Internet
 
backbone.
 
16. 
To prepare data for transport, a computer divides the data into
 
packets.
 
17. 
The process of sending a file from a local computer to a remote computer is called
 
uploading.
 
18. 
Every Web page has a unique address called a(n)
 
URL (Uniform Resource Locator).
 
19. 
www.cnn.com is the
 
Web server name.
 
20. 
Communication between all of the different devices on the Internet is made possible by
 
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
 
21. 
The process of transferring a file from a remote computer to a local computer is called
 
downloading
 
22. 
htm is the
 
filename extension.
 
23. 
____ is the communications standard that is instrumental in transferring Web documents to all corners of the Internet.
 
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
 
24. 
____ is a standard format for creating Web documents.
 
HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)
 
25. 
http is the
 
protocol standard.
 
26. 
A(n) ____ device works with discrete data or digits, such as 1 or 0.
 
digital
 
27. 
uses 16 bits and provides codes for 65,000 characters.
 
Unicode
 
28. 
In Extended ASCII, the eighth bit provides codes for ____ additional characters.
 
128
 
29. 
____ requires only seven bits for each character.
 
ASCII
 
30. 
____ uses eight bits to represent each character.
 
Extended ASCII
 
31. 
____ is an alternative 8-bit code usually used by older, IBM mainframe computers.
 
EBCDIC
 
32. 
The ____ performs arithmetic operations, such as addition and subtraction.
 
ALU
 
33. 
The ALU uses ____ to hold data that is being processed.
 
registers
 
34. 
____ means a billion cycles per second.
 
Gigahertz
 
35. 
The speed specifications that you see in a computer ad indicate the speed of the microprocessor
 
clock.
 
36. 
A Level ____ cache is built into the processor chip.
 
1
 
37. 
A microprocessor with a limited set of simple instructions uses ____ technology.
 
RISC
 
38. 
____ is a temporary holding area for data, application program instructions, and the operating system.
 
RAM
 
39. 
The similarity between RAM and hard-disk storage is
 
both hold data. both are inside the system unit. both can be measured in gigabytes. All of the above.
 
40. 
Disk ____ refers to the closeness and size of the magnetic particles on the surface of a disk.
 
density
 
41. 
Kilo
 
____ is usually a prefix that means 1,000.
 
42. 
giga-
 
The prefix ____ means billion
 
43. 
Among chip carriers, small rectangular ____ have caterpillar-like legs protruding from a black, rectangular "body."
 
. DIPs
 
44. 
If a program exceeds the allocated space in RAM, the operating system uses an area of the hard disk called ____ memory to store parts of a program or data file until they are needed.
 
virtual
 
45. 
____ is fast and relatively inexpensive.
 
SDRAM
 
46. 
____ is a type of memory circuitry that holds the computer's startup routine.
 
ROM (Read-Only Memory)
 
47. 
A hard disk ____ is a flat, rigid disk made of aluminum or glass and coated with magnetic iron oxide particles.
 
platter
 
48. 
____ drives are typically found in high-performance workstations and servers.
 
SCSI
 
49. 
A(n) ____ storage device contains many disk platters, provides redundancy, and achieves faster data access than conventional hard disks.
 
RAID
 
50. 
____ expansion slots offer fast transfer speeds and are typically used for modems, video capture cards, or network interface cards, for example.
 
PCI
 
51. 
A(n) ____ device works with continuous data.
 
analog
 
52. 
Most computer files contain a file ____ with information on the code that was used to represent the file data.
 
header
 
53. 
A(n) ____ circuit is a super-thin slice of semiconducting material packed with microscopic circuit elements such as wires, transistors, capacitors, logic gates, and resistors.
 
integrated
 
54. 
A ____ is an integrated circuit designed to process instructions.
 
microprocessor
 
55. 
The microprocessor's ____ unit fetches each instruction.
 
control
 
56. 
Using a technology called ____, a processor can begin executing an instruction before it completes the previous instruction.
 
pipelining
 
57. 
With ____ processing, the processor must complete all the steps in the instruction cycle before it begins to execute the next instruction.
 
serial
 
58. 
Unlike disk storage, most RAM is
 
volatile
 
59. 
RAM speed is often expressed in
 
nanoseconds.
 
60. 
____ was first developed for the Nintendo 64 game system, and was adapted for use in personal computers in 1999.
 
RDRAM
 
61. 
The ROM ____ tells the computer how to access the hard disk, find the operating system, and load it into RAM.
 
BIOS
 
62. 
Hard disk and tape storage technologies can be classified as ____ storage.
 
magnetic
 
63. 
____ time is the average time it takes a computer to locate data on the storage medium and read it.
 
Access
 
64. 
Data ____ rate is the amount of data that a storage device can move from the storage medium to the computer per second.
 
transfer
 
65. 
A hard drive mechanism includes a circuit board called a(n) ____ that positions the disk and read-write heads to locate data.
 
controller
 
66. 
____ expansion slots provide a high-speed data pathway that is primarily used for graphics cards.
 
AGP
 
67. 
Machine language instructions that result from compiled instructions are called ____ code
 
object
 
68. 
A(n) ____ translates program instructions one at a time while the program runs.
 
interpreter
 
69. 
The primary purpose of ____ software is to help the computer carry out its basic operating functions
 
system
 
70. 
A user ____ can be defined as the combination of hardware and software that helps people and computers communicate with each other.
 
interface
 
71. 
A(n) ____ interface features menus and icons that you can manipulate with the click of a mouse.
 
graphical user
 
72. 
The core part of the operating system is called the
 
kernel.
 
73. 
The ____ utility allows you to view a list of files, move them to different storage devices, copy them, rename them, and delete them.
 
Windows Explorer
 
74. 
Novell Netware is almost always referred to as a ____ operating system.
 
network
 
75. 
The ____ operating system was developed in 1969 at AT&T's Bell Labs.
 
UNIX
 
76. 
Font size is measured as ____ size.
 
point
 
77. 
One point is about 1/____ of an inch.
 
72
 
78. 
Your document production software typically allows you to define a(n) ____ that lets you apply several font and paragraph elements with a single click.
 
style
 
79. 
A ____ is a number that you want to use in a calculation.
 
value
 
80. 
____ is the cell reference for the upper-left cell in a worksheet.
 
A1
 
81. 
A ____ file can be a useful repository for simple lists of information.
 
flat
 
82. 
A ____ holds one item of data relevant to a record.
 
field
 
83. 
A ____ data type might be used for fields that can be true or false.
 
logical
 
84. 
A ____ data type might be used for fields that contain long sections of text.
 
memo
 
85. 
To create a software environment, a programmer must define the ____ for each element in the environment.
 
properties
 
86. 
____ languages have some similarities to human languages, and produce programs that are fairly easy to test and modify.
 
High-level
 
87. 
The ____ provides the most essential operating system services, such as memory management and file access.
 
kernel
 
88. 
Unless you specify otherwise, a cell reference is a(n) ____ reference.
 
relative
 
89. 
Scripts are written in
 
JavaScript.
 
90. 
In the context of a computer system, the term ____ refers to any component that is required to perform work.
 
resource
 
91. 
A(n) ____ interface requires you to memorize and type commands.
 
command-line
 
92. 
A(n) ____ reference never changes when you insert rows or copy or move formulas
 
absolute
 
93. 
A computerís microprocessor only understands ____ language.
 
machine
 
94. 
By using a keyboard ____, your computer never misses one of your keystrokes, no matter how fast you type
 
buffer
 
95. 
The operating system's small ____ program is stored in ROM and provides the instructions needed to load the core parts into memory when the system starts.
 
bootstrap
 
96. 
A(n) ____ file is a collection of records, each with the same set of fields that can hold data
 
structured
 
97. 
A(n) ____ language provides a set of commands for locating and manipulating data.
 
query
 
98. 
The operating system uses a ____ system to keep track of the names and locations of files that reside on a storage medium, such as a hard disk.
 
file
 
99. 
A file that does not fit into a single cluster spills over into the next ____ cluster unless that cluster already contains data.
 
concatenated
 
100. 
In addition to replicating itself, a virus might perform a ____ event, sometimes referred to as a payload.
 
trigger
 
101. 
A ____ is a computer program that seems to perform one function while actually doing something else.
 
Trojan horse
 
102. 
____ viruses mutate to escape detection by changing their signatures.
 
Polymorphic
 
103. 
Some full-system backups miss the Windows ____ because its files are always open while the computer is on.
 
Registry
 
104. 
Which of the following is an acceptable filename in Windows NT?
 
Lpt4
 
105. 
Windows ME uses a file system called
 
FAT32.
 
106. 
A virus that attaches to an application program is known as a
 
file virus.
 
107. 
A ____ is designed to spread from computer to computer, and not from file to file.
 
worm
 
108. 
____ viruses are designed to attack antivirus software by, for example, deleting the files that contain virus descriptions.
 
Retro
 
109. 
A(n) ____ backup makes a fresh copy of every file that exists in the folders you've specified for the backup.
 
full
 
110. 
As a backup medium, ____ offer(s) great capacity at a reasonable cost, with tremendous convenience.
 
tape
 
111. 
According to Windows 2000 file-naming conventions, filenames can be at most ____ characters long.
 
255
 
112. 
A filename extension is an optional file identifier that is separated from the main filename by a
 
period.
 
113. 
A root directory can be subdivided into smaller lists, called
 
subdirectories
 
114. 
The main directory of a disk is referred to as the ____ directory.
 
root
 
115. 
When you save a file, your PC's operating system looks at the ____ to see which clusters are empty.
 
FAT
 
116. 
A computer ____ is a set of program instructions that attaches itself to a file, reproduces itself, and spreads to other files.
 
virus
 
117. 
A(n) ____ virus infects the system files that your computer uses every time you turn it on.
 
boot sector
 
118. 
Some worms, designed to generate a lot of activity on a network by flooding it with useless traffic, result in
 
Overriding Worm attacks
 
119. 
____ viruses are able to infect multiple types of targets.
 
Multi-partite
 
120. 
A(n) ____ backup makes a backup only of those files that were added or changed since your last full backup session.
 
differential
 
121. 
According to Windows file-naming conventions, filenames can have an extension of up to ____ characters.
 
3
 
122. 
In the file specification, C:\Music\Reggae\Marley One Love.mp3, mp3 is the
 
extension.
 
123. 
The metaphors that file management utilities use to organize files are referred to as ____ storage models.
 
logical
 
124. 
The native file system for Linux is
 
Ext2fs.
 
125. 
When contiguous clusters are not available, the operating system stores parts of a file in ____ clusters.
 
noncontiguous
 
126. 
An example of a ____ is Ardiri: disguised as a program that pretends to provide free access to a Game Boy emulator, it actually deletes all programs from handheld Palm Pilots.
 
Trojan horse
 
127. 
The ____ is an important file used by the Windows operating system to store configuration information about all of the devices and software installed on a computer system.
 
Registry